فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:9 Issue:6, 2019
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1398/09/16
  • تعداد عناوین: 15
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  • Abhari S., Safdari R., Azadbakht L., Lankarani K. B.* Niakan Kalhori Sh. R., Honarvar B., Abhari Kh., Ayyoubzadeh S. M., Karbasi Z., Zakerabasali S., Jalilpiran Y. Pages 591-602
    Background

    Nutrition informatics has become a novel approach for registered dietitians to practice in this field and make a profit for health care. Recommendation systems considered as an effective technology into aid users to adjust their eating behavior and achieve the goal of healthier food and diet. The purpose of this study is to review nutrition recommendation systems (NRS) and their characteristics for the first time.

    Material and Methods

    The systematic review was conducted using a comprehensive selection of scientific databases as reference sources, allowing access to diverse publications in the field. The process of articles selection was based on the PRISMA strategy. We identified keywords from our initial research, MeSH database and expert’s opinion. Databases of PubMed, Web of Sciences, Scopus, Embase, and IEEE were searched. After evaluating, they obtained records from databases by two independent reviewers and inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied to each retrieved work to select those of interest. Finally, 25 studies were included.

    Results

    Hybrid recommender systems and knowledge-based recommender systems with 40% and 32%, respectively, were the mostly recommender types used in NRS. In NRS, rule-based and ontology techniques were used frequently. The frequented platform that applied in NRS was a mobile application with 28%.

    Conclusion

    If NRS was properly designed, implemented and finally evaluated, it could be used as an effective tool to improve nutrition and promote a healthy lifestyle. This study can help to inform specialists in the nutrition informatics domain, which was necessary to design and develop NRS.

    Keywords: Nutrition, Diet, Information Science, Informatics, Computing Methodologies
  • Srivastava S.*, Painuly N. K., Mishra S. P., Srivastava K., Singh N., Singh S., Bhatt M. L. B. Pages 603-612
    Background

    Brachytherapy treatment planning in cervix carcinoma patients using two dimensional (2D) orthogonal images provides only point dose estimates while CT-based planning provides volumetric dose assessment helping in understanding the correlation between morbidity and the dose to organs at risk (OARs) and treatment volume.

    Objective

    Aim of present study is to compare International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements Report 38 (ICRU 38) reference point doses to OARs with volumetric doses using 2D images and CT images in patients with cervical cancer.

    Material and Methods

    In this prospective study, 20 patients with cervical cancer stages (IIB-IIIB) were planned for a brachytherapy dose of 7Gy per fraction for three fractions using 2D image-based treatment plan and CT-based plan. ICRU 38 points for bladder and rectum were identified on both 2D image-based plan and CT-based plan and doses (DICRU) at these points were compared to the minimum dose to 2cc volume (D2cc) of bladder and rectum receiving the highest dose.

    Results

    D2cc bladder dose was 1.60 (±0.67) times more than DICRUb bladder dose whereas D2cc rectum dose was 1.13±0.40 times DICRUr. Significant difference was found between DICRUb and D2cc dose for bladder (p=.0.016) while no significant difference was seen between DICRUr and D2cc dose for rectum (p=0.964).

    Conclusion

    The study suggests that ICRU 38 point doses are not the true representation of maximum doses to OARs. CT-based treatment planning is more a reliable tool for OAR dose assessment than the conventional 2D radiograph-based plan.

    Keywords: Brachytherapy, Organs at Risk, Radiography
  • Singh S., Raina P.*, Gurjar O. P. Pages 613-620
    Background

    Nowadays, advanced radiotherapy equipment includes algorithms to calculate dose. The verification of the calculated doses is important to achieve accurate results. Mostly homogeneous dosimetric phantoms are available commercially which do not mimic the actual patient anatomy; therefore, an indigenous heterogeneous pelvic phantom mimicking actual human pelvic region has been used to verify the doses calculated by different algorithms.

    Objective

    This study aims to compare the planed dose using different algorithms with measured dose using an indigenous heterogeneous pelvic phantom.

