فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:24 Issue: 10, 2019
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1398/08/20
  • تعداد عناوین: 9
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  • Manal Abudawood* Page 2

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a common worldwide endocrine disorder characterized by hyperglycemia resulting from defects in insulin secretion and insulin action or both. A number of clinical studies have investigated diabetes and its causal relation with neoplasm. Several epidemiological studies have found that diabetic patients have an increased risk of different types of cancers, for example liver, pancreas, gastric (stomach), colorectum, kidney, and breast, and it is predicted that hyperglycemic state observed in diabetic milieu enhances the cancer risk in prediabetic and diabetic individuals. To explore the strength of evidence and biases in the claimed associations between type 2 DM (T2DM) and risk of developing cancer, an umbrella review of the evidence across published meta‑analyses or systematic reviews is performed. The concurrence of T2DM with the growing burden of cancer globally has generated interest in defining the epidemiological and biological relationships between these medical conditions. Through this review, it was found that diabetes could be related to cancer. Yet, the results from most of the studies are obscure and conflicting and need a robust research so that the link between diabetes and cancer could be firmly and impeccably documented.

    Keywords: Breast neoplasms, diabetic complications, gastric neoplasms, hepatic neoplasms
  • Frahad Hosseini, Abolfazl Mohammadbeigi, Mohammad Aghaali, Razieh Borujerdi, Mahmoud Parham* Page 3
    Background

    Diabetes is one of the most common causes of peripheral neuropathy. There are no known cures for diabetic neuropathy. Pentoxifylline could theoretically be a beneficial treatment for diabetic sensory neuropathy, but there is not enough evidence to prove its effect. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of pentoxifylline on distal diabetic neuropathy.

    Materials and Methods

    In this randomized double‑blinded placebo‑controlled trial, 60 patients with diabetic peripheral neuropathy were randomized into two groups. The intervention group received Vitamin B1 (100 mg twice daily) and pentoxifylline (400 mg twice daily) and control group received Vitamin B1 (100 mg twice daily) and placebo (twice daily) for 2 months. Before and after the intervention, the symptoms of distal polyneuropathy were recorded by the Michigan Neuropathy Screening Instrument. ANCOVA, Paired t‑test, unpaired t‑test, Chi‑square, and Fisher’s exact test were used to compare changes in symptoms and sign of distal polyneuropathy.

    Results

    The mean age of patients was 57.1 ± 8.02 years. There was no significant difference between the two groups in regard to the baseline variables. Blood pressure, body mass index, and blood glucose did not change significantly during the study. In the pentoxifylline group, the symptoms of peripheral neuropathy were significantly improved, in comparison with placebo group (P = 0.042).

    Conclusion

    This study showed pentoxifylline could be effective in reducing the symptoms of distal diabetic neuropathy.

    Keywords: Diabetes, pentoxifylline, peripheral neuropathy
  • Bahareh Sasanfar, Fatemeh Toorang, Saeed Nemati, Abolghassem Djazayery, Kazem Zendehdel* Page 4
    Background

    Designing cancer prevention programs needs information on knowledge, attitude, and practice of the community. Unfortunately, this information is not available in Iran.

    Materials and Methods

    We developed a questionnaire (NUTCANKAPQ) to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice of Iranian women regarding cancer prevention dietary habits. We recruited women who had referred to public health‑care centers in Tehran, Iran. To assess validity, we applied face, content, and construct validity methods. We performed test–retest approaches to assess reliability, and internal consistency of the questionnaire was assessed through Cronbach’s alpha and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs).

    Results

    Qualitative content validity was carried out by an expert panel, and internal consistency was deemed satisfactory (Cronbach’s alpha, >0.6). We also observed high reliability in the questionnaire (ICC = 0.85). The mean (± standard deviation) scores for knowledge, attitude, and practice of study participants were 28.3 (±14.1), 67.1 (±18.9), and 53.7 (±8.3), respectively. The result of exploratory factor analysis, Kaiser–Meyer–Olkin (KMO), implied that the model was reasonably fit (KMO > 0.6). The final questionnaire included seventy items.

    Conclusion

    NUTCANKAPQ is a valid and reliable tool for the assessment of cancer‑related nutrition knowledge, attitude, and practice among the Iranian population. Application of NUTCANKAPQ may provide important clues for policy‑making and improvement of cancer prevention programs among the Iranian population.

