فهرست مطالب

Human Capital in Urban Management - Volume:4 Issue:4, 2019
  • Volume:4 Issue:4, 2019
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1398/07/09
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
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  • S.R. Debi, S. Bhattacharjee, T.D. Aka, S.C. Paul *, M.C. Roy, M.A. Salam, Md.S. Islam, A.R. Azady Pages 247-258
    Soil quality assessment is a significant approach for arable land, especially in a coastal region to gain a better understanding of soil productivity and effect of agricultural systems on soil resources. This study aimed to determine the quality of cultivated soil of both urban (Noakhali) and rural areas (Kabirhat and Subarnachar) of Noakhali, Bangladesh. The soil quality was evaluated as soil quality index by using 117 soil samples data, collected from three different sites within the Noakhali District. Among 14 soil parameters (total data set), only six parameters namely organic matter, Phosphorous, Boron, potassium, and iron were selected for the minimum data set, based on a combination of principal component analysis, norm values and expert opinion. Four soil quality index calculation methods, namely: linear weighted additive; linear simple additive; nonlinear weighted additive and nonlinear simple additive; were calculated based on the minimum data set. A significant positive correlations (P <0.001, P <0.05) among the four methods were observed. The soil quality of the three sampling regions followed the order of Kabirhat> Subarnachar> Noakhali indicating the better quality soil in rural areas. In Noakhali, the major contributors to soil quality were organic matter (2.94–64.85%) followed by Boron (4.69-58.22%), iron (4.77–50.00%), electrical conductivity (3.48–32.53%), phosphorous (0.36–39.44%) and potassium (1.77–27.76%) whereas in Kabirhat, Boron (31.70%) and iron (23.83%) were the major contributors, and in Subarnachar, organic matter (28.98%) contributed the most.
    Keywords: Method comparison, Minimum data set, Noakhali, Principle Component Analysis, Soil Quality Index (SQI)
  • K.C. Upendra *, S. Bharat Pages 259-268
    Parthenium hysterophorus, an invasive alien weed, is spreading rapidly across various land uses in Nepal. To understand how Parthenium is spreading across land uses at local scale, occurrence of this weed was recorded and its’ coverage in percent estimated along trails and road network at every 100 meter distance in Kirtipur Municipality of Kathmandu valley. In addition, vegetation sampling was done in waste land, road side, tree plantation, and abandoned agriculture land where Parthenium cover was greater than 25 percent. Peoples’ perception about the problem of Parthenium was studied by interviewing 60 respondents using purposive sampling method. Parthenium was present in 15 percent of the surveyed locations and it was more common in urban area than in peri-urban. Peri-urban areas are those areas which are immediately adjacent to a city or urban area. It was frequently found in the waste land, road side, tree plantation, abandoned agriculture land, shrub land, grass land, settlement areas and play ground. In active agriculture land its invasion was negligible. Most of the people were not aware about the negative impact of Parthenium but 8 percent of them reported skin allergies and dermatitis due to regular contact with Parthenium. Therefore, public education can help to prevent spread of Parthenium from urban to peri-urban areas.
    Keywords: Distribution mapping, Invasive weed, Land use, people’s perception, species richness
  • M.R. Allahyari, M. Khakzand * Pages 269-282
    The social dynamics of cities have long been dependent on their spaces and places. On the one hand, human interactions, and relationships are formed by the city form and on the other hand, the body recovers its identity from existing social life. The more a city can communicate with its citizens through physical features, the more it will affect their social identity. Thus, the city form can have a considerable effect on the relationships and social capital among humans. Karaj city is the second immigrant city because of being close to Tehran Capital of Iran. Nowadays, the slumming phenomenon in Karaj has become a fundamental problem that the physical distinctions of the slum districts seem to have led to a change in the social capacities of the district. Based on the survey and using processed data extracted from the questionnaire in a quantitative model through SPSS software, physical characteristics and architectural spaces of Zurabad neighborhood of Karaj contribute to the decline in social capital of the people in this neighborhood to 79%, resulting from reducing people's trust in the neighborhood up to 84%, its people’s security up to 85%, its people’s sense of belonging up to 72% and in its people’s participation up to 75%.  These results indicate the urgent need for immediate attention to the body and context of this region that shapes each individual's social and individual identity over time.
    Keywords: Physical Form- Slumming- Social Capital, Zurabad of Karaj
  • V. Parth *, S. Mukherjee Pages 283-294

    Present study was undertaken to examine the extent of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) contamination in neighbourhood lithospheric environment of landfill site situated in eastern outer edge of Kolkata metropolitan city in West Bengal, India, along with its sources identification, spatial distribution and probabilistic cancer risks to residents. The collection and analytical tests were performed for all prevailing seasons in local geographical condition. The concentration of sum of 16PAHs (Σ16PAHs) in soil ranged from 8561μg/kg to 20268μg/kg and the average concentration is 14459μg/kg. On the basis of experimental information, the likelihood of cancer manifestation through contact to place-linked PAHs was quantitatively estimated. benzo(a)pyrene, Benzo(a)anthracene, benzo(b)fluoranthene, benzo(k)fluoranthene, dibenzo(a)anthracene, indeno (1,2,3-c,d) pyrene and chrysene, among 16PAHs are ascertained to provoke cancer in the residents. Carcinogenic risk due to oral intake and dermal contact is computed as 1.21E-05 and 4.02E-06 respectively. Progressive lifetime cancer risk to resident is set up as 1.61E-05. Source identification of PAHs indicates that it mainly originated from incomplete combustion of solid waste. Atmospheric diffusion and deposition led to PAHs input to soil all around waste disposal site, resulting in a consistent pyrogenic supply pattern in soil. This risk appraisal grants a realistic tool for resolution at corporation level to take up risk management policy at contaminated location.