    Material and Methods

    In this experimental study, various three dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) plans were made using different doses calculated by algorithms. The plans were delivered by medical linear accelerator and doses were measured by ion chamber placed in the indigenous pelvic phantom. Planned and measured doses were compared with together and analyzed.

    Results

    The relative electron densities of different parts in the pelvic phantom were found to be in good agreement with that of actual pelvic parts, including bladder, rectum, fats and bones. The highest percentage deviations between planned and measured dose were calculated in the single field for Superposition algorithm (3.09%) and single field with 45˚wedge for Superposition (3.04%). The least percentage deviation was calculated in the opposite field for Convolution which was - 0.08%. The results were within the range of ±5% as recommended by International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurement.

    Conclusion

    The cost-effective indigenous heterogeneous pelvic phantom has the density pattern similar to the actual pelvic region; thus, it can be used for routine patient-specific quality assurance.

    Keywords: Algorithms, Dosimetric Phantoms, Radiotherapy, Conformal, Particle Accelerators, Pelvis
  • Hashemi B.*, Hasanaj F., Akbari M. E., Mirzaei H. R., Mojtahed M., Bakhshandeh M. Pages 621-628
    Background

    Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer in women demanding accurate diagnosis to take remedial measures to treat.

    Objective

    Comparing the diagnostic capability of the computer regulation thermography (CRT), as a novel and safe diagnostic procedure, with common methods including sonography, mammography and clinical examinations for diagnosing breast cancer in suspicious patients against pathology as the gold standard.

    Material and Methods

    In this prospective clinical trial study, out of 97 referred patients, 44 meeting the inclusion criteria were selected. The selected patients were subjected to mammography, sonography, CRT and clinical examinations. Then, the patients showing suspicious symptoms of breast cancer underwent pathological examinations.

    Results

    CRT indicated a higher specificity compared to mammography and sonography (78.9% vs. 71.4% and 47.0%, respectively). However, CRT sensitivity was lower than those of mammography, sonography and clinical examination (52% vs. 70.6%, 82.4% and 84.0%). Furthermore, CRT accuracy was lower than mammography, sonography and clinical examination (63.6% vs. 70.9%, 64.7% and 88.6%). While CRT positive prediction value (PPV) was higher than those of mammography and sonography, it was lower than that of clinical examination (76.5% vs. 75%, 60.9% and 95.5%). The negative prediction value (NPV) of CRT was less than all other modalities (55.5% vs. 66.7%, 72.7% and 81.8% for the clinical examination, mammography and sonography, respectively).

    Conclusion

    Although CRT with a lower sensitivity and higher specificity, cannot be recommended to be used as a definitive diagnostic tool for breast cancer patients, it can be used as a complementary method with other methods to increase the diagnostic accuracy of suspicious patients.

    Keywords: Breast Neoplasms, Thermography, Clinical Examination, Mammography, Ultrasonography, Pathology
  • Verma T. R.*, Painuly N. K., Tyagi M., Johny D., Gupta R., Bhatt M. L. B. Pages 629-636
    Background

    In general, radiotherapy treatment planning is performed using the virtual bolus. It is necessary to investigate physical bolus in comparison to virtual one.

    Objectives

    In the present study, first, radiological properties of superflab Gel bolus and Paraffin wax bolus was investigated in terms of their relative electron density. Then, dosimetric performance of both the bolus (i.e. Gel and Parafin wax) was compared with Virtual bolus.

    Material and Methods

    In This experimental study, the radiological property of Wax and Gel boluses was investigated using two methods. In one, the relative electron density of both the Gel and Wax boluses was calculated by measuring their linear attenuation coefficient where in another method relative electron density was calculated by recording their CT No directly from their CT scan. Later CT scan of solid water slab phantom (dimension 30x30x15 cm3), with physical boluses (i.e. Gel and Wax bolus) of appropriate thicknesses required to deliver a dose of 200 cGy at Dmax using 4 MV, 6 MV and 15 MV photon beams, was taken. These CT data sets were retrieved to TPS. A plan was done to deliver a dose of 200 cGy at Dmax using Single 4 MV, 6 MV and 15 MV photon beams. Dose at depths Dmax, 1 cm, 2 cm, 3 cm, 4 cm and 5 cm was recorded. Using this similar method, doses at depths viz Dmax, 1 cm, 2 cm, 3 cm, 4 cm and 5 cm was recorded for the Gel and Wax boluses. The differences in dose of gel and wax bolus from virtual bolus were recorded for comparison of their dosimetric performance.

