فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:4 Issue: 2, 2020
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1399/01/25
  • تعداد عناوین: 20
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  • Maryam Mehrpooya, Morteza Malekkandi, Mahin Arabloo, Jayran Zebardast, Babak Sattartabar* Page 3
    Introduction

    Pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) is a metalloproteinase that plays a role in atherosclerotic plaque destabilization. In recent studies, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) has been introduced as a mediator of atherosclerosis. PAPP-A and IGF-1level may be importantdiagnostic indicatorsof acute coronary syndrome (ACS).

    Objective

    The present study tried to assess the diagnostic role of IGF-1 and PAPP-A biomarkersin ACS spectrum.

    Methods

    The serum level of IGF-1, PAPP-A and troponin I was determined in 121 consecutive patients with ACS. Relationships were assessed by t-test, ANOVA and the non-parametric equivalent. Accuracy of biomarkers was measured by the area under the ROC curve (AUC) and optimal cut-off points to diagnose STEMI and NSTEMI using Youden index.

    Results

    In patients with acute ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), all of these three biomarkers were significantly higher than those in patients with unstable angina (P= 0.028 for IGF-1, P<0.001 for PAPP-A and Troponin-I). Mean level of IGF-1 in patients with renal failure was significantly higher than that in patients without renal failure (137.9±35.1 vs 105.1±46.9, P=0.003), but PAPP-A and serum Troponin-I level had no significant difference in renal failure groups (P>0.05). ROC curve analysis showed that after Troponin-I, PAPP-A was a good discriminator between patients with STEMI and patients with unstable angina (AUC=0.79). Optimum cut-off value for PAPP-A was found to be 89.2 ng/ml, with sensitivity and specificity of 66.7% and 83.8%, respectively.

    Conclusion

    PAPP-A can be a novel biomarker for both identification of patients with STEMI and risk stratification in patients with ACS.

    Keywords: Acute Coronary Syndrome, Insulin-Like Growth Factor I, Morbidity, Pregnancy-Associated Plasma Protein-A
  • Farhad Heydari, Mohammad Golban, Saeed Majidinejad* Page 4
    Introduction

    The continuing-to-grow number of older adults with traumatic brain injury (TBI) presenting to emergency departments (EDs) and hospitals necessitates the investigation of TBI in these patients.

    Objective

    The present study was conducted to investigate the epidemiology of TBI and the factors affecting intracranial lesions and patient outcomes in older adults.

    Method

    The present retrospective cross-sectional study was performed between March 2016and March 2018. The study population comprised all TBI patients with a minimum age of 60 years presenting to the ED. The eligible candidates consisted of patients presenting to the ED within 24 hours of the occurrence of traumas and requiring head CT scanas part of their examination. The patients’ baseline information was also recorded.

    Results

    A total of 306 older adult patients with a mean age of 70.61±8.63 years, of whom 67.6% were male, underwent CT scan for TBI during the study period. Falls were the major cause of head injuries, and intracranial lesions were observed in 22.9% (n=70) of the patients. Subdural hematoma (SDH) was observed as the most prevalent injury in 27.6% of the patients, 22.9% (n=16) were transferred to the operating room, and 7.5% (n=23) died. Moreover, the severity of trauma was significantly different between the two genders (P=0.029). Midline shift, SDH, subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and moderate-to-severe head injuries were also significantly associated with poor outcomes (P<0.05).

    Conclusion

    Death from TBIs was more likely in the patients with SDH, SAH and midline shift or in those with an initial Glasgow coma scale (GCS) of below 13. These predictions are clinically relevant, and can help improve the management of older adults with TBI.

    Keywords: Aged, Brain Injuries, Traumatic, Epidemiology, Emergency Department, Geriatrics, Outcome
  • Alireza RastgooHaghi*, Parvin Pourmohammad, Mohammad Ali Seyf Rabiee Page 5
    Introduction

    Acute appendicitis is the most common cause of the abdominal pain in surgery. Despite its significant prevalence, the diagnosis is associated with many problems in some cases, which leads to false appendectomy.

    Objective

    The aim of this study was to determine the validity of diagnostic tests of mean platelet volume (MPV) and red cell distribution width (RDW), as a new possible tool in the diagnosis of acute appendicitis.

    Methods

    In this study, all patients who referred tothe emergency department of Besat Hospital, Hamadan, Iran,in 2015, with abdominal pain and first impression of acute appendicitis, undergone appendectomy, were evaluated. The diagnostic markers of pre-operative and post-operative pathology and the validity of MPV and RDW were determined in diagnosis of acute appendicitis.

