فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:9 Issue: 1, 2020
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1399/01/11
  • تعداد عناوین: 7
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  • Reza Rabiei*, Hamid Moghaddasi, Mina Heidari Page 1
    Background

    As a cheap and affordable tool, smartphones technology has provided an opportunity for effective treatment of addiction and relapse prevention.

    Objectives

    This study aimed to design and evaluate a mobile application for relapse prevention to methamphetamine use disorder.

    Patients and Methods

    This study was conducted in two stages in 2018. Initially, the features of Marlatt’s cognitive-behavioral model were studied. The conceptual model of the application was then developed according to identifying the users’ needs and features of the Marlatt’s model and based on object-oriented analysis. The coding was performed using Java Script, CSS, and HTML. After developing the application and its installation in an addiction recovery center, the application was quantitatively evaluated with the participation of five experts in psychology and addiction studies and five patients.

    Results

    The main requirements of the software were identified in the form of a daily plan for recovery (learning and training materials, relaxation), motivation (motivational messages and encouragement for continuous use of the software), and evaluation of the recovery process. The results of the evaluation showed that 89% of the participants were satisfied with the software usability.

    Conclusions

    The prevention of relapse to substance use disorders, such as methamphetamine, requires motivation and education. Design and deployment of mobile-based application could be a cost-effective approach for recovery of a variety of addictive behaviors and the follow up of recovery.

    Keywords: Methamphetamine, Substance Use Disorders, Relapse Prevention, Mobile Application, Software Design, ValidationStudy
  • Parisa Enayati, Pooria Sobhanian Kafshgarkolaee, Ali Asghar Nadi Ghara, Raheleh Rafaiee* Page 2
    Background

    The internet advising system is growing as the essential means of health. Regarding the importance of addictive disorders as well as the requirement for websites to provide up-to-date information about such disorders and inform patients how to prevent and treat them, the structure and content of these websites are extremely crucial.

    Objectives

    This research aimed to evaluate websites presenting information on treatment for sex addiction in Sexaholics Anonymous (SA) to users and also to compare the quality of related Persian and English websites.

    Methods

    This cross-sectional study reviewed six websites addressing SA found through the use of the Google and Yahoo search engines by searching four key terms (behavioral addiction, sex addiction, sex, treatment of sex addiction). Two Persian and four English websites related to SA were found. Each website was assessed using the Website Quality Evaluation Tool by 42 research assistants based on indicators including content, functionality, being up-to-date, links, graphics, authority, coverage and style.

    Results

    Overall, the quality of websites related to SA was “trustable”. There was no significant difference between the total scores of the quality of the SA-related websites. Moreover, a significant difference was found between the English and Persian websites in terms of being up-to-date sub-criterion (P = 0.007).

    Conclusions

    The websites related to SA met the user’s needs. The scores of the Persian websites were lower than those of the English ones. Treatment programs for sex addiction within the Iran health system remain limited. This study suggests that we should use technology in national healthcare services, especially in the area of web and databases.

    Keywords: Sex Addiction, Sexual Behavior, Sex Education, Internet, Website Quality
  • Jafar Sarani Yaztappeh *, Azizollah Mojahed, Mohamad Davood Mohebi Page 3
    Background

    The lifelong consequences of child abuse encompasses mental health problems, to have experience of child abuse and early maladaptive schemas (EMSs), could result to impulsive behavior, in a wide range of psychiatric disorders.

    Objectives

    This study aimed to examine the role of childhood abuse experience and EMSs in predicting impulsivity among patients with psychiatric disorders in Zahedan, Sistan and Baluchestan Province, Iran.

    Patient and Methods

    The present research was a descriptive-analytical study. The research sample included 151 patients referring to psychiatric treatment centers. The sampling process was carried out following a pilot study, and the samples were selected from the patients who referred to psychiatric treatment centers in Zahedan from December 30, 2017 to July 29, 2018. The participants then filled out Barratt Impulsiveness scale (BIS-11), the short version of Young Schema questionnaire (YSQ), and Mohammadkhani’s Child Abuse questionnaire (CASRS). The collected data was analyzed with SPSS software version 21, using descriptive statistics (i.e., frequency, mean, and standard deviation), and inferential statistics (i.e., stepwise linear regression model).

    Results

    The result showed that there was a significant positive correlation between childhood abuse and EMSs with impulsivity. Disconnection/rejection and other-directedness could predict motor impulsiveness (F = 38.17, p < 0.001). On the other hand, cognitive impulsiveness could be predicted by neglect and disconnection/rejection (F = 18.60, P < 0.001). Impaired autonomy, performance and impaired limits were also the predictors of non-planning impulsiveness (F = 39.73, P < 0.001).

    Conclusions

    Childhood abuse experience and EMSs may lead to inefficient interpersonal relationships, risky behaviors, self-harm, harmful behaviors towards others, and decreased mental health during an individual’s lifetime.