    Results

    The measured (calculated) relative electron density of wax and Gel bolus was found to be 0.958 (0.926) and 0.923 (0.907), respectively. Variation in dosimetric performance of Gel and Wax with reference to Virtual bolus was studied. However, on average, Gel bolus was more consistent with virtual bolus.

    Conclusion

    To avoid any dose difference between, delivered (using physical bolus) and planned (using virtual bolus), the physical boluses should be investigated for their dosimetric performance in comparison to virtual bolus. The results obtained and methodology used in this study can be applied in routine radiotherapy practices.

    Keywords: Paraffin, Tomography, X-Ray Computed, Imaging, Waxes
  • Movahedi M. M., Nouri F., Tavakoli Golpaygani A., Ataee L., Amani S., Taheri M*. Pages 637-646
    Background

    The increasing use of telecommunication devices such as Wi-Fi modems and mobile phones in the recent years can change the cellular structure of microorganisms so the generation of electromagnetic waves has led to concern in the community whenever be exposed to these fields and may have harmful effects on human health.

    Material and Methods

    In this experimental study, standard strains of bacteria were prepared on Mueller-Hinton agar for bacterial growth to obtain 0.5 McFarland turbidity (1.5 × 108 CFU) of bacteria. Antibiotic susceptibility test using the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method was done. For Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, antibiotics susceptibility test was conducted. The test group was exposed to electromagnetic waves emitted by mobile phone simulator with a frequency of 900 MHz and the control group were not exposed.

    Results

    The results revealed that increasing duration of exposure to electromagnetic waves emitted by the mobile simulators with a frequency of 900 MHz especially after 24 h of exposure, can increase bacterial resistance in S. aureus, and P. aeruginosa.

    Conclusion

    Several factors can cause bacterial resistance against antibiotics. One of these factors is the electromagnetic waves emitted from mobile simulator with a frequency of 900 MHz, which can increase the permeability of the cell wall of bacteria.

    Keywords: Microbial Sensitivity Tests, Electromagnetic waves, Mobile simulator, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus
  • Kaushik S., Punia R.*, Tyagi A. Pages 647-652
    Background

    This study aims to investigate radiation beam geometry of Cyberknife beam and change in dosimetric characteristics of six megavoltage (6MV) flattening filter free (FFF) beam after passing through high density cadmium free compensator alloy.

    Material and Methods

    In this experimental study, changes in FFF beam dosimetric characteristics after passing through compensator alloy was measured. Transmitted intensity of FFF beam was measured in air by an ion chamber at a source to detector distance (SDD) of 800mm. Extended SDD measurement also has been performed at a distance of 1270mm to analyze scattering due to compensator. Linear attenuation coefficient (µeff) was measured for cadmium free compensator alloy using simple exponential attenuation model. Percentage depth doses (PDDs) have been measured by a radiation field analyzer with compensator material to observe the beam hardening and change in surface doses and depth doses.

    Results

    Linear attenuation coefficient of compensator alloy was measured 0.042 (Standard Deviation ±0.00099) mm-1 and it was found that there is no change with increase in collimator size. Even after increasing distance source from detector, µeff has no change. PDDs were found to increase with thickness of compensator. PDD from a 60mm collimator size increased by 5% and 6% at a depth of 100mm and 200mm, respectively in water. PDD also increased with collimator size less significantly. Surface dose was found to decrease with increase in compensator thickness.

