فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:22 Issue: 1, 2020
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1398/11/15
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
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  • Eshagh Ali Saberi, Narges Farhad Mollashahi, Mahboobe Ahmadi* Page 1
    Background

    Biomechanical preparation of root canals is one of the most important stages in successful root canal treatment.

    Objectives

    The aim of this study was evaluating and comparing dentinal micro cracks following root canal preparation with Neoniti, Reciproc, and ProTaper rotary systems.

    Methods

    Fifty mandibular first molars were selected and their distal roots were cut. The roots were randomly divided into three experimental groups of 15 and one control group consisting of 5 teeth. Defective specimens were excluded and replaced by sound molar teeth. A silicone-wash impression material was used to cover the root surface for simulating the PDL. The specimens were then prepared by Neoniti (25/0.08), Reciproc (25/0.08), and ProTaper rotary systems (up to the F3). The teeth in the control group remained unprepared. The specimens were then sectioned horizontally in of 3, 6, and 9 mm distances from the apex and explored by a stereomicroscope. Incidence of micro cracks formation were statistically analyzed by chi-square test.

    Results

    The intact specimens were free of cracks, but all root canals prepared with three different files had cracks. The frequency of micro cracks was observed in 46.7%, 40%, and 20% of root canals following the preparation with Reciproc, Neoniti, and ProTaper files respectively. The cracks were in the middle thirds in teeth prepared by the Reciproc and ProTaper files and in the coronal and middle thirds in those prepared by the Neoniti file.

    Conclusions

    All Neoniti, Reciproc, and ProTaper systems create micro cracks in the root dentin. More cracks were observed in the Reciproc system.

    Keywords: Dentinal Crack, Root Canal Preparation, Rotary Instrumentation System
  • Ali Imani, Fatemeh Moradi* Page 2
    Background

    Uncontrolled pain in newborns results in permanent damage to the growth components of cognitive development and changes in response to subsequent painful stimuli.

    Objectives

    The aim of this study was to comparison of the effects of oral sucrose 30% and 50% on the pain of injection of hepatitis B vaccine in newborns.

    Methods

    In these triple-blind clinical trial conducted at Amir-al Momenin Hospital in Semnan, 91 term infants were selected and randomly divided into three groups. Two minutes prior to intramuscular injection of hepatitis B vaccine in the case group, 2 mL of sucrose solution 30% or 50% and in the control group the same volume of sterile water was given orally to the infant. Prior to the administration of sucrose, immediately after injection and 5 minutes after injection the Neonatal Infant Pain Scale (NIPS) was used to assess pain. For statistical data analysis, Mann-Whitney, chi-square, Kruskal-Wallis, One-Way ANOVA and Dunnett tests at a significance level of 5% were used.

    Results

    The results showed that sucrose 30% and 50% significantly reduced pain during, immediately, and 5 minutes after injection (P < 0.05).

    Conclusions

    In general, high concentrations of sucrose can relieve the pain of vaccination and can be used in the clinic.

    Keywords: Infant Pain, Sucrose, Intramuscular Injection, Hepatitis B Vaccine
  • Mohammad Mehdi Shamsi, Reza Ranjbar*, Mahmood Khaksary Mahabady, Mohammad Reza Tabandeh, Kaveh Khazaeel, Hossein Najafzadeh Page 3
    Background

    Maternal diabetes is a metabolic disorder among pregnant mothers that increases the risk of developing growth disorders in the fetus and the placenta. Placental deformity and dysfunction were reported in some studies. These changes have been related to oxidative stress. Quercetin is a component of the flavonoids group that can be found in vegetables, fruits, tea, and herbal supplements and has anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial, anti-oxidant, and anti-diabetic properties.

    Objectives

    In this experimental study, prophylactic effect of quercetin was evaluated for structural changes of the placenta in diabetic rats.

    Methods

    Twenty-four pregnant Wistar rats were divided equally into four groups, including control, quercetin, diabetic, and quercetin-treated diabetic groups. Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin injection (50 mg/kg/IV), then male rats for mating were put together with female rats. Quercetin was administered (75 mg/kg/gavage), on 0, 7, 14, and 20 days of gestation. On 20th gestation day, the rats from all groups were anesthetized and laparotomized, then the placenta tissue was harvested. In the following, tissue section was stained by H&E and were analyzed histologically.

