فهرست مطالب

Biolmpacts - Volume:10 Issue: 1, 2020
  • Volume:10 Issue: 1, 2020
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1398/10/29
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
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  • Marziyeh Fathi, Azam Safary, Jaleh Barar* Pages 1-4
  • Morteza Mahmoudi*, Saya Ameli, Sherry Moss Pages 5-7

    Academic bullying occurs when senior scientists direct abusive behavior such as verbal insults, public shaming, isolation, and threatening toward vulnerable junior colleagues such as postdocs, graduate students and lab members. We believe that one root cause of bullying behavior is the pressure felt by scientists to compete for rankings designed to measure their scientific worth. These ratings, such as the h-index, have several unintended consequences, one of which we believe is academic bullying. Under pressure to achieve higher and higher rankings, in exchange for positive evaluations, grants and recognition, senior scientists exert undue pressure on their junior staff in the form of bullying. Lab members have little or no recourse due to the lack of fair institutional protocols for investigating bullying, dependence on grant or institutional funding, fear of losing time and empirical work by changing labs, and vulnerability to visa cancellation threats among international students. We call for institutions to reconsider their dependence on these over-simplified surrogates for real scientific progress and to provide fair and just protocols that will protect targets of academic bullying from emotional and financial distress.

    Keywords: Academic bullying, Nobel Prize, H-index
  • Sahar M. AlMotwaa, Mayson H. Alkhatib*, Huda M. Alkreathy Pages 9-16
    Introduction

    Nephrotoxicity is one of the major side effects of the chemotherapeutic drug, ifosfamide (IFO). In this study, IFO was solubilized in nanoemulsion (NE) containing salvia (SAL) essential oil to investigate its adverse side effects in mice.

    Methods

    One hundred female Swiss albino mice (n = 20/group) were split into five groups. Group I (Normal) received saline solution (0.9% (w/v) NaCl) while groups II-V were intraperitoneally (I.P.) injected with 2.5 × 106 Ehrlich ascetic carcinoma (EAC) cells/mouse. Group II (EAC) represented the untreated EACbearing mice. Group III (IFO) was treated with IFO at a dose of 60 mg/kg/d (I.P. 0.3 mL/mouse). Group IV (SAL) was treated with 0.3 mL blank NE-based SAL oil/mouse. Group V (SAL-IFO) was treated with IFO, loaded in 0.3 mL of blank SAL-NE, at a dose of 60 mg/kg/d (I.P. 0.3 mL/mouse). Groups III-V were treated for three consecutive days.

    Results

    There was a double increase in the survival percentage of the SAL-IFO group (60%) relative to the IFO group (30%). Renal damage with the presence of Fanconi syndrome was indicated in the IFO group through a significant elevation in the levels of serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, urine bicarbonate, and phosphate in addition to a reduced level of glucose compared to the normal group. On the other hand, the administration of SAL-IFO into the mice reversed this effect. Additionally, the oxidative stress in the kidney tissues of the SAL-IFO group was ameliorated when compared to the IFO group.

    Conclusion

    Incorporating IFO into SAL-NE has protected the kidneys from the damage induced by IFO.

    Keywords: Ehrlich ascites carcinoma, Fanconi syndrome, Oxidative stress, Essential oil, Median survival time
  • Hossein Haghaei, Seyed Rafie Aref Hosseini, Somaieh Soltani, Farzaneh Fathi, Farzad Mokhtari, Saeed Karima, Mohammad, Reza Rashidi* Pages 17-25
    Introduction

    Beta-Boswellic acid (BBA) is a pentacyclic terpene which has been obtained from frankincense and its beneficial effects on neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD) have been addressed.

    Methods

    In the present study, thermodynamic and kinetic aspects of BBA interaction with Tau protein as one of the important proteins involved in AD in the absence and presence of glucose has been investigated using surface plasmon resonance (SPR) method. Tau protein was immobilized onto the carboxy methyl dextran chip and its binding interactions with BBA were studied at physiological pH at various temperatures. Glucose interference with these interactions was also investigated.

    Results

    Results showed that BBA forms a stable complex with Tau (KD=8.45×10-7 M) at 298 K. Molecular modeling analysis showed a hydrophobic interaction between BBA and HVPGGG segment of R2 and R4 repeated domains of Tau.

    Conclusion

    The binding affinity increased by temperature enhancement, while it decreased significantly in the presence of glucose. Both association and dissociation of the BBA-Tau complex were accompanied with an entropic activation barrier; however, positive enthalpy and entropy changes revealed that hydrophobic bonding is the main force involved in the interaction.

    Keywords: Beta Boswellic acid, Tau protein, Kinetic study, Surface plasmon resonance
  • Mostafa Akbarzadeh Khiavi, Azam Safary, Jaleh Barar, Hamed Farzi Khajeh, Abolfazl Barzegari, Rahimeh Mousavi, Mohammad Hossein Somi*, Yadollah Omidi Pages 27-36
    Introduction

    Currently, drug-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) mediating apoptosis pathway have extensively been investigated in designing effective strategies for colorectal cancer (CRC) chemotherapy. Bovine pancreatic ribonuclease A (RNase A) represents a new class of cytotoxic and nonmutagenic enzymes, and has gained more attention as a potential anticancer modality; however, the cytosolic ribonuclease inhibitors (RIs) restrict the clinical application of this enzyme. Nowadays, nanotechnology-based diagnostic and therapeutic systems have provided potential solutions for cancer treatments.