    Conclusion

    Cyberknife beam has been found to be narrow beam geometry. FFF beam contains lesser scattered photons. Presence of high density compensator filters out the soft x-ray photon causes significant dosimetric changes.

    Keywords: Photons, X-rays, Alloys
  • Izadi vasafi gh*, Firoozabadi M.M Pages 653-660
    Background

    The amount of average dose enhancement in tumor loaded with 10B may vary due to various factors in boron neutron capture therapy.

    Objective

    This study aims to evaluate dose enhancement in tumor loaded with 10B under influence of various factors and investigate the dependence of this dose enhancement on neutron spectra changes.

    Material and Methods

    In this simulation study, using 252Cf as a neutron source, the average in-tumor dose enhancement factor (DEF) and neutron energy spectra were calculated for various 10B concentrations, phantom with different sizes and for different tumor locations, through MCNPX code.

    Results

    Obtained results showed that the values of average DEF rise with increasing 10B concentration, phantom diameter (˂ 30 cm) and tumor distance from the source, but this increment is not linear.

    Conclusion

    It was concluded that inequality in average dose enhancement rates, in tumor loaded with 10B under influence of various factors in boron neutron capture therapy, is due to non-identical changes of both the thermal neutron flux with increasing same number of 10B atoms and same thickness of scattering material, and the thermal to fast neutron flux ratio with increasing equal distances of tumor from the source.

    Keywords: Boron neutron Capture Therapy, Dose Enhancement, Neutrons, Monte Carlo Method
  • Behzadpour N., Sattarahmady N.*, Akbari N. Pages 661-672
    Background

    Nowadays, it is needed to explore new routes to treat infectious bacterial pathogens due to prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Antimicrobial photothermal therapy (PTT), as a new strategy, eradicates pathogenic bacteria.

    Objective

    In this study, the antimicrobial effects of a carbon nanoparticles-polypyrrole nanocomposite (C-PPy) upon laser irradiation were investigated to destroy the pathogenic gram-negative Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Material and Methods

    In this experimental study, the bacterial cells were incubated with 50, 100 and 250 µg mL-1 concentrations of C-PPy and irradiated with a 808-nm laser at two power densities of 0.5 and 1.0 W cm-2. CFU numbers were counted for the irradiated cells, and compared to an untreated sample (kept in dark). To explore the antibacterial properties and mechanism(s) of C-PPy, temperature increment, reactive oxygen species formation, and protein and DNA leakages were evaluated. Field emission scanning electron microscopy was also employed to investigate morphological changes in the bacterial cell structures.

    Results

    The results showed that following C-PPy attachment to the bacteria surface, irradiation of near-infrared light resulted in a significant decrement in the bacterial cell viability due to photothermal lysis. Slightly increase in protein leakage and significantly increase intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) were observed in the bacteria upon treating with C-PPy.

    Conclusion

    Photo-ablation strategy is a new minimally invasive and inexpensive method without overdose risk manner for combat with bacteria.

    Keywords: Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Polypyrrole, Nanocomposites
  • Nahirniak V.*, Kusniak N., Kashperuk Karpiuk I., Andrushchak L., Protsak T., Pentelejchuk N. Pages 673-678
    Background

    Previous studies demonstrated a health improving effect in patients underwent an automatic vibratory massage taking 10 minutes. One of reasons that may explain a healing effect of the automatic massage is a stimulated increase in both blood circulation through vascular system and effective size of blood vessels.

    Objective

    This paper aims to quantify a contribution of the automatic mechanical massage of lower extremities into the observed reduction in arterial blood pressure and explain this effect.

    Material and Methods

    In our experimental study, the lower extremities of male and female patients were exposed to low frequency (12 Hz) mechanical vibrations for 10 minutes and the change in systolic and diastolic arterial blood pressures before and after this procedure was measured.

    Results

    The experiments showed there is a reduction in systolic and diastolic arterial blood pressures after vibrational massage. There were corresponding 3.5±1.8 mmHg and 3.1±1.6 mm Hg arterial blood pressure reductions among men and 5.5±3.2 mm Hg and 2.2±1.2 mm Hg reductions among women.