    Results

    Laboratory and clinical data from 438 patients, presenting the signs and symptoms of acute appendicitis with the mean age of 26.51±13.9 years, were examined (55.6% men). The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value of MPV in the diagnosis of acute appendicitis were 59.77, 98.66, 99.5 and 34.26 percent, and for the RDW were 57.79, 56.00, 86.07 and 21.98 percent, respectively. The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve for RDW and MPV was 0.61and 0.90, respectively. The mean of MPV in patients with normal pathologic outcome was 9.52±1.60 and in patients with acute appendicitis was 7.51±1.22. There was a significant difference between the mean MPV in both groups (p<0.001). The mean of RDW in patients with normal pathology were 13.42±1.97 and 13.05±1.09, in patients with acute appendicitis. There was a significant difference between the mean RDW of the two groups (p=0.009).

    Conclusion

    MPV and RDW indexes have the potential to be used by the surgeons in diagnosis of acute and perforated appendicitis, especially in adults, in order to reduce unnecessary appendectomy, but MPV is more valid in screening acute appendicitis, compared to the RDW.

    Keywords: Appendicitis, Biomarkers, Diagnosis, Erythrocyte Indices, Mean Platelet Volume
  • Hasan Yesilagac, Ilker Murat Arer, Betul Gulalp, Hakan Yabanoglu, Ozlem Karagun*, Elif Karadeli Page 6
    Introduction

    Abdominal pain is one of the most common patient complaints in the emergency department (ED) and abdominopelvic computed tomography (ACT) scan plays an important role in evaluation of these patients.

    Objective

    The aim of this study was to determine the differences between interpretations by generalist radiologists and abdominal subspecialist radiologists regarding the abdominopelvic computed tomography (ACT) of patients who were admitted to the Emergency Department (ED) and to investigate its effect on the patients’ therapeutic approach.

    Methods

    The records of 16452 patients who were admitted to the emergency department with complaint of abdominal pain between January 2015 and April 2017 were reviewed, retrospectively. Out of these patients, 245 (1.5%) underwent ACT for differential diagnosis and among them, 137 (0.8%) patients had their ACT reports evaluated by generalist radiologists in 45 minutes and by abdominal subspecialist radiologist 8–12 hours later and were included in the study. Patients were divided into three groups according to the effect of ACT reports on the performed treatment. Group 1: no effect onplanned treatment, group 2: minor effect on planned treatment, which did not result in a change in the treatment process and group 3: major effect on planned treatment approach, which resulted in a change in the treatment process. These changes included at least one of the two criteria: changing the indication of surgery from emergency surgery to elective surgery and/or discharge of the patient from the ED, when actually hospitalization was required.

    Results

    Out of the 137 patients, 87 (63.5%) were male, 50 (36.5%) were female and the patients’ mean age was 56 (27-93) years. There were 117 (85.4%) patients in group 1, 15 (10.9%) patients in group 2, and 5 (3.7%) patients in group 3. We determined minor inconsistency between the reports in group 2 and majorinconsistency in group 3. Patients in group 3 suffered from delayed surgical intervention due to inconsistency of the CT reports resulting in prolonged hospital stay and increased morbidity. In 17 patients (four patients in Group 1 and 13 patients in Group 2) treatment plan was changed due to CT results; and while surgical treatment was planned for them prior to CT scan, they were discharged with medical treatment after that and overtreatment was prevented.

    Conclusion

    Contribution of abdominal radiologists to evaluation of ACT images in the ED would reduce the inconsistency in ACT reports and prevent the patients from receiving insufficient treatment or overtreatment.

    Keywords: Abdominal Pain, Emergency Service, Hospital, Radiologists, Tomography, X-Ray Computed
  • Irma Faruqi, Lateifa Al Mazrouei, Rasha Buhumaid* Page 7
    Introduction

    Ramadan, the ninth month of the Islamic lunar calendar, is, to Muslims, the holiest month of the year. During this month, young, able-bodied Muslims are commanded to abstain from food and drink from dawn to dusk.

    Objective

    The objective of the study is to analyze emergency department (ED) patients flowduring the holy month of Ramadanand compare it to non-Ramadan days. We hypothesized that Ramadan would affect EDattendance by altering peak hours, and expected a dip in attendance around evening time (after sunset).

