فهرست مطالب

Nutrition and Food Security - Volume:5 Issue:1, 2020
  • Volume:5 Issue:1, 2020
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1398/11/21
  • تعداد عناوین: 10
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  • Elham Makiabadi, Mohammad Hossein Kaveh, Abdolrahim Asadollahi*, Jeyran Ostovarfar Pages 1-11
    Background

    The evidence suggests nutrition style as a key determinant of health. On the other hand, nutrition literacy is a key determinant of nutrition decisions and behaviors. This study aimed to develop and validate an inventory in order to predict nutrition literacy promoting behavior based on the theory of planned behavior (TPB) in the youth.

    Methods

    In this cross-sectional study, 203 students (100 females and 103 males) were selected using the randomized cluster method from dormitories in Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. They were supposed to complete Nutrition Literacy Promoting Behavior based on TPB (TPB-NLPB) questionnaire. The tool was developed using relevant scientific literature and its validity was confirmed by the experts’ panel (n = 6). The instrument includes four subscales: attitude toward behavior, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control, and behavioral intention. The reliability and validity of the instrument were assessed by exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis and Cronbach’s alpha coefficient.

    Results

    The coefficients of Cronbach’s alpha (α = 0.87), Guttmann method (λ1 = 0.84 to λ6 = 0.91), and convergent validity (0.74) were estimated (P < 0.01). The exploratory factor analysis demonstrated five factors, which clarified 64.91% of the scale’s variance. Second-order confirmatory factor analysis pointed out that the factor was well matched up onto the principal factor. Consequently, the five-factor model was appropriate for the data using fit index techniques for adjusting the scale.

    Conclusions

    The results confirmed the well-adjusted reliability and psychometric properties of the TPB-NLPB and its usefulness for the relevant studies.

    Keywords: Nutrition, Literacy, Validity, Reliability, Theory
  • Zohreh Sadat Sangsefidi, Zahra Sadat Sangsefidi, Elham Sadat Sharifian, Habibeh Sadat Shakeri* Pages 12-19
    Background

    Evaluation of status of iodine during pregnancy is crucial. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate it in pregnant women and to evaluate their knowledge, attitude, and practice toward consuming iodized salt.

    Methods

    In a cross-sectional study, 150 pregnant women were selected by census method based on the inclusion criteria. The participants' status of iodine was measured by measuring their urinary iodine concentration. Furthermore, the women's knowledge, attitude, and practice were investigated regarding iodized salt intake by a valid questionnaire.

    Results

    Median concentrations of the urinary iodine in total population and Esfarayen people 139.05 (92.0-216.5) and 131.19 (211.43-86.43) μg/l, respectively which were lower than the World Health Organization recommendations (150-249 μg/l), while it was within the recommended range in Jajrom people 176.12 (101.76-248.62) μg/l. Although most people in the total population and Esfarayen people had moderate level of knowledge, attitude, and practice, most mothers in Jajrom had good knowledge and attitude scores along with moderate scores of practices. A significant direct correlation was found between attitude level and urinary iodine concentration (P = 0.043, r = 0.17).

    Conclusions

    In total population, the median urinary iodine concentration was lower than the recommended level. Furthermore, knowledge, attitude, and practice of most people were at the moderate level.

    Keywords: Iodine, Pregnancy, Knowledge, Attitude, Practice
  • Shirajam Munira*, Md Tanvir Islam, Md Mehedi Hasan Hawladar, Md Asad Ud Dawla Pages 20-28
    Background

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is referred to a group of complex neuro-developmental disorders, which can be characterized by impairments in social and communication skills as well as repetitive body movements and behaviors. The objective of this study was to examine adequacy of nutrient intake and to determine the scientific nutritional data of ASD individual.

    Methods

    In this cross-sectional study, retrospective analysis of 24-hour recall questionnaire and anthropometric data collected from 32 ASD individuals, aged 9-34 years was done. To this point, the participants' weight/height and calorie were measured using a portable weight/height scale and Harris Benedict Energy Equation, respectively.

    Results

    According to the findings, 90.62% individuals were carrying more weight than the desire weight. Among different age groups, the highest mean of carbohydrate intake per day was found in the adolescent group with a standard deviation of 212.54 ± 45.45 g. The lowest mean of fat intake per day was found in the child group with a standard deviation of 25.04 ±2.79 g. This study indicated that individuals with ASD had inadequate diets in terms of kilocalories and macronutrients; however, their current body weight was higher than the desirable one.

    Conclusion

    This study established scientific nutritional data for the future research and evidence-based studies in Bangladesh. Although several factors may influence the nutritional status, calorie intake, and nutrient intake, choosing foods is the first step to improve the health and well-being.

    Keywords: Utism spectrum disorder, Nutritional status, Feeding behavior, Body weight, Caloric intake
  • Sahar Asghari Pour, Mohammad Noshad*, Behzad Nasehi, Parisa Ghasemi Pages 29-37
    Background

    Replacement of the gluten is one of the challenging issues in the food industry, since producing nutritious and functionally acceptable gluten-free foods is difficult. The cake is a cereal-based product that attracts the consumers due to its various flavors, long shelf-life, and relatively low cost. Considering the competition in markets and the increased demand for functional and natural products, efforts have been made to improve nutritional and functional properties of the cakes by modifying their nutritional composition.