    Conclusion

    We explained this effect by increasing effective radius of blood vessels. Based on the Hagen-Poiseuille equation, we made estimates for the relative change in the effective radius of blood vessels. They gave the 0.7% and 1.3% increases in the effective radius of blood vessels in lower extremities in men during systole and diastole, respectively, and the corresponding 1.1% and 0.6% increases in the effective radius of blood vessels of lower extremities in women during the same periods.

    Keywords: Blood Pressure, Low Frequency Mechanical Vibrations, Whole Body Automatic Massage, Hypertension, Blood Circulation Improvement, Cardiovascular System
  • Mostaar A.*, Sattari M. R., Hosseini S., Deevband M. R. Pages 679-686
    Background

    Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) or microinjection is one of the most commonly used assisted reproductive technologies (ART) in the treatment of patients with infertility problems. At each stage of this treatment cycle, many dependent and independent variables may affect the results, according to which, estimating the accuracy of fertility rate for physicians will be difficult.

    Objective

    This study aims to evaluate the efficiency of artificial neural networks (ANN) and principal component analysis (PCA) to predict results of infertility treatment in the ICSI method.

    Material and Methods

    In the present research that is an analytical study, multilayer perceptron (MLP) artificial neural networks were designed and evaluated to predict results of infertility treatment using the ICSI method. In addition, the PCA method was used before the process of training the neural network for extracting information from data and improving the efficiency of generated models. The network has 11 to 17 inputs and 2 outputs.

    Results

    The area under ROC curve (AUC) values were derived from modeling the results of the ICSI technique for the test data and the total data. The AUC for total data vary from 0.7670 to 0.9796 for two neurons, 0.9394 to 0.9990 for three neurons and 0.9540 to 0.9906 for four neurons in hidden layers.

    Conclusion

    The proposed MLP neural network can model the specialist performance in predicting treatment results with a high degree of accuracy and reliability.

    Keywords: Neural Networks, Principal Component Analysis, Fertility, Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection
  • Mohagheghian F., Makkiabadi B., Jalilvand H., Khajehpoor H., Samadzadehaghdam N., Eqlimi E., Deevband M. R.* Pages 687-698
    Background

    Tinnitus known as a central nervous system disorder is correlated with specific oscillatory activities within auditory and non-auditory brain areas. Several studies in the past few years have revealed that in the most tinnitus cases, the response pattern of neurons in auditory system is changed due to auditory deafferentation, which leads to variation and disruption of the brain networks.

    Objective

    In this paper, we introduce an approach to automatically distinguish tinnitus individuals from healthy controls based on whole-brain functional connectivity and network analysis.

    Material and Methods

    The functional connectivity analysis was applied to the resting state electroencephalographic (EEG) data of both groups using Weighted Phase Lag Index (WPLI) for various frequency bands in 2-44 Hz frequency range. In this case- control study, the classification was performed on graph theoretical measures using support vector machine (SVM) as a robust classification method. 

    Results

    Experimental results showed promising classification performance with a high accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity in all frequency bands, specifically in the beta2 frequency band.

    Conclusion

    The current study provides substantial evidence that tinnitus network can be successfully detected by consistent measures of the brain networks based on EEG functional connectivity.

    Keywords: Tinnitus, Electroencephalography, Network Aanalysis, Functional Connectivity, Classification
  • HosseiniPanah S.*, Zamani A., Emadi F., HamtaeiPour F. Pages 699-710
    Background

    Multiple Sclerosis (MS) syndrome is a type of Immune-Mediated disorder in the central nervous system (CNS) which destroys myelin sheaths, and results in plaque (lesion) formation in the brain. From the clinical point of view, investigating and monitoring information such as position, volume, number, and changes of these plaques are integral parts of the controlling process this disease over a period. Visualizing MS lesions in vivo with Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) has a key role in observing the course of the disease.