    Keywords: Carcinogenic PAHs, Health risk assessment, MSW landfill, Pyrogenic process, Soil contamination
  • O.F. Olusunmade *, T.A. Yusuf, C.O. Ogunnigbo Pages 295-302
    Management of municipal solid wastes (MSW) in most developed societies now involves the use of thermo-chemical conversion methods. This leads to energy and material recovery while also protecting the environment. However, till date most of the wastes generated in Nigeria (including plastic wastes) are either land-filled or openly burnt. These methods are not sustainable and environmentally non-friendly. The reason is that so much space will be needed to accommodate the ever increasing wastes as a result of land-filling and open burning leads to environmental pollution and health challenges. Also, the inherent energy in plastic wastes, as a result of the fact that they have their origins from oil and gas, is not recovered for the benefit of meeting the energy requirements of the populace. Meanwhile there is serious inadequate supply of heat and electricity, the production of which could be improved if the plastic wastes are also applied for electricity and heat generation. This study estimated the amount of energy loss due to the prevailing method of disposal adopted for plastic wastes in terms of quantity of oil and electricity that could have been produced if thermo-chemical approaches were adopted for these wastes. It showed that about 17.3 million barrels of crude oil (worth about $1 billion) and 7.1 million MWh of electricity (capable of powering 4.4 million households) could be produced from the plastic wastes generated in the country. Therefore, plastic wastes should be embraced and treated as a resource rather than “wastes”.
    Keywords: Electricity, Nigeria, Plastic wastes, Pyrolysis, Waste-to-Energy (WTE)
  • P. Anshuman *, R. Pankaj Kumar Pages 303-310
    Degradation of urban environment and health hazard is directly associated with the unscientific handling of Municipal solid waste of India. Urbanization also contribute intensify Municipal solid waste generation. Source segregation of solid waste not only the fact to converge but also possible in maximum resource recovery from the waste. Waste management is a problem due to the ineffective management of waste and lack of knowledge of waste management. The main aim of the evaluation is to understand why and how communities can be approached survey and communicated and convicted towards a more suitable more sustainable and inclusive waste management system in Gurugram of India. All the Housing society of the Gurugram do not sort at all. The government agency responsible for the final management of solid waste does not have any practice to segregation the waste to achieving material recovery. The total waste generation in Gurugram area is 7418 kg per day from 5752 number of house hold. The waste segregation is the main challenges for the Municipal waste management system. The results revealed that average 81 percent of solid waste is just dumping in the land filled site without material recovery.
    Keywords: Municipalities, Recycle, Segregation, urbanization, Waste generation
  • P. Partheeban *, R. Rani Hemamalini, B. Shanthini Pages 311-320
    Recently, indoor air quality has attracted the attention of policymakers and researchers as a critical issue like that of external air pollution. Indoor air quality is more important as people spend time longer indoors than outdoors. Indoor environments are closed compared to external environments providing less opportunity for the pollutants to dilute. The emissions contain many substances that are harmful to humans when exposed for a prolonged period or to certain levels of concentration. Internet of Things (IoT) technology is best and low-cost method of measuring air pollution. This paper proposes an IoT technology for an indoor air quality monitoring system to monitor urban homes. The pollution level observed in the Kodungayur (location 8) and Manali (location 9) exceeds the standards.  Maximum outdoor pollution observed value of CO, SO2, NO2 and PM.25 are 9.2, 0.135, 0.102 and 0.215 respectively. Similarly, the indoor pollution levels are varying from 10% to 15 % lesser than that of the outdoor pollution values. The percentage of error varied from – 2.94% to + 2.94%. The percentage of error is within ± 5%, which shows its robustness. Outdoor air pollution does not influence indoor air pollution is the result of this study.
    Keywords: Global Positioning System, Global System for Mobile, internet of things, Indoor Air Quality (IAQ), smart sensors, Urban houses
  • S.S. Mousavi *, A.A. Moradi, S. Alipour, M. Nasr Zadeh, A. Khazaei Pages 321-330
    Recently, literature around the theme of collaborative management research has grown considerably. According to the definition of collaborative management research, two components are connected to each other in this context; managers of organizations and academic researchers. In literature, many authors claim that the relationship between these two components could lead to significant advantages for both of them. On the one hand, managers can learn more about new methods of handling complex systems, and on the other hand, researchers can have a chance to recognize new theories and develop their knowledge through this collaboration. Some authors argue that collaborative research not only leads to an increase in knowledge production, but also encourages knowledge sharing among the participating researchers. Therefore, knowledge production is an important issue in collaborative management research. In literature, many authors claim that the quality of knowledge production through collaborative research is higher than in non-collaborative cases. With the view of making collaborative management research more valuable, knowledge production could play an important role in three issues related to enriching collaborative management research; namely rigor, reflection and relevance. The issue of knowledge production has been a controversial and much disputed subject within the field of collaborative management research. In this paper, some studies are reviewed in order to find out the effect of collaborative management research on knowledge production. Moreover, the pattern of collaboration in knowledge production is also discussed.
    Keywords: Academic Community, Collective Research, knowledge production