    Methods

    In this research, the effect of spinach powder (0-30 %) and egg-shell powder (0-7%) was evaluated on physical characteristics (density, porosity, color, texture properties) and functional properties (Total phenol, DPPH, Ash, moisture content, crude fiber, Mineral content) of gluten free-cake.

    Results

    The results indicated that increasing spinach powder reduced L* value, a* value, porosity, and hardness, while it increased the moisture content, density, ash, mineral content, total phenol, antioxidant activity, total fiber, and overall acceptance. Increase of the egg-shell powder increased moisture content, a* value, total phenol and was decreased overall acceptance. On desirability function method, gluten-free cakes formulated with 11.78% of spinach powder and 4% of egg-shell powder had the most and desired physicochemical quality.

    Conclusion

    Overall, the results indicated that spinach powder and eggshell powder could offer promising sources for improving the functional properties and acceptability of gluten-free cakes.

    Keywords: Gluten-free, Cake, Spinach, Egg-shell
  • Hamideh Janzadeh, Hassan Mozaffari Khosravi*, Maryam Javadi Pages 38-46
    Background

    Considering that food insecurity can be a precursor to health and nutrition problems, determining its associated factors seems necessary in any society. The purpose of this case-control study was to determine the food insecurity, c-reactive protein (CRP), and some socio-economic factors in type 2 diabetic patients.

    Methods

    The present study was conducted on 200 people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and 200 healthy individuals within the age range of 30 to 59 years. Food security was assessed using the US Department of Agriculture Household Food Security questionnaire. Anthropometric index, physical activity, and biochemical factors were measured by questionnaire and blood test.

    Results

    The prevalence of food insecurity was 71% within the diabetic patients, of which, 65.5% had food insecurity without hunger, 3.5% had food insecurity with moderate hunger, and 2% had food insecurity with severe hunger. In addition, 24.9% of the participants were healthy. The level of fasting blood glucose and inflammatory factors (CRP, WBC) were significantly higher in food insecure participants compared to the healthy individuals (P < 0.05). Multivariate logistic analysis showed that food insecurity, BMI > 25, occupational status, economic status, and education level were significantly correlated with T2DM (P < 0.001).

    Conclusion

    As a result, health care providers should take measures to reduce the food insecurity in the community, specifically within T2DM patients. To this end, the individuals' economic status should be improved and the household food patterns should be modified.

    Keywords: Acute phase protein, Diabetes, Food insecurity, Inflammation, Socio-economic variables
  • Fatemeh Sharafi, Azadeh Lesani*, Maryam Javadi Pages 47-56
    Background

    Excessive utilization of electronic media may affect the individuals' health and quality of sleep. This study aimed to investigate sleep quality of the college students based on their diets and duration of time spent on the internet.

    Methods

    In this cross-sectional web-based study, 385 students were selected randomly from the Qazvin University. Data was collected by a self-administered online questionnaire designed in Google-drive. The questionnaire included demographic information, Petersburg sleep quality, duration of time spent on the internet, food habit, health status, physical activity, and anthropometric characteristics. A total of 229 students filled out the questionnaire completely. To analyze the data, SPSS version 22 was used. Paired t-test, ANOVA, ANCOVA, and Pearson correlation coefficient were applied for statistical analyses.

    Results

    The mean time spent on the internet was 28.83 ± 20.89 hours/week, which showed a significant relationship with the students' health status (P = 0.005), sleep quality score (P = 0.048), components of sleep quality (P = 0.029), and sleep disorder (P = 0.01). The mean score of Petersburg sleep quality index demonstrated a significant relationship with marital status (P = 0.029), Body mass index (P = 0.008), as well as consumption of some food groups like fruits, sausage and salami, and canned foods (P = 0.048, 0.05, 0.01).

    Conclusions

    Students who used the internet a lot had poor-quality sleep and unhealthy food choices. This was a reciprocal relation. Consequently, a healthier life style and minimum duration of time on the Internet can lead to physical health and better quality asleep.

    Keywords: Sleep habit, Good, Food habits, Internet, Eating habits
  • Fatemeh Sheikhhossein, Arezoo Haghighian Roudsari*, Ali Milani Bonab, Maliheh Zahedi Rad, Fatemeh Saffar Mahammad Abadi, Mazyar Haghgo, Seyed Katayoon Seyedmomeni Pages 57-65
    Background

    Healthy lifestyle is effective on preventing common elderly diseases. This study was conducted to evaluate the elderlies' lifestyle and its components in Tehran in 2017.

    Methods

    This cross-sectional study was carried out with a descriptive-analytical design. The research population consisted of 200 elderly people from elderly care centers in Tehran City, Iran. A questionnaire, designed and validated by Babak et al., was used for lifestyle assessment. It dealt with dimensions of prevention, physical activity, exercise and entertainment, nutrition, stress management, as well as social and interpersonal relationships.