    Material and Methods

    In this analytical study, two different processing methods were present in this study in order to make an effort to detect and localize lesions in the patients’ FLAIR (Fluid-attenuated inversion recovery) images. Segmentation was performed using Ensemble Support Vector Machine (SVM) classification. The trained data was randomly divided into five equal sections, and each section was fed into the computer as an input to one of the SVM classifiers that led to five different SVM structures.

    Results

    To evaluate results of segmentation, some criteria have been investigated such as Dice, Jaccard, sensitivity, specificity, PPV and accuracy. Both modes of ESVM, including first and second ones have similar results. Dice criterion was satisfied much better with specialist’s work and it is observed that Dice average has 0.57±.15 and 0.6±.12 values in the first and second approach, respectively.

    Conclusion

    An acceptable overlap between those results reported by the neurologist and the ones obtained from the automatic segmentation algorithm was reached using an appropriate pre-processing in the proposed algorithm. Post-processing analysis further reduced false positives using morphological operations and also improved the evaluation criteria, including sensitivity and positive predictive value.

    Keywords: Multiple Sclerosis, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Segmentation, Support Vector Machine, Ensemble Classifier, Classification Lesion
  • Azarnoosh M.*, Doostdar H. Pages 711-718
    Background

    The importance of continuous monitoring along with rapid and accurate notification of changes in blood components such as hemoglobin concentration, especially in acute situations, encourages researchers to use non-invasive methods for measuring.

    Objective

    This study was aimed to investigate the correlation between hemoglobin concentration and photoplethysmogram (PPG) and the possibility of measuring it by an optical method.

    Material and Methods

    In this applied study, a PPG signal was simultaneously recorded at four different wavelengths for thirty subjects who were referred to the laboratory for a hemoglobin concentration test. After calibrating the special recording probe with a standard pulse oximeter system and applying the required preprocessing on the obtained signals, the peak-to-peak value of PPG signals was extracted. Finally, the correlation between the peak-to-peak value of the signal at a certain wavelength and hemoglobin concentration was analyzed using Spearman and Pearson correlation for determining the process of changes in the data.

    Results

    The results demonstrated that based on the normal distribution of data at 590 nm wavelength, there is a significantly negative correlation between a function of the signal peak slope and the hemoglobin concentration, with a Pearson coefficient of -0.787 (p<0.01). In addition, the investigation of rank correlation indicated a significantly negative correlation of -0.842 (p<0.01) using Spearman correlation analysis.

    Conclusion

    Considering the high correlation between hemoglobin concentration and PPG signal characteristics, optical methods can be used to develop a rapid, precise, clean and inexpensive method to measure hemoglobin concentration.

    Keywords: Hematologic Tests, Hemoglobinometry, Photoplethysmography, Correlation of Data
  • Khosravi M., Arazpour M., Saeedi H., Rezaei M.* Pages 719-732

    Osteoarthritis of the knee is a debilitating condition affecting increasing numbers of individuals each year. One option for treatment is orthotic knee braces, but a little independent reviews have taken place to date on their relative outcomes for users. This study therefore evaluates the efficacy of different types of knee orthoses (braces) with regard to key aspects of use, including gait parameters, mobility and levels of comfort and compliance in subjects presenting with osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee. The collated data is presented with relevant supporting literature and appropriate descriptions in relation to each knee orthosis type that was identified, within appropriate subsections with advantages and disadvantages appropriately allocated. An analysis of each brace as presented by the corresponding article is then described further in terms of the design and structure, user outcomes and assessment summaries. According to the study carried out in this paper, it is presented and proved that applying the use of knee braces can reduce the knee adduction moment (KAM), but the amount of reduction afforded varies between designs. All of the studies reported significant pain reduction and functional improvement with the use of a knee brace, although their effect on the knee joint range of motion vary. Knee braces long-term use depends upon high levels of comfort and patient compliance, and further studies need to be conducted on larger numbers of subjects over greater time periods to reflect the long-term outcomes accurately.

    Keywords: Osteoarthritis, Knee, Adduction Moment, Gait, Knee Orthoses, Braces