    Methods

    In this study, the gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were synthesized, stabilized by polyethylene glycol (PEG), functionalized, and covalently conjugated with RNase A. The physicochemical properties of engineered nanobiomedicine (AuNPs-PEG-RNase A) were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS), and UV-vis spectrum. Then, its biological impacts including cell viability, apoptosis, and ROS production were evaluated in the SW-480 cells.

    Results

    The engineered nanobiomedicine, AuNPs-PEG-RNase A, was found to effectively induce apoptosis in SW-480 cells and result in a significant reduction in cancer cell viability. Besides, the maximum production of ROS was obtained after the treatment of cells with an IC50 dose of AuNPsPEG-RNase A.

    Conclusion

    Based on the efficient ROS-responsiveness and the anticancer activity of RNase A of the engineered nanomedicine, this nanoscaled biologics may be considered as a potential candidate for the treatment of CRC.

    Keywords: Bovine pancreatic ribonuclease, Colorectal cancer, Gold nanoparticles, Nanomedicine, PEGylation, Reactive oxygen species
  • Roya Hesari, Mina Keshvarinia, Mahboubeh Kabiri, Iman Rad, Kazem Parivar, Hoorieh Hoseinpoor, Rezvan Tavakoli, Masoud Soleimani, Fatemeh Kouhkan, Soheila Zamanluee, Hana Hanaee Ahvaz* Pages 37-43
    Introduction

    Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) is known as standard chondrogenic differentiation agent, even though it comes with undesirable side effects such as early hypertrophic maturation, mineralization, and secretion of inflammatory/angiogenic factors. On the other hand, platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is found to have a chondrogenic impact on mesenchymal stem cell proliferation and differentiation, with no considerable side effects. Therefore, we compared chondrogenic impact of TGF-β and PRP on adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs), to see if PRP could be introduced as an alternative to TGF-β.

    Methods

    Differentiation of ADSCs was monitored using a couple of methods including glycosaminoglycan production, miRNAs expression, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)/ tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) secretion, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and calcium content assays.

    Results

    Accordingly, the treatment of differentiating cells with 5% (v/v) PRP resulted in higher glycosaminoglycan production, enhanced SOX9 transcription, and lowered TNFα and VEGF secretion compared to the control and TGF-β groups. Besides, the application of PRP to the media up-regulated miR-146a and miR-199a in early and late stages of chondrogenesis, respectively.

    Conclusion

    PRP induces in vitro chondrogenesis, as well as TGF-β with lesser inflammatory and hypertrophic side effects.

    Keywords: Calcium deposition, Chondrogenesis, Mesenchymal stem cells, Transforming growth factor-beta, Platelet rich plasma
  • Fatemeh Sanie Jahromi, Masoomeh Eghtedari, Esmaeil Mirzaei, Mohammad Hassan Jalalpour, Zahra Asvar, Mahmood Nejabat*, Fahimeh Javidi Azad Pages 45-54
    Introduction

    This study was conducted to compare the effect of nanofibrous polycaprolactone (PCL) and PCL/gelatin (PCL/Gel) on limbal epithelial stem cell (LESC) and its efficiency for transplantation in animal model.

    Methods

    PCL and PCL/Gel with a mass ratio of 70:30 and 50:50 was fabricated by electrospinning method. Human LESCs were cultured on PCL and PCL/Gel scaffolds and the effect of each scaffold on LESC proliferation, attachment and corneal epithelial regeneration in an animal model was evaluated, considering ease of use of scaffold and final transparency of the cornea.

    Results

    Our data showed that PCL was more suitable than PCL/Gel for LESCs adherence, induction of epithelial morphology and proliferation. Histopathologic analysis of corneal sections from transplanted animals showed that epithelium was regenerated almost similar in PCL and PCL/Gel groups; however, vascularization and inflammation were significantly lower in the group receiving PCL.

    Conclusion

    The represented data indicated the priority of PCL to PCL/Gel for the LESC attachment, proliferation and final outcome in an animal model of alkaline injury. This finding might be promising for cell therapy of corneal diseases.

    Keywords: Fibrous scaffold, Gelatin, Limbal epithelial stem cell, Limbal stem cell deficiency, Polycaprolactone, Transplantation
  • Nafiseh Mirzaei Damabi, Bahar Rostami, Masoumeh Hatam* Pages 55-61
    Introduction

    Parabrachial Kölliker-Fuse (KF) complex, located in dorsolateral part of the pons, is involved in the respiratory control, however, its role in the baroreflex and chemoreflex responses has not been established yet. This study was performed to test the contribution of the KF to chemoreflex and baroreflex and the effect of microinjection of a reversible synaptic blocker (Cocl2) into the KF in urethane anesthetized rats.

    Methods

    Activation of chemoreflex was induced by systemic hypoxia caused by N2 breathing for 30 seconds "hypoxic- hypoxia methods” and baroreflex was evoked by intravenous injection (i.v.) of phenylephrine (Phe, 20 µg /kg/0.05–0.1 mL). N2 induced generalized vasodilatation followed by tachycardia reflex and Phe evoked vasoconstriction followed by bradycardia.

    Results

    Microinjection of Cocl2 (5 mM/100 nL/side) produced no significant changes in the Pheinduced hypertension and bradycardia, whereas the cardiovascular effect of N2 was significantly attenuated by the injection of CoCl2 to the KF.

    Conclusion

    The KF played no significant role in the baroreflex, but could account for cardiovascular chemoreflex in urethane anesthetized rats.

    Keywords: Chemoreflex, Baroreflex, Kölliker-Fuse, Cobalt chloride