فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:14 Issue: 1, 2020
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1399/02/08
  • تعداد عناوین: 14
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  • Hossein Barghi Jond*, Vasif V. Nabiyev, Tuğrul Çavdar Pages 1-8

    In this paper, a trajectory planning problem based on high-order polynomials is formulated for a point-to-point motion. The problem aims to find suitable polynomial trajectories that connect an initial to a final configuration while satisfying other specified constraints. The constraints are considered as zero velocity at the endpoint as well as a limitation on acceleration for the whole motion time. However, this problem is very difficult to trace more particularly when the number of coefficients (decision-making variables) is large. As a new approach,a high-order polynomial equation containing only two-term is proposed to generate suitable trajectories between two configurations. The advantage of the proposed polynomial is that it can be traced analytically in order to get solutions for the two independent coefficients in a closed-form. The motion simulations show that the resulting high-degree trajectories with two-term polynomial satisfy the mentioned constraints as well as they are continuous and smooth. Additionally, comparing outputs of Genetic Algorithm with the closed-form solutions for the problem show that closed-form expressions generate coefficients that are near optimal.

    Keywords: Trajectory Planning, Polynomial Trajectories, Velocity Constraint, Acceleration Constraint
  • Brahim Elkhalil Youcefa*, Ahmed Massoum, Said Barkat, PatriceWira Pages 9-23

    In this paper, a grid connected PV system acting as shunt active power filterfor power quality enhancementis presented. Further, a DC-DC boost converter is used to interface the photovoltaic generator with the grid, which provides a continuous power flow from the PV generator into the grid through a Voltage Source Inverter (VSI). Hence, a nonlinear backstepping control method withpredictive direct power control for the shunt active power filter side is presented, and a suitable backstepping DC-DC boost converter is also developed, with a view to reduce harmonic currents and insuring reactive power compensationunder nonlinear loads variations on the utility grid, and also extracts the maximum amount of power from the photovoltaic generator. Processorin the Loop (PIL) co-simulation results prove the performancesefficiency of the implemented control algorithms under a nonlinear load operating condition.

    Keywords: C-DC Boost Converter, Grid Connected PV System, Shunt Active Filter, BacksteppingControl, Predictive Direct Power Control
  • Zohreh Dorrani* Pages 25-28

    Biological components includingcells, proteins,and nucleic acids have beenstudied by usingbiological sensors. All compounds in the organisms have sensors with identical mechanical sensors. Most of these sensors are specific cells which are sensitive to physical characteristics of outside environmentincluding light, motion, temperature, magnetic-field, gravity, moisture, vibration, pressure, electrical fields,andsound. Since biosensors couldbe fabricated by using photonic crystals, these structures areused in designing the sensor due to the unique characteristics of photonic crystals. Refractive index around the sensing hole was changed and output transmission spectrum was studied. By changing refractive index, transmission spectrum undergoes measurable change and biomolecule couldbe measured by sensor in mentionedconditions.Results have shown that this sensor has good sensitivity for measuringsmall dimensions. In addition, high speed, high quality, simple structure, as well as higher sensitivity are other characteristics of photonic crystal sensors compared to other sensors.

    Keywords: Biomaterial, Sensitivity, Sensor, Two-dimensional Photonic Crystal
  • Ehsan Limouchi, Seyed Abbas Taher, Babak Ganji* Pages 29-37

    Nowadays, renewable energy sources such as photovoltaic and active generators are utilized frequently in modern power systems especially micro-grid. By providing electrical energy using micro-grid systems, the reliability and quality of the system can be improved. A micro-grid connected to the network depends on the main grid and consequently assessing the power quality during independent functioning (islanded mode) is important. The aim of the present work is to perform active, reactive power distribution strategies (control) for active generators used in smart grids. The proposed control method is the sliding mode which controls the active as well as reactive power and frequency. Here, based on sliding mode control method, droop control is developed for active generator. This controller is simulated for active generator by MATLAB/SIMULINK and simulation results are given. Based on the obtained simulation results, efficiency of sliding mode in regulating active and reactive power and controlling domain voltage and frequency are shown.