    Keywords: Child Abuse, Early Maladaptive Schema, Impulsive Behavior, Mental Disorders
  • Samaneh Torkian, Armita Shahesmaeili *, Neda Malekmohammadi, Vahid Khosravi Page 4
    Background

    Addiction to virtual social networks (VSNs), especially among students, has become a crisis during the recent years.

    Objectives

    This study aimed to assess the validity and reliability of a questionnaire on VSN addiction among Iranian university students.

    Methods

    The initial questionnaire was designed based on extensive literature review and consulting with experts. To measure the item and content validity indexes (I-CVI and S-CVI) and to measure the content validity ratio (CVR), a panel of 24 experts reviewed the questionnaire. To measure the test-retest reliability, the questionnaire was administered on 30 students within the interval of 14 - 21 days and the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) was calculated. Cronbach’s alpha and the corrected item-total correlation were calculated to measure internal consistency. All analysis was done using SPSS 20 software.

    Results

    All items had satisfactory CVR and I-CVI. The S-CVI was 0.98. The value of Cronbach’s alpha was 0.88. The corrected item-total correlation for all items, except one, was in acceptable range. This item was removed from the final questionnaire. The test-retest reliability of the questionnaire was almost perfect (ICC = 0.9).

    Conclusions

    The current study provides a valid and reliable questionnaire to measure VSN addiction among university students. The designed instrument could be used in addiction evaluation studies.

    Keywords: Addiction, Virtual Social Network, Validity, Reliability, Student
  • Farideh Hamidi *, Jamshid Ghasedi Page 5
    Background

    Drug dependence or Internet addiction are among the major concerns of today's world. Studies indicate that using drugs and Internet addiction have a profound effect on cognition and by affecting the cognitive function, increase the likelihood of cognitive impairments among people.

    Objectives

    The purpose of the study was to compare cognitive and metacognitive impairments among three groups -drug addicted, people with Internet addiction and normal groups.

    Patients and Methods

    The study was causal-comparative and the population were three groups. The first group were all healthy university students, the second group were drug addicted people and the third group were those with Internet addiction. The total sample size was 180 people who were selected using simple random sampling method. Data was collected using meta-cognitive questionnaire (MCQ), cognitive failure questionnaire (CFQ), and Young's internet addiction test (IAT). Data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Schefft’s post hoc applying SPSS V. 23.

    Results

    Results showed that negative thoughts, distractibility, blunders and all uncontrollability components were highest among the drug-addicted people and students with Internet addiction (P ≤ 0.01). The difference in the components of positive beliefs, cognitive self-consciousness and cognitive trust in all three groups was confirmed and the highest mean was in the normal group (P ≤ 0.01). Ultimately, memory-related deficiencies and lack of recalling names were in the highest level among the students with Internet addiction (P ≤ 0.01).

    Conclusions

    Results illuminate the role of cognitive and metacognitive beliefs in the emergence and persistence of any type of addiction. Therefore, it is recommended to start school-related behavioral and mind control training to prevent addiction and high-risk behaviors.

    Keywords: Cognitive Dysfunction, Metacognition, Substance-Related Disorders, Internet, Behavior, Addictive
  • Seyed Alireza Sadjadi, Amir Rezaei Ardani, Ali Asadi, Mahboubeh Eslamzadeh* Page 6
    Background

    Regarding the high prevalence of methamphetamine (MA) abuse among the youth population and its consequences, especially psychiatric problems.

    Objectives

    This research aimed to investigate the relationship between the rate and severity of methamphetamine associated psychotic symptoms with duration and dose of methamphetamine in Iranian abusers.

    Patients and Methods

    The statistical population of this descriptive-correlational study consisted of all methamphetamine abusers who referred to Ibn-e-Sina Psychiatric Hospital in Mashhad city. The cases were selected through convenience sampling method. The research instrument included the demographic questionnaire and positive and negative symptoms scale. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistics and Pearson correlation coefficient through SPSS software.

    Results

    The participants included 100 amphetamine abusers (80 men and 20 women) with the mean age of 30.84 ± 6.62 years. There were significant relationships between dose of amphetamine abuse and positive (P = 0.004) and negative psychotic symptoms (P = 0.04), while the duration of amphetamine abuse did not have any significant relationships with positive and negative psychotic symptoms and general psychopathology (P > 0.05).

    Conclusions

    The findings indicated dose-related psychosis in amphetamine abusers while the duration of abuse did not have any significant relationships with psychotic symptoms and general psychopathology.

    Keywords: Dose-Response Relationship, Drug, Methamphetamine, Psychotic Symptoms, Substance-Related Disorders
  • Mohammad Amin Afshoon, Saeed Hosseini, Narjes Hazar *, Mahmood Vakili, Vahid Rahmanian Page 7