    Methods

    In Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates, a retrospective study was conducted at a tertiary hospital (2014-2016). The data was strategically separated and patient presence was analyzed year-wise, weekday basis and based on the hourly presence of the patients in the EDof the chosen hospital.

    Results

    A total of 45,116 ED’spatient visits were analyzed over the mentionedstudy period. There was a difference in the total volume of Ramadan and non-Ramadan patient between the years 2014-2016. In all of the years, the highest percentage of visits was during the non-Ramadan days and this had a small fluctuation from 53% in 2014 to 52% in 2016 (p=0.001).It was observed from the collected data that 53% of the patients were present in the hospital during the fasting hours whereas 47% were present during the non-fasting hours (p<0.001).

    Conclusion

    We were successfully able to derive a pattern from the data of 3 years in relation to the patient flow in the EDof the hospital. Moreover, we observed the difference in the patient arrival pattern between the Ramadan and non-Ramadan days in the hospital along with the predominant categorization of patient chief complaints. Our study identified a unique pattern of EDhourly visits during Ramadan.

    Keywords: Emergency Service, Hospital, Fasting, PatientAdmission
  • Samaneh Mirzaei, Abbas Ali Dehghani Tafti, Leila Mohammadinia, Khadijeh Nasiriani*, Zohreh Rahaei, Hossein Falahzadeh, Hamid Reza Amiri Page 8
    Introduction

    Resilient schools can warranty students’ health and survival at disasters. It is obligatory that schools be prepared for natural challenges through local programs. Considering the great population of students, disaster-resilient schools can be a safe and suitable environment for students at the time of disaster.

    Objective

    This study aims to identify certain operational strategies for establishing schools resilient to natural disasters.

    Method

    This qualitative study was based onconventional content analysis. Using purposive sampling method, 24 experts in the fields of health in disasters, construction engineering, psychology, teaching, and administrative management participated in the study. Maximum variation sampling continued until data saturation was achieved. The data collected via unstructured interviews were analyzed with Graneheim and Lundmen’s conventional content analysis.

    Results

    Content analysis resulted in four main categories as operational strategies for establishing disaster-resilient schools including: 1) “construction and non-construction optimization”, with four subcategories of construct risk management, optimization of construct architecture and physical structure, correct construct localization, andpromotion of non-construct safety, 2) “promotion of organizational coordination and interactions” with two subcategories, namely improvement in intra-organizational communication and improvement in extra-organizational communication, 3) “improvement ineducation” with three subcategories of holding educational courses for families and students, holding educational courses for managers and personnel, and holding simulated exercises, and 4) “process promotion” with four subcategories of increased preparedness, correct planning, creation of organizational structure, and rehabilitation facilitation.

    Conclusion

    Various factors affecting schools’response to disasters form operational strategies to establish disaster-resilient schools. These strategies influence pre-and post-disaster preparedness. Awareness of these components followed by preparedness prior to disasters can save students’ lives, improve school performance after disasters, and aid in establishing disaster-resilient schools as safe lodgings

    Keywords: Disasters, Emergencies, Resilience, Schools
  • Ritin Mohindra*, Utkarash Mishra, Roshan Mathew, Narender Singh Negi Page 9
    Introduction

    Globally, stroke is one of the leading causes of deathanddisability-adjusted life-years (DALYs). The red cell distribution width (RDW) is a readily available and inexpensive test which is done routinely as a part of complete blood countin these patients.

    Objective

    In this study, we tried to correlate the RDW with severity of acute ischemic stroke(AIS).

    Methods

    Patients presenting to emergencydepartment (ED)within 24 hours of the onset of clinical signs and symptoms suggestive of AIS were assessed for Glasgow Coma Scale(GCS) and National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score followed by non-contrast computed tomography (NCCT) scan. RDW value for all the patients who were included in the study were co-related with the severity of the stroke.

    Results

    The median (IQR) RDW in the patients with minor stroke on the basis of GCS was 13.5 (13.3-13.5), moderate stroke was 13.8 (13.5-14.4) and with severe stroke was 15.4 (15.1-15.6) (p < 0.001). The median (IQR) RDW in the patients with minor stroke on the basis of NIHSS score was 13.4 (13.2 –13.6), moderate stroke was 13.8 (13.5-14.3), and moderate to severe stroke was 14.7 (14.5-15.3) and with severe stroke was 15.5 (15.1-15.7) (p < 0.001). The median RDW in patients who were alive was 13.8 (13.5 -15.1) and in patients who expired was 15.5 (14.5 -15.7) (p = 0.048).