    Keywords: Attitude, knowledge, neoplasms, nutrition, practice, questionnaire, reproducibility, surveys, validity
  • Shuai Wang, Chun Hui Yin, Xin Yan Zhang, Zhi Mei Shang, Li Min Huang, Nan Luo, An Quan Wang, Ling Ling Dong, Hong Xing Liu, Jing Yan Zhu Page 5
    Background

    Colorectal cancer is one of the most common malignancies in the world, and about 25% of colorectal cancer patients present with colorectal cancer liver metastases (CRCLM) even at new diagnosis. The study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) alternating with mFOLFOX6 in Chinese patients with unresectable CRCLM.

    Materials and Methods

    In this study, by combining the systemic and regional treatment, the resectability rate, overall survival, and progression‑free survival were measured with addition of TACE. Included patients had Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status 0–2. Sixty‑two patients received mFOLFOX6 plus one TACE after 2 weeks of chemotherapy; after 2 weeks, the next periodical treatment repeated. Patients received operation when the liver metastases were converted to resectability or severe tumor‑associated complications occurred.

    Results

    We found that 28 patients (45.2%) patients received operation after the treatment of TACE combined with systemic chemotherapy. The median time from initial treatment to the operation was 6 months. The median follow‑up period was 41 months in all the patients. The 3‑year survival rate of resected patients and unresected patients was 54% and 17%, respectively. Post‑TACE syndrome was the major adverse reaction (81%). Other adverse reactions were neutropenia, nausea, and neurotoxicity. No patient died of the adverse reactions. The resection rate was related to hepatic segments and vasculature involvement.

    Conclusion

    Taken together, TACE alternating with mFOLFOX6 has been proved to be safe and effective for CRCLM treatment to improve resection rate and prolong the survival time

    Keywords: Colorectal liver metastases, mFOLFOX6, respectability rate, survival time, transcatheter arterial chemoembolization
  • Ahmad Mirdamadi, Mohsen Mirmohammadsadeghi*, Amir Banazade Dardashty, Zahra Arabi Page 6
    Background

    The significant association between epicardial adipose tissue and cardiovascular risk factors as well as outcome of ischemic heart diseases has been recently proposed. We determined the association between epicardial adipose tissue thickness and in‑hospital as well as 3‑month outcome after coronary artery bypass grafting surgery (CABG).

    Materials and Methods

    This cross‑sectional study was performed on 78 consecutive patients who underwent CABG in our heart center. Associations between epicardial adipose tissue thickness and in‑hospital as well as 3‑month outcome after CABG were measured by logistic regression and value of epicardial fat thickness evaluated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis.

    Results

    Patients in‑intensive care unit (ICU) suffered a variety of events, which many of them were insignificant, but 23 events (29.4%) of 78 were considered as important. The most frequent complication occurred in ICU was atrial fibrillation (9%). The frequency of 3‑month complications was 6.4%, including 3.8% rehospitalization, 1.3% reoperation, and 1.3% cardiac death. Ninety‑day mortality rate was 1.3%. Mean epicardial adipose tissue thickness was significantly higher in those with in‑ICU complications than those without complication (7.64 ± 2.80 mm vs. 6.16 ± 2.29 mm, P = 0.015); however, the difference for 90‑day complications was statistically nonsignificant. According to ROC curve analysis, measuring epicardial adipose tissue thickness could moderately predict in‑ICU complication (area under the curve = 0.65 8 , 95% confidence interval: 0.536–0.779, P = 0.017). The best cut‑off point of this adipose tissue thickness for predicting in‑ICU complication was 6.5 mm with sensitivity of 65.9% and specificity of 58.8%.

    Conclusion

    Epicardial adipose tissue thickness is a useful predicting parameter for in‑ICU complications after CABG.

    Keywords: Complication, coronary artery bypass graft, epicardial adipose tissue, epicardial fat pad
  • Arash Sarveazad, Shahram Agah, Asrin Babahajian, Naser Amini, Mansour Bahardoust* Page 7
    Background

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common primary hepatic malignancies and growing challenges of global health. In this study, for the first time in Iran, we investigated the 5‑year survival rate and prognostic factors in patients with HCC.

    Materials and Methods

    In this historical cohort study, we examined the medical records of 227 HCC patients who were registered in the central tumor registry of our institution from September 2007 to September 2017. Demographic data, clinical parameters, received treatments, and survival curves from time of diagnosis were evaluated. Kaplan–Meier was used for univariate analysis, and multivariable analysis was performed by Cox regression.