    Results

    The weight, thickness and diameter of placenta in the diabetic group were increased but there was no significant difference compared to the quercetin treatment. The mean of the labyrinth zone, the number of trophoblastic giant cells and glycogen cells increased in the diabetic group and quercetin significantly reduced these parameters in diabetic rats (P < 0.05). In addition, the mean of junctional zone decreased in the diabetic group, while quercetin increased it (P < 0.05).

    Conclusions

    The results suggest that quercetin has a protective effect on cell proliferation and preservation of placental morphology in pregnant diabetic rats.

    Keywords: Quercetin, Diabetes Mellitus, Rat, Placenta
  • Shahla Hoseini Niya, Majid Vahidian Rezazadeh*, Hadi Heidari Mokarrar Page 4
    Background

    Heart is one of the essential body organs whose deviation from its normal function leads to abnormal heart rate, including bradycardia and tachycardia and may cause cardiac Arrhythmia.

    Objectives

    The purpose of the present study is to examine the effects of 8 weeks Pilates, walking, and combined Pilates and walking exercise on heart Arrhythmia.

    Methods

    In this quasi-experimental study, 30 female patients with tachycardia aging 24 to 59 years old in Zahedan were selected and categorized into three distinct Pilates, walking, and combined Pilates and walking groups (10 people per group). The training program was eight weeks, three sessions per week, with a 60% to 70% maximal heart rate. Resting heart rate (RHR) was measured with electrocardiography (ECG). Resting systolic and diastolic blood pressure was measured using a digital gauge in three different steps, the first step of the measurement was performed 24 hours before doing exercise, the second one at the end of the fourth week, and the last one at the end of the eighth week. Data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), repeated measure ANOVA, Bonferroni post hoc test by the statistical package in social science (SPSS) software version 20.

    Results

    The results demonstrated that RHR decreased at the end of the eighth week of Pilates (P < 0.01), walking (P < 0.05), and combined Pilates and walking (P < 0.001). Resting systolic blood pressure decreased at the end of the eighth week of the Pilates, walking, and combined walking and Pilates. Resting diastolic blood pressure also reduced after walking, and combined Pilates and walking exercise.

    Conclusions

    The results showed that RHR, systolic, and diastolic blood pressure significantly decreased after eight weeks of training in Pilates, walking, and combined training groups. Therefore, it seems that all three physical activity models can substantially decrease the resting blood pressure and are not superior to each other. Pilates training is likely to be more effective in reducing the heart rate of patients with cardiac tachycardia compared to the walking and combined training groups.

    Keywords: Pilates, Resting Heart Rate, Resting Blood Pressure, Arrhythmia, Tachycardia
  • Seyyed Mohammad Taghi Ayatollahi, Leila Malekmakan, Mearab Sayadi*, Sadeq Karami Daranjani Page 5
    Background

    Diabetes mellitus (DM), as a common metabolic disorder, is a manageable disease by self-care and blood sugar control.

    Objectives

    This study was designed to investigate the factors related to diabetes self-care and control measures.

    Methods

    It is an analytical cross-sectional study conducted on a convenience sample of 310 type 2 DM patients referring to the centers of the Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. Self-care behavior data were collected using the self-care scale of Toobert and Glasgow from January to April 2017. Data were analyzed using SPSS and the significance level was set at 5%.

    Results

    In this study, 310 patients with a mean age of 52.11 ± 8.20 were investigated (men: n = 91; 29.4%). Significant relationships were observed between self-care and education level (P = 0.020) and job (P = 0.005). Also, a significant inverse relationship was observed between diabetes control and physical activity, weight management, and self-care (P < 0.05).

    Conclusions

    The results showed that the education level and job could increase self-care, especially in weight management and physical activity domains; therefore, the improvement of these factors would result in better control of diabetes. In terms of job, retired people had more self-care, which could be due to their education level and having enough time for these actions.

    Keywords: Diabetes Mellitus, Self-Care, Type 2 Diabetes
  • Mansour Karajibani*, Farzaneh Montazerifar, Nilofar Nazare, Ali Reza Dashipour Page 6
    Background

    Menstrual cycle and premenstrual syndrome (PMS) refer to the periodic recurrence of a combination of physical, psychological, and behavioral changes in women.

