فهرست مطالب

آزمایشگاه و تشخیص - پیاپی 45 (پاییز 1398)
  • پیاپی 45 (پاییز 1398)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1398/09/30
  • تعداد عناوین: 22
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  • Gh. Mos tafavi, H. Hekmati Pages 11-16

    Interference in clinical laboratory tes ting can create discrepancies in tes t results which can lead to patient harm. In clinical chemis try, interference is defined as a cause of medically significant difference in the measurand tes t result due to another component or property of the sample. Interference by endogenous and exogenous subs tances with assays for clinical analytes is a common problem in laboratory medicine. There are four major endogenous compounds that con- sis tently interfere with laboratory

    results

    hemoglobin, bilirubin, lipids, and paraproteins. The major exogenous sources of interference are drugs prescribed for the patient; We recommend determining whether the interference is dependent or independent of the analyte for the assay. Further, we propose an approach to the identification and resolution of an interference problem for the clinical.

    Keywords: Endogenous Interference, Exogenous Interference, Hemolysis, Lipemia, Icterous, Clinical Laboratory
  • M. Ghahri Pages 17-29

    The RBC his togram is an integral part of automated hematology analysis and is now routinely available on all automated cell counters. This his togram and other associated complete blood count (CBC) parameters have been found abnormal in various hematological conditions and may provide major clues in the diagnosis and management of significant red cell disorders. In addition, it is frequently used, along with the peripheral blood film, as an aid in monitoring and interpreting abnormal morphological changes, particularly dimorphic red cell populations. This article discusses some morphological features of dimorphism and the ensuing characteris tic changes in their RBC his tograms.

    Keywords: his togram, dimorphic red cells, red blood cell
  • F. Nabatchian, R. Oji Pages 30-41

    everything that dis turbs the homeos tatic balance of the body can be defined as s tress and any s tress factor activating the hypothalamic- pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis causes an increase in arginine vasopressin (AVP) plasma concentrations. AVP is a 9 amino acid peptide in the ring s tructure and derived from pre-pro vasopressin. Prepro vasopressin is a pro hormone that synthesized by supraoptic nucleus of hypothalamus and reaches neurohypophysis by moving along axons along in neurosecretory granules. This prohormone is segmented in a result of a cascade of four hydrolytic enzymes during its axonal transport to neurohypophysis: 1-AVP 2-neurophysin II 3-copeptin 4- signal peptide AVP: this hormone is the mos t important hormone in regulation of body osmotic balance y regulation of water reabsorption from kidneys. Main s timulators of secretion of AVP are dehydration or increasing in plasma osmolality and decreased blood flow. The other s timulators of AVP secretion are pain, s tress ,sleeping and chemical factors like catecholamines and angiotensin II. this hormone has three types of receptors: V1a, V1b, V2. The commonly known target tissues for vasopressin are kidneys and vascular smooth muscle cells. But vasopressin receptors are expressed in a number of other organs and tissue copeptin: a 39-aminoacid glycopeptide is a c-terminal part of pre-pro vasopressin. The main function role in the circulation is s till unknown. Normal value of copeptin is 1.7-11.25 pmol/L. the normal concentration is more in men when compare to women and has not correlation with age or glomerular filtration rate in healthy individuals. Because, copeptin released in circulation in the same amount with AVP, its value reflects AVP production. Since its half-life is higher than AVP, it can be used as a subs titute for AVP measurement.

    Keywords: Copeptin, Vasopressin
  • H. Dargahi, E. Jafari Pouyan, A. Ezatifard Pages 42-67
    Introduction

    Professionalism is a main element of health care organizations in new age. Professionalism has several characteris tics, including specialization, job ethics and job commitment that can lead to employees’ job satisfaction. The aim of this research is to determine and analyze of professionalism phyilosophy among health care organizations and its relationship with specialization and job ethics for development of employees’ job satisfaction.

    Methodology

    This was a literature review research indiced by English and Persian data bases using professionalism, profession, job characteris tics, job ethics, professional ethic, job satisfaction and health care organizations as keywords. All of articles and books in English and Persian languages related to the aim of this research from 1980 to 2019 was selected and used as the references. The data was analysed by content analysis method and excel software.

    Conclusion

    professionalism is the base contract between medical sciences profession and the society including specialization, professional ethics, offering the bes t services and having professional commitment to the patients and teach the employees of health care organizations including medical laboratories to be an analys t and being interes ted in their professions and help to improve their organizations towards excellence and ins titutionalization of professional development among health care organizations.

    Keywords: Professionalism, Specialization, Professional Ethics, Job Satisfaction, Health Care Organizations
  • F. Amirmahani, N. Ebrahimi, S. Vallian Boroujeni Pages 68-77

    Protein-coding genes account for only a small fraction of the human genome and mos t of the genomic sequences are transcriptionally silent, but recent observations indicate significant functional elements, including non-coding protein transcripts in the human genome. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been defined as transcripts of >200 nucleotides without protein-coding capacity that perform their function through a number of mechanisms, including the recruitment of chromatin modifier complexes to specific genomic loci, the formation of molecular scaffolds, the modulation of transcriptional processes, and the regulation of miRNAs expression. Recent s tudies emphazied the increasing role of these lncRNAs in the pathogenesis of the different diseases, challenging the fact that protein-coding genes are the sole contributor to human disease. This s tudy inves tigates lncRNAs and their crucial role in human diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases, and multiple sclerosis

    Keywords: Long noncoding RNAs, lncRNA, Cancer, Cardiovascular disease
  • R. Bohloli Khiavi Pages 78-83

    Brucellosis is a major bacterial zoonosis of human beings transmitted usually by direct contact with infected animals, their secretions and consuming milk or milk products. The disease occurs worldwide in animals as well as humans. Brucellosis in human beings is a multisys tem disease with severe clinical manifes tations in patients depending upon the site of infection and organ involved. Human brucellosis affects all age groups and considered as one of the mos t common laboratory acquired infections. The disease often remains under-diagnosed and under-reported due to poor seroprevalence s tudies which further pose difficulty in the eradication program. By following suitable brucellosis eradication s trategies in animals, human brucellosis can correspondingly be controlled. The present article discusses about different aspects of human brucellosis and its control.

    Keywords: Brucellosis, Control, zoonosis, human