    Results

    A total of 208 (91.63%) patients were dead. The 5‑year survival rate was estimated 19 (8.37%). The average follow‑up in this study was 14.3 months. Overall median survival rate was 12.1 months. Univariate analysis showed that tumor size, metastasis, number of involved lymph node, hepatitis type, and treatment were significantly related to the survival rate, and Cox regression analysis revealed that the tumor size >3 cm (hazard ratio [HR] = 3.06, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.68–4.97; P = 0.027), involved lymph nodes >2 (HR = 4.12, 95% CI = 2.66–6.38; P = 0.001), metastasis (HR = 3.87, 95% CI = 3.13–6.54; P = 0.011), combination therapy with surgery and chemotherapy (HR = 0.4, 95% CI = 0.15–0.79; P = 0.023), and coinfection with hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus (HR = 2.11, 95% CI = 1.81–4.6; P = 0.036) are the most relevant prognostic factors with 5‑year survival rate in patients with HCC.

    Conclusion

    Results of this study will help estimate survival rates for patients with HCC according to their clinical status.

    Keywords: Five‑year survival rate, hepatocellular carcinomas, prognostic factors
  • Zohreh Sajadi Hezaveh, Azita Azarkeivan, Leila Janani, Farzad Shidfar* Page 8
    Background

    Blood transfusion therapy is lifesaving for beta‑thalassemia major patients, yet it indirectly causes complications such as oxidative stress and liver dysfunction. In the present study, we investigated the effect of quercetin supplementation on oxidative stress and liver function in beta‑thalassemia major patients.

    Materials and Methods

    In this double‑blind clinical trial, 84 beta‑thalassemia patients who received desferrioxamine (DFO) were randomly assigned to two groups; the treatment group received 500 mg quercetin tablet daily for 12 weeks, and the control group received placebo. In addition to demographic and anthropometric assessment, malondialdehyde (MDA), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were biochemically assessed to detect the effect of quercetin on oxidative stress and liver function, respectively. The data were analyzed using SPSS 21. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.

    Results

    Before adjusting for confounding variables, within‑group comparison showed that quercetin supplementation reduced ALT (P < 0.001) and TAC (P < 0.001) significantly. Between‑group comparison using analysis of covariance analysis though showed that quercetin could significantly reduce ALT (P = 0.002), but there was an insignificant increase in SOD and TAC, and insignificant decrease in GPx, MDA, AST, and ALP (P > 0.05).

    Conclusion

    According to our results, consumption of 500 mg quercetin supplement daily for 3 months along with DFO treatment might be able to alter liver function, but not the oxidative stress in beta‑thalassemia major patients.

    Keywords: Beta‑thalassemia, liver, oxidative stress, quercetin
  • Muyun Luo, Shaochun Yang, Guanfu Ding, Qiuxiang Xiao Page 9
    Background

    Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage is a relatively rare cause of stroke, carrying a bad prognosis of mortality and disability. The current standard procedure, neurosurgical clipping, has failed to achieve satisfactory outcomes. Therefore, endovascular detachable coils have been tested as an alternative. This meta‑analysis was aimed to compare the outcomes of surgical clipping and endovascular coiling in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    Materials and Methods

    Relevant randomized trials up to June 2018 were identified from Medline, Central, and Web of Science. Data for poor outcomes (Modified Rankin Scale [mRS] scores 3 to 6) at 2–3 months, 1 year, and 3–5 years were extracted and analyzed as odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs), using RevMan software.

    Results

    Five studies (2780: 1393 and 1387 patients in the coiling and clipping arms, respectively) were included in the current analysis. The overall effect estimate favored endovascular coiling over surgical clipping in terms of reducing poor outcomes (death or dependency, mRS > 2) at 1 year (OR = 0.67, 95% CI: 0.57–0.79) and 3–5 years (OR = 0.8, 95% CI: 0.67–0.96). Moreover, coiling was associated with a significantly lower rate of cerebral ischemia (OR = 0.37, 95% CI: 0.16–0.86). Postprocedural mortality (OR = 0.79, 95% CI: 0.6–1.05) and rebleeding (OR = 1.15, 95% CI: 0.75–1.78) rates were comparable between the two groups. However, technical failure was significantly more common with coiling interventions than with clipping surgeries (OR = 2.84, 95% CI: 1.86–4.34).

    Conclusion

    Our analysis suggests that coiling can be a better alternative to clipping in terms of surgical outcomes. Further improvements in the coiling technique and training may improve the outcomes of this procedure.

    Keywords: Intracranial aneurysm, subarachnoid hemorrhage, surgical clipping, surgical coiling