    Objectives

    The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between the age at menarche and PMS with anthropometric indices in the high school female students in Zahedan, Iran.

    Methods

    This descriptive-analytical study was performed on 300 high school female students in Zahedan in 2017. The demographic and anthropometric characteristics of the participants were recorded. The standard PMS questionnaire was used to study PMS. Data were analyzed by SPSS version 22 using descriptive statistics (mean and standard deviation) as well as analytical statistics, including t-test and Pearson’s correlation test. A value of P < 0.05 was considered significant.

    Results

    The results showed that 221 subjects (73.7%) had PMS, whereas 79 subjects (26.3%) had no syndrome. There was a significant correlation between the mean age at menarche and weight (P = 0.004) as well as height (P = 0.025). A significant difference was observed in terms of the status physical factors (P = 0.038), between the mild and severe forms of PMS and age at menarche (P = 0.03).

    Conclusions

    Given the high prevalence of PMS and its association with anthropometric indices, it is suggested to improve the nutritional status and physical health of high school female students.

    Keywords: Menstruation, PMS, Anthropometric Indices, Teenager Girls
  • Mahdi Khosravi Bijaem, Zahra Ghiasi* Page 7
    Background

    Occupational burnout is a response to chronic stressors in work, and among nurses it can reduce the efficiency and quality of nursing care and increase hospital costs.

    Objectives

    This study aimed to examine the relationship between gender and employment status with occupational burnout in the nursing staff of armed forces of Zahedan.

    Methods

    In this descriptive correlation survey, 145 nursing staff were selected based on the Morgan’s table and through random sampling from the nursing staff of the armed forces in hospitals of Nabi Akram and the Prophet of Azam in Zahedan, with 230 individuals in the community. A researcher-made questionnaire was used to collect demographic information. Another questionnaire for measuring job burnout was the Maslach and Jackson (1981) burnout inventory. In order to measure the reliability, 30 questionnaires were distributed to the respondents. After collecting the questionnaire and entering data, SPSS software, we calculate the Cronbach’s alpha coefficient, which was 0.80. Data were analyzed using chi-square (χ2) with the significance level of 5% through SPSS software version 25.

    Results

    Data analysis showed that there was a significant relationship between gender and burnout (P value = 0.01). In this regard, burnout was higher in women. The relationship between the type of employment and job burnout was significant (P value = 0.01), and burnout was higher in the contractual frame.

    Conclusions

    Nurses are in the first line of health care provision. With regard to the results obtained, it is recommended that managers and authorities, especially for female and contracted nursing staff, place women in wards that are fitted with their mental capacity and refrain from placing them in wards with high levels of stress. On the other hand, by communicating with those who have a contractual employment status, they will be aware of their concerns and, by using other sources of support, could reduce the stress caused by uncertainty in the contractual situation.

    Keywords: Gender, Employment Status, Job Burnout
  • Forouzan Elyasi*, Arghavan Fariborzifar, Zahra Kashi Page 8
    Introduction

    Lujan-Fryns syndrome (LFS) is an X-linked disorder characterized by varying degrees of symptoms, including mental retardation, Marfanoid habitus, facial deformities, hyper nasal speech, and psychopathology and related behavioral abnormalities. The prevalence and full spectrum of LFS’s clinical symptoms remain unknown, but the disease is reportedly caused by at least one mutation in the mediator complex subunit 12 (MED12) gene.

    Case Presentation

    This study reports the case of an 18-year-old male with moderate mental disability, a height exceeding the 97th percentile, marfanoid characteristics, obvious craniofacial appearance, and psychiatric and behavioral disorders. Adults with LFS are usually tall, but their heights still fall within the normal range.

    Conclusions

    The higher-than-normal mean height of the young man and psychosis led us to conclude that patients with LFS may be those taller than the normal range. The results provided insights into clinical and therapeutic remedies and highlighted the need to carefully examine the psychological and neuropsychological symptoms of LFS.

    Keywords: Lujan-Frynz Syndrome, Genetic, Mental Retardation, Psychosis