فهرست مطالب

Medical Education - Volume:18 Issue: 3, 2020
  • Volume:18 Issue: 3, 2020
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1398/10/21
  • تعداد عناوین: 7
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  • Nisreen Daffa Alla* Pages 125-131
    Background

    There is emphasis on the selection method that better predicts doctors’ performance. Universities select medical students based mainly and sometimes solely on high academic achievement. Claims were often made for some minimum threshold ability level while systematic research suggested a higher threshold to be more appropriate. Admission to medical colleges in Sudan is based solely onstudent’s score in secondary school certificate, derived from matriculation examinations. We aimed to assess the validity of this selection policy and to determine the score that best predicts students’ performance.

    Methods

    We included the last two graduated batches of the Faculty of Medicine, University of Khartoum, Sudan. Students’ score in Sudanese secondary school certificate and their final examinations results in the faculty were analyzed. Statistical analysis was carried out using SPSS software, version 20.

    Results

    The predictive validity of students’ score in secondary school certificate was 0.303. English, Mathematics, and Chemistry grades predicted better performance in the faculty.

    Conclusion

    Our results supported the current selection policy and other methods that test students’ non-cognitive domain (more is better policy). This system guides selecting between students who sat for matriculation examinations once or more and between those with high/less marks in English language.

    Keywords: PREDICTIVE VALIDITY, PRIOR ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT, MEDICAL STUDENTS’ PERFORMANCE
  • Shahram Yazdani, Azita Yadollahi* Pages 132-143

    Underperformance by too few physicians is enough to put the patient health and public trust in the health system at risk. Investigating the dangers and mistakes made by physicians, it is found that many disastrous cases were not solely due to deficiency in their skills, competence and knowledge, but considered as a major factor in their personality and values. A stable and strong personality is requiredto enable physicians to cope with such complex working conditions and enable them to take action for advancing the health system by demonstrating the maximum capacities of their learnings and knowledge with optimum quality. It is clear that medical education system, besides all educational topics, should pay particular attention to topics related to personality and personal characteristics. Therefore, in this research, we aimed to study the mental and personality traits (personal characteristics) at three levels using “Best fit framework synthesis” method to help educational planners and policymakers consider different dimensions of personality in choosing and educating future physicians with more precision and speed.

    Keywords: TAXONOMY, MENTAL TRAIT, PERSONAL CHARACTERISTICS, BEST FIT FRAMEWORK, SYNTHESIS
  • Nazimah Idris, Kavitha Nagandla*, Sivalingam Nalliah Pages 144-154
    Background

    Internship prepares a newly graduated medical practitioner to be fully conversant and confident with the routines during clinical practice. Information on competencies on basic core clinical skills at an early stage of training is essential. So appropriate measures can be implemented to ensure adequate competence is acquired in the available period. This study was performed to assess the training needs of house officers overtime and the outcome of their training on core obstetric and gynecological (Ob&Gyn) competencies.

    Methods

    This was a longitudinal study of the level of competence and training needs of house-officers on the core (Ob&Gyn) competencies as required by the Ministry of Health Malaysia. Three domains of competencies that were the practical knowledge, procedural competencies, and the personal and professional attributes were assessed. The assessment was done at two points, which were the beginning and the end of the posting to enable evaluation of the level of competency and training needs over time.The data were obtained using a set of a questionnaire developed based on the competencies required by the Ministry of Health Malaysia. A Likert scale of 1-5 was used to measure the house officers’ perceptions of the items studied. A P value <0.05 was considered statistically significant.

    Results

    Responses from 416 house-officers from eight participating hospitals were available for analysis. The mean entry scores at the beginning of (Ob&Gyn) rotation of three domains of assessment -practical knowledge, procedural competencies, and personal attributes- were 2.86 (SD 0.679), 2.21 (SD 0.222), and 3.72 (SD 0.734) and mean exit scores of the three domains of assessment at the end of the rotation were 3.84 (SD 0.553), 3.14 (SD 0.712), and 4.22 (SD 0.641), respectively. The improvements were statistically significant (P=0.0001 in all areas). Factors that were associated with higher scores at the entry-level were the female sex, number of prior clinical rotations, and where they graduated from.

    Conclusion

    Whilst the training needs of the house-officers in the core (Ob&Gyn) competencies significantly reduced over time, specific areas of unpreparedness related to undergraduate medical training were identified. These areas need attention to ensure graduates are optimally prepared for starting work.

    Keywords: HOUSE-OFFICERS, TRAINING NEEDS, CORE OBSTETRICS & GYNECOLOGICAL COMPETENCIES
  • Elham Navab, Fatemeh Bahramnezhad, Mostafa Gholami, Parvaneh Asgari* Pages 155-165
    Background

    SPICES model is one of the most popular strategies to assess, review, and modify curriculums. The objective of the present study was to determine SPICES model implementation in undergraduate nursing curriculums in Iran, Canada, and Australia and suggest solutions for the Iranian undergraduate nursing curriculum.