    Conclusion

    Based on the findings of this study,RDWindex has statistically significant correlation with the severity of AIS. So it can potentially be an important parameter to predict the prognosis of AIS patients.

    Keywords: Correlation of Data, Erythrocyte Indices, Severityof Illness Index, Stroke
  • SeyyedMahdi Zia Ziabari, Neda Akhundzadeh*, Maryam Shakiba, Pedram Keshavarz Page 10
    Introduction

    Repolarization abnormalities such as prolongation of QT interval and changes in ST segment and T wave are the most usual electrocardiogram (ECG)changes in patients with intracranial hemorrhage (ICH). It has recently been recommended that prolonged QTc interval raises the risk of death due to malignant ventricular arrhythmias or sudden cardiac death.

    Objective

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the relationship between QT interval and death in patients with ICH.

    Method

    This cross-sectional study was performed on patients with ICHwho referred during 2015-2017to Poursina Hospital, Rasht, Iran. The QT interval was manually measured based on the BAZETT formula. Max QT and Max QTc and QT dispersion were the variables evaluated by the ECG of the patients.The outcome under the study was the death or survival of patients during hospitalization.

    Results

    Finally, 466 caseswith the meanageof69±12 yearswere studied of whom68.7%were male. The average QT-Max interval was 350.4±56.5 milliseconds, and the average QTc-Max was 583.6±57.6 msec. Totally, 22.7% of the patients died. There was a significant statistical relationship between QTc-MAX and death (p=0.001). However, there was no statistically significant relationship between QT-MAX and theoutcome (p=0.593).

    Conclusion

    It is likely that, prolonged QT interval is correlated with in-hospital mortalityof patients with ICH. Therefore, it can be expected that assessing ECG abnormalities, especially prolonged QTc could be valuable in these patients.

    Keywords: Cerebral Hemorrhage, Electrocardiography, Hospital Mortality, Outcome
  • Yun Hyung Choi, Yoon Hee Choi, Duk Hee Lee, Ji Yeon Lim, Keon Kim, Jae Hee Lee* Page 11
    Introduction

    In the background of the increased suicide rate in the second decade of life, analysis of the characteristics of poisoning-related attempted suicide in adolescents and evaluation of the differences from adults may form an important basis for establishing measuresto prevent deaths from poisoning.

    Objective

    We aimed to investigate the types of toxic substances ingested for attempted suicide by poisoning in adolescents admitted to the emergency department(ED).

    Method

    This cross-sectional study retrospectively analyzed and investigated the medical records of patients aged 13 or older, admitted to the ED of a tertiary medical institute over a period of 3 years, for attempted suicide by poisoning.

    Results

    The psychiatric diagnoses among patients in the adolescent group included depression (75.8%), bipolar disorder (12.5%), and panic disorder (12.5%). In terms of the type of drug used for poisoning, antidepressants or anti-psychotics and sleeping pills were the most commonly used in the adolescent (43 subjects, 45.2%) and adult (286 subjects, 37.6%) groups, respectively.

    Conclusion

    As there is a higher chance of poisoning by easily accessible drugs, the emergency physician needs to investigate any preceding diagnoses of psychiatric or medical illnesses in the adolescent patients attempting suicide with unknown drugs.

    Keywords: Adolescent, Poisoning, Suicide
  • Mahmoud Yousefifard, Mohammad Hossein Vazirizadeh Mahabadi, Arian Madani Neishaboori, Seyedeh Niloufar Rafiei Alavi, Marzieh Amiri, Alireza Baratloo, Peyman Saberian* Page 12
    Context

    The present systematic review and meta-analysis aims to perform an extensive search in databases to compare theefficacy of the intranasal administration of naloxone with its intramuscular/intravenous administration in the pre-hospital management of opioid overdose.Evidence acquisition: This meta-analysis included controlled trials conducted on the efficacy ofnaloxone administration in the pre-hospital management of opioid overdose. A search was carried out in electronic databases on relevant articles published by the end of 2018. After data collection, analyses were performed in STATA 14.0 software and the efficacy and side-effects of the two administration routes of naloxone, i.e. intranasal and intramuscular/intravenous, were compared. An overall effect size with 95% confidence interval (95% CI) was provided for each section.

    Results

    Eventually, data fromsix studies were included in this meta-analysis. The success rate of the intranasaland intramuscular/intravenous administration of naloxone in the management of opioid overdose in pre-hospital settings was 82.54% (95% CI: 57.97 to 97.89%)and 80.39% (95%CI: 57.38 to 96.04%), respectively. There was no difference between injectable (intramuscular/intravenous) naloxone and intranasal naloxone in the pre-hospital management of opioid overdose (Odds Ratio=1.01; 95% CI: 0.42 to 2.43; P=0.98). The onset of action of intranasal naloxone, however, was slightly longer than injectable naloxone (Standardized Mean Difference=0.63; 95% CI: 0.07 to 1.19; P=0.03). Additionally, the odds of needing a rescue dose was 2.17 times higher for intranasal naloxone than intramuscular/intravenous naloxone (OR=2.17; 95% CI: 1.53 to 3.09; P<0.0001). The prevalence of major side-effects was non-significant for both intranasal (0.00%) and intramuscular/intravenous (0.05%) routes of naloxone administration and there was no difference in the prevalence of major (OR=1.18; 95% CI: 0.38 to 3.69; P=0.777) and minor (OR=0.64; 95% CI: 0.17 to 2.34; P=0.497) side-effects between the two routes.

    Conclusion

    The present meta-analysis demonstrated that intranasal naloxone is as effective as injectable naloxone in the pre-hospital management of opioid overdose complications. Consequently, intranasal naloxone may be an appropriate alternative to injectable naloxone

    Keywords: Drug Administration Routes, Emergency Medical Services, Naloxone, Opioid-Related Disorders, Substance-Related Disorders
  • Amira Benmelouka, Laila Salah Shamseldin, Anas ZakaryaNourelden, Ahmed Negida* Page 13

    Context:Pediatric traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) is an uncommon presentation in the emergency department. Severe injuries are associated with devastating outcomes and complications, resulting in high costs to both the society and the economic system.Evidence acquisition: The data on pediatric traumatic spinal cord injuries has been narratively reviewed.

    Results

    Pediatric SCI is a life-threatening emergency leading to serious outcomes and high mortality in children if not managed promptly. Pediatric SCI can impose many challenges to neurosurgeons and caregivers because of the lack of large studies with high evidence level and specific guidelines in terms of diagnosis, initial management and of in-hospital treatment options.Several novel potential treatment options for SCI have been developed and are currently under investigation. However, research studies into this field have been limited by the ethical and methodological challenges.

    Conclusion

    Future research is needed to investigate the safety and efficacy of the recent uprising neurodegenerativetechniques in SCI population.Owing to the current limitations, there is a need to developnovel trial methodologies that can overcome the current methodological and ethical limitations.

    Keywords: Child, Neurosurgery, Pediatrics, Spinal Cord Injuries, Trauma
  • Farzad Vaghef Davari, Hadi Ahmadi Amoli*, Amirsina Sharifi, Farzad Teymouri, Nobar Paprouschi Page 14
    Context

    Acute abdominal pain is one of the most common complaints of patients admitted to emergency units.This study aimed to propose a new approach to abdominal pain by designing a more structured diagnostic workup for physicians.Evidence acquisition:A comprehensive review of relevant articles and algorithms presented in books and websites was conducted. Approaches which were relevant to the study concept, were selected.

    Results

    Seven algorithms were introduced with respect to the site of abdominal tenderness. The mainstay of these algorithms was differential diagnosis of the tenderness site.

    Conclusion

    Based on the findings, the designed approach can prevent confusion among physicians and reduce requests for many unnecessary paraclinical tests, which delay the final diagnosis and impose unacceptable costs on patients and healthcare systems.

    Keywords: Abdominal Pain, Algorithms, Diagnosis, DiseaseManagement
  • Sepideh Paybast, Mohsen Koosha, Dina Motamedi*, Arman Habibi Page 15
    Introduction

    Chiari malformations are a group of congenital anomalies which involve the hindbrain and the cervical spinal canal.

    Case presentation

    Here, we describe a patient who presented with acute diplopia and gait unsteadiness which was first deigned with Chiari malformation type-1. However due to progression of the ataxia the full neurologic evaluation was considered which established the diagnosis of spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 (Machado-Joseph-Disease).

    Conclusion

    We aim to highlight the importance of careful examination in order to avoid misdiagnosis of even rare diseases.

    Keywords: Ataxia, Case Reports, Chiari Malformation, Spinocerebellar Atrophy
  • Ahmad Rezaee Azandaryani, Manouchehr Ghorbanpour*, Mehrdad Taghipour, Ali Yamini Page 16
    Introduction

    Mesenteric cysts are rare benign intra-abdominal vesicles with various clinical presentations. They almost located in the mesentery of the small intestine. The selective therapeutic method is complete surgical excision, however more than half need resection and bowel anastomosis.

    Case presentation

    Here, we presented a 5-year-old girl with a huge mesenteric cyst(15×14cm2) mesenteric cyst that was excised surgically., which the diagnosis confirmed by computed tomographyscan and managed through surgical excision.

    Conclusion

    Acute abdominal pain may be due to the presence of mesenteric cysts, but it is not always possible to differentiate and diagnose it preoperatively, and this challenge especially exists in the case of bulky masses. it is recommended to choose primary radical, surgical treatment in case of intra-abdominal cystic mass in the pediatric age

    Keywords: Case Reports, Mesenteric Cyst, Pediatrics, Radiography
  • Niloofar Ayoobi Yazdi, Faeze Salahshour*, Mehran Arab Ahmadi, Samira Hemati, Mohammad Amiri Page 17
    Introduction

    Fat embolism syndrome (FES) is most often associated with orthopedic trauma that typically presents 24–72 hours after the trauma with a classic triad. Only few cases of fat embolism due tolower extremity venous system had been reported.

    Case presentation

    The current case report presents a pregnant woman who was referred to our emergency department with bilateral femoral open fracture. After detecting fetal demise by abdominopelvic ultrasound, an area of fat density in right external iliac vein was detected in abdominopelvic contrast enhanced computed tomography (CT)scan which was considered as the probable diagnosis of fat embolism.While the patient did not show signs and symptoms of FES, the fat embolism was confirmed in further evaluations.

    Conclusion

    In summary, although detection of fat embolus in CT scan in the emergency department is very rare, evaluation of lower extremity venous system in a posttraumatic patient seems to be crucial because early diagnosis of fat embolism can help the clinicians to prevent FES

    Keywords: Case Reports, Embolism, Fat, Multiple Trauma, PregnantWomen
  • Minoosh Shabani, Ali Saffaei, Mohammadali Asghari, Zahra Sahraei* Page 18
  • Bontha V. Babu*, Kamalabai R. John, Ponnaiah Manickam, Jugal Kishore, Rajesh Singh, Daya K. Mangal, Ashish Joshi, Mohan Bairwa, Yogita Sharma Page 19

    Road traffic accidents stand as one of the leading causes of mortality and morbidity across the globe. The reasons for the high burden of road traffic injuries (RTIs) in developing countries are increasing in the number of motor vehicles, poor enforcement of traffic safety regulations, inadequacy of health infrastructure and poor transport facility. However, the systematic collection of road traffic data is not well developed in many developing countries including India and under-reporting of RTIs and deaths are common. Hence, surveillance of RTIs is recommended to assess the burden, to identify high-risk groups, to establish an association with probable risk factors and to plan interventions to control the RTIs. The broad objective of thisstudy is to establish an electronic-based comprehensive and integrated RTI surveillance system, to assess the burden of RTIs, its risk factors and outcomes across rural and urban settings in India. This study with the support of the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) is progressing in three cities (Chennai, Delhi and Jaipur) and two rural areas (Chittoor and Tehri-Garhwal). At each centre, major sources of data can be categorized under two categories includinghealth facilities and community. In urban areas, one trauma centre, one private hospital and a community of 10000-population are included in the study. In rural areas, a district hospital, a private nursing home and two sub-centres areas of different primary health centres at each site are included for the surveillance. Passive surveillance is done at the trauma centres/district hospitals, while active surveillance is done in private hospitals/nursing homes, sub-centres and communities. Before establishing the surveillance system, situational analysis has been undertaken. Surveillance-related software was developed during the preparatory stage. This electronic surveillance platform allowed to gather data electronically across multiple sites. This internet-enabled surveillance platform has severalmodules to capture and analyse the data. The present study provides a model of surveillance including both passive and active surveillance to cover maximum number of RTIs. This study further provides the first comprehensive epidemiology of RTIs. The results of these studies will contribute to the setting of research and investment priorities to tackle the burden of RTIs.

    Keywords: Accidents, Traffic, India, Surveillance, Trauma