    Keywords: Active Generators, Sliding Mode Controller, Micro-grid, Voltage Source Converter, Space Vector Pulse Width Modulation
  • Surender Reddy Salkuti* Pages 39-48

    In the recent days, the main challenge for the electrical power system is an economical storage technology. Energy storage is essential for the future Smart Grid (SG) to smooth out the fluctuating output of Renewable Energy Resources (RERs). Even though many good storage technologies are available but either they are not economical or they are not efficient. Several research studies are analyzed the application of energy storage with respect to voltage support, peak shaving, frequency stability, renewable firming, transmission upgrade deferral, and a host of other uses. RERs are dependent on the climate conditions for the power output. Therefore, an efficient storage technologyis animportant part for the reliability of electric power system. This paper compares different storage technologies available, i.e. hydrogen storage, batteries, superconducting magnet energy storage, fly wheels, compressed air energy storage, pumped hydro energy storage, etc. This paper details the necessity of storage techniques to help the RERs power output in the SG to meet the energy demands of the future.

    Keywords: Energy Storage, Renewable Energy Resources, Smart Grid, Batteries, Flywheels, PumpedHydro Energy Storage
  • Amirhossien Vafi, Ziaddin DaieKozehkanani, Jafar Sobhi, MousaYousefi* Pages 49-58

    In this paper, the structure of a 16-by-16 unsigned hybrid (serial-parallel) multiplier has been proposed. Parallel multipliers, incomparison with serial multipliers,have higher speed and higher power consumption. In hybrid structures, to reduce power and increase speed,both serial and parallel techniques are used. The proposed structure improves propagation delay and reduces power consumption using pipeline and retime techniques. Simulation results show that it has 5.7 ns propagation delayand 2.65 mW power consumption. The figure of merit for energy consumption is 15.2 PJ. The proposed multiplier has been designed using 0.18 μm TSMC process at 1.8 V supply and simulated using Cadence tools. The layoutof the multiplier occupies 52414 μm2.

    Keywords: Multiplier, Serial-Parallel, Unsigned, Pipeline, Retime
  • Lakhdar Saihi*, Brahim Berbaoui, Hachemi Glaoui Pages 59-69

    This paper proposes a H∞ Fuzzy robust controller for Doubly Fed Induction Generator (DFIG) based wind turbines. The power exchange between the machine stator and the grid is carried out by acting on the rotor via a bidirectional converter. The control objective is to regulate the stator active and reactive power generated from the DFIG by means of two kinds of controllers named H∞ PI and H∞ Fuzzy. Comparison study between the proposed controllers considering reference tracking and robustness to parameter variations is discussed. Simulation results illustrate the effectiveness of the H∞ Fuzzy controller compared with the other one for time-varying reference tracking and parameters variations, which improves quality and quantity of generated power.

    Keywords: DFIG Generator, Wind Turbine, Robust Control, H∞ Fuzzy Controller, Weighing Function
  • Majid Shakeri, Nahid Ardalani*, Pouya Derakhshan Pages 71-76

    In this paper, dual-hops and multi-hops cognitive radio Ad Hoc networks has been considered. It is vital mentioning that the primary user interference effect on the secondary user has also been considered. The design of the problem is to achieve an optimal solution for channel allocation and power in dual and multi hop in Cognitive Radio Ad Hoc Networks (CRNs).The main goal is to minimize the outage probability and increasing the length of yournetwork lifetime, while simultaneously observing the transmission power constraints and the threshold of interference with the primary user. This problem was solved using the standard technique of solving convex optimization problem and weighted bipartite matching. All of the analysis is for both DF, and amplifying and transmission AF protocols. Comparison and measurement of the systems performance is outage probability.Simulation results have shownthat the proposed scheme not only minimizes the outage probabilitycompared to existing ones, but also reduces PU interference and saves overall transmission efficiency by Secondary Users.

    Keywords: Cognitive Radio, Primary User, Secondary User, Outage Probability, Riley Channel
  • ohammadreza Daneshvar, Behnam Mohammadi ivatloo*, Somayeh Asadi, Sadjad Galvani Pages 77-84

    The considerable development of the electricity market subjects in recent years has provided a complex and more competitive environment for the participants. Each participant in this environment adopts a special strategy to maximize its profit or minimize its energy costs considering the significant constraints. In this paper, a short term optimal scheduling of thermal units, hydropower units, wind turbines, and pumped storage units has been proposed based on the energy market guidelines. The main objective of this research is to minimize the thermal energy production costs considering the uncertainty parameters along with the maximum utilization of clean energy production in the system. In order to evaluate the research goals, IEEE 5-bus standard test system is selected as the case study, which is equipped with both conventional and clean energy resources. In addition, probabilistic behaviors related to energy demand and wind production have been considered. Results proved the effectiveness of this model in minimizing the energy cost of thermal units.