    Methods

    This comparative study was conducted in 2019 using the Brady Model that includes description, interpretation, juxtaposition, and comparison. Ten top universities from the United States, Australia, and Canada as well as Iran were selected according to purposeful sampling. The curriculums of these universities were examined considering six strategies of SPICES model (i.e. student-centered, problembased, integration, community-based, elective, and systematic).

    Results

    According to the implementation procedure of this strategy in famous universities, there are solutions to implement six strategies of SPICES model to modify and review the Iranian nursing curriculum.

    Conclusion

    According to the successful experiences of top nursing schools in the implementation of SPICES model, modification in nursing curriculum is essential considering the needs of the society and facilities.

    Keywords: NURSING CURRICULUM, SPICES MODEL, IRAN
  • Mohammad Hosseinzadeh, Peygham Heydarpour, Ali Sattari, Marzieh Karamkhani* Pages 166-175
    Background

    Universities and institutes of higher education are always regarded as centers for thinking and disseminating sciences. To improve the scientific quality of such centers, direct their intellectual, religious, and political movements, and ensure that they fulfill their responsibilities and maintain their dynamism, the programs pursued by such centers should undergo constant quality assurance. The major objectives of e-learning are reducing costs, increasing accessibility, and improving quality. The concept of quality, however, is still a challenging issue in electronic and virtual courses and requires lots of research. Despite numerous assessments of e-learning from different perspectives, many experts believe that no comprehensive study has focused on e-learning quality assessment. Thus, the current study was an attempt to conduct a systematic and scientific research with the aim of offering scientific and executive suggestions for improving quality assurance in e-learning in those centers that are implementing or have offered to implement this type of learning.

    Method

    This study adopted a comparative approach by studying papers through case-review. Then, the factors related to quality assurance were extracted, coded, summarized, and combined. Subsequently, using case analysis table, the main factors for e-learning quality assurance were identified.

    Results

    Overall, 27 factors that are related to e-learning were identified and were subsequently reduced to nine factors using case analysis table and summarization and categorization of factors with similar themes.

    Conclusion

    Establishing a proper structure to assess quality is one of the main factors leading to success in assuring quality in higher education. To this end, a suitable organizational structure should be created to assess and improve e-learning educational system. In this study we aimed to identify the main factors influencing e-learning quality assurance. At the end, nine factors were identified.

    Keywords: E-LEARNING, QUALITY ASSURANCE, FACTORS
  • Alia Amin* Pages 176-195

    Information overload, due the enthusiasm of curriculum developers for covering everything, is a grave problem today. In the context of medicine, information load is integral to the discipline because a doctor needs to be knowledgeable in order to identify and treat diseases. It raise a concern about how can students remember and apply this much information when they start their clinical placements? It poses compelling pressures on medical educators to devise ways to manage cognitive load without compromising the knowledge that is transferable to clinical setting which, otherwise, may limit students’ time on task to learn threshold concepts and promote rote learning. In this context threshold concept theory seems promising. This review is designed to explore TCs and potential usefulness in medicine and surgery. This qualitative synthesis of literature revealed that there are threshold concepts of knowing and practicing which every student must navigate and master during their training. Though there is growing body of evidence regarding need of adoption of threshold concept framework (TCF) in higher education, further research in needed in the field of medicine and surgery for operationalization of TCF.

    Keywords: THRESHOLD CONCEPTS, TROUBLESOME KNOWLEDGE, MEDICAL EDUCATION
  • Isha M Deshpande, Abhishek V. Raut* Pages 196-199
    Background

    Photo elicitation is a participatory learning tool. The process involves the elicitation of thoughts and ideas by introducing photos and videos to a group of people to carry out a group discussion and analysis. It has been used as a teaching-learning method in medical education. This technique was used in a community-based medical education rural setting during one of the social service camps for students.

    Methods

    100 students participated in the process. Two different photographs related to child development were shared through a social application. The images were at the center of the discussion, initiating and guiding the discussion taking place by stimulating the students’ minds and provoking them to think about possible inferences that could be drawn based on those images. Guided interactive discussion was used to explain the concepts related to child development.

    Results

    Students involved in the process, found it to be an interesting and interactive teaching method.The method stimulated their thought processes and enabled free discussion. The concepts became easier to grasp, owing to their active participation, and led to a better understanding.

    Conclusion

    Photo elicitation can be used, with some limitations, as an effective and interactive learning method with a large group in a rural setting as well. Simple social applications that are available, can be used to implement this method. However, the method used must be altered according to one’s conditions as the teaching-learning settings and context may vary.

    Keywords: COMMUNITY-BASED MEDICAL EDUCATION, PHOTO ELICITATION, MEDICAL EDUCATION, REFLECTIVE LEARNING