    Results

    Results showed that the total score of lifestyle was 167.83 and 164.18 in men and women, respectively. Findings indicated that both genders were in good level of lifestyle and was no significant difference was observed between males and females (P < 0.05). A significant difference was observed between men and women in terms of stress and prevention components. The highest mean score of lifestyle was observed in prevention component of the participants who had associate degree (64.99 ± 5.89) and were single (60.75 ± 5.50). The lowest mean score of lifestyle was found in the field of exercise and entertainment in people who had elementary education degree (12.94 ± 4.12) and were divorced (13.00 ± 3.00). A significant relationship was found between age and nutritional area (P < 0.05).

    Conclusion

    Considering the low scores of exercise and entertainment in the elderly people, an educational program should be designed to improve lifestyle among the elderly.

    Keywords: Lifestyle, Elderly, Components, Assessment
  • Shirin Hasanizadeh, Azadeh Nadjarzadeh, Masoud Mirzaei, Amin Salehi Abargouei, Mahdieh Hosseinzadeh* Pages 66-75
    Background

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a collection of metabolic disorders including abdominal obesity, dyslipidemia, high glucose levels, and high blood pressure. The macronutrients such as carbohydrates, proteins, and fats are the effective factors in the occurrence of MetS. This study aimed to determine the association between the macronutrients intake and MetS in 20-69 year-old adult population of Yazd Greater Area, Iran.

    Methods

    This study used Yazd Health Study (YaHS) recruitment phase data. The YaHS was a prospective cohort conducted on a random sample of 10,000 Yazdian adults aged 20-69 years. To conduct this study data from TaMeZ (Taghzieh Mardom-e-Yazd) or Yazd Nutrition Study, which was a nutrition study associated with YaHS were also used. MetS was defined according to the ATP III criteria. Dietary intake was evaluated using Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ). To evaluate the relationship between macronutrients and MetS, multivariate logistic regression analysis was used.

    Results

    The odds ratio for the incidence of MetS was significantly higher in individuals who consumed higher amounts of carbohydrates. However, fat and protein intake did not have any significant relationship with odds of the developing MetS. Individuals with higher intake of carbohydrates had significantly higher odds of abdominal obesity (OR: 1.89, CI: 1.06-3.34); whereas, the probability of abdominal obesity decreased significantly in the highest quintile of protein intake (OR: 0.45, CI: 0.25-0.79).

    Conclusion

    High intakes of carbohydrate increased the odds of getting to MetS and abdominal obesity. However, high levels of protein reduced the odds of abdominal obesity. No association was found between fat intake and the odds of the MetS. More prospective studies are needed to determine the role of macronutrients in MetS.

    Keywords: Metabolic syndrome (MetS), Macronutrien, Carbohydrate, Protein, Fat
  • Neshat Ahmadi, Ariyo Movahedi, Seyyed Abolghasem Djazayeri* Pages 76-84
    Background

    One of the most fundamental objectives of the macroeconomic policies is to realize the relationship between economic growth and inflation. According to some monetary policy advisors, inflation reflects erosion in consumer’s purchasing power. Inflation as an important economic variable, affect the economic growth and its impact on economic growth has been proposed in various theories. Agriculture plays an important role in providing the food security in Iran.

    Methods

    A Bivariate GARCH model was employed to investigate the relationship between inflation uncertainty and agricultural growth.

    Results

    The Augmented Dickey Fuller and Phillips Perron tests indicated all variables were stationary. Estimated models were utilized to generate the conditional variances of inflation and agriculture growth as proxies of inflation and growth variability. During the entire period 1990-2012, Bivariate Granger Causality test indicated that inflation uncertainty was the cause of growth in agriculture. This finding was in line with the hypothesis presented by (Logue and Sweeney, 1981).

    Conclusion

    Due to the causality relation of inflation uncertainty and growth in agriculture, macro policy decision-makers are recommended to consider the price policies for improving agricultural production.

    Keywords: Bivariate GARCH process, Inflation Uncertainty, Agriculture, Iran
  • Mohammad Reza Eslami, Ali Akbar Baghestany* Pages 85-92
    Background

    One of the most fundamental objectives of the macroeconomic policies is to realize the relationship between economic growth and inflation. According to some monetary policy advisors, inflation reflects erosion in consumer’s purchasing power. Inflation as an important economic variable, affect the economic growth and its impact on economic growth has been proposed in various theories. Agriculture plays an important role in providing the food security in Iran.

    Methods

    A Bivariate GARCH model was employed to investigate the relationship between inflation uncertainty and agricultural growth.

    Results

    The Augmented Dickey Fuller and Phillips Perron tests indicated all variables were stationary. Estimated models were utilized to generate the conditional variances of inflation and agriculture growth as proxies of inflation and growth variability. During the entire period 1990-2012, Bivariate Granger Causality test indicated that inflation uncertainty was the cause of growth in agriculture. This finding was in line with the hypothesis presented by (Logue and Sweeney, 1981).

    Conclusion

    Due to the causality relation of inflation uncertainty and growth in agriculture, macro policy decision-makers are recommended to consider the price policies for improving agricultural production.

    Keywords: Bivariate GARCH process, Inflation Uncertainty, Agriculture, Iran