فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:8 Issue: 4, 2019
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1398/09/10
  • تعداد عناوین: 6
  • Sayedeh Poorandokht Saadati * Pages 1-11
    Home attachment is a positive emotional bond between home and its dwellers which may result in safety, solace and tranquility for them. To create this kind of relationship, some physical and social prerequisites need to exist inside home. This article aims to answer the question whether house outdoor environment features are also effective in developing home attachment or not. Aiming to answer the question, it tries to survey features effective in creating home attachment in order to discover those related to house outdoor environment. It employs causal process method in which a logical causal link is made between linkable concepts in the research area. This causal relationship is discoursed by referring to related literature. Therefore, some outdoor prerequisites for home attachment can be revealed after going through some causal steps. This research has identified “residential satisfaction” as a preliminary step for creating home attachment. After establishing this causal relationship, efforts are made to discover some outdoor features effective in residential satisfaction by survey on literature of