    Keywords: Short Term Optimal Scheduling, Wind-Hydro-Thermal Power Plants, Clean Energy Production, Competitive Energy Market, Transmission System, Uncertainty Modeling
  • Babak Zamanpoor, Ahmad Reza Eskandari* Pages 85-89

    In this work, Ultra Wide-Band (UWB) microwave filters are designed and fabricated using a rectangular ring resonator. The UWB microwave filters work in the 3.1GHz to 10.6GHz frequency band, which is designed to coverage the FCC frequency spectrum for UWB systems. These filters, in addition to being ultra-wideband, are designed to prevent interference in some frequency bands, such as WiMAX band (3.5GHz), WLAN band (5.2-5.8GHz) and satellite communication systems (8GHz) band.For this reason, in designing these filters intelligently, it is necessary to take precautions to ensure producingnarrow and precise notches in the frequency response to prevent interference. This broad bandwidth and narrownotches with adjusted evenor odd mode resonator frequencies, can becontrolledby varying the characteristic impedance of the rectangularring resonator. The proposed structures are simulated and optimized using HFSS software, so that the results of fabrication and measurement of these filters have anexcellentagreement with the simulation results.

    Keywords: Bandpass Filter, Ultra Wide-Band (UWB), RectangularRing Resonator, Notched-Band
  • Ali N. Hamoodi*, Bashar A. Hammad, Fawaz S. Abdullah Pages 91-95

    This article describes a workflow executed withMATLABsimulation and practical measurements for singlephase power transformer. In addition,no-load, short-circuit test and load test are achieved in this work. The test procedures are implemented on a realtransformer(terco–type) which has specificationsof(1KVA,220/110V, 50Hz). Finally, the simulation results are appeared proximatelysimilarfromthe practical results.

    Keywords: Single-Phase Transformer, No–Load Test, Short–Circuit Test, LoadTest, Transformer Efficiency
  • Beheshte Sadeghi Sabzevari*, Mohammad Haddad Zarif, Seyed Kamal Hosseini Sani Pages 97-105

    This paper is concerned witha controller design method for Networked Control Systems (NCSs) with time-varying random delays.The proposed controller isan event-based controller and isable to effectively save thenetwork bandwidth and energy resources of the system in comparison with common control schemes while guaranteeing the stability of the system. The proposed controller switches between two main triggering schemes: event-triggered control scheme and self-triggered control scheme.The stability issue in this combinatorial method is also considered.The validity of the proposed algorithm is confirmed via simulation results and the results are well compared with results from exerting event-triggered and self-triggered control individually.

    Keywords: Networked Control System, Random Delay, Event-Triggered Control, Self-Triggered Control, Bandwidth
  • Reza ahmani*, Seyed Hossein Hesamedin Sadeghi, Seyed Amir Hosseini Pages 107-118

    Distributed Generation(DG)is a common technology in today’s distribution networksdue to its exclusive benefits. However, DG units introduce a series of new issues to distribution network beside their benefits. Adding a DG unit to the network can change the direction and magnitude of the power flow and fault currents through branches. It may cause the failure of the original protection system or false tripping of some existing relays. In this paper, a new adaptiveapproach is introduced for classification of different DG topologies in distribution network using the existing setting groups in over current relays. This method determines those settings such that maximum number of the possible scenarios for different operations in distribution system are covered including grid-connected mode, autonomous mode, and DGs capacity changes. In order to verify the performance of the new method, two simulation studies are performed on 14-node and IEEE 33-node distribution network test systems.DIgSILENTsoftware has been employed to simulate the network in various operational modes.

    Keywords: Protection Coordination, Distribution Network, Distributed Generation (DG)
  • Mehran Emadi*, Mansour Jafar pour Pages 119-125

    Identification systems based on biometrics have been conventional more than traditional identification systems in the last two decades. Many biometrics have been provided such as fingerprint, palm, iris, the vein of palm and veins of fingerprint and such. One of the challenges discussed in biometrics is physical damages. The biometric of fingers knuckles is one of the biometrics less exposed to the physical damages. Several methods have been suggested for identification with various weak points such as high mathematical complications and a very low rate of identification. The present study suggests a new method for identification which is based on Zernike Moment. Zernike moment extracts the features of the picture several times. What distinguishes this algorithm from its counterparts is that it has got high accuracy in demarcating similar pictures of different classifications. In addition toits logical calculating complications, this method was able to record a very appropriate rate of identification facing some challenges such as noise, rotation, and transition.

    Keywords: Identification, Zernike, Moment, Finger Knuckles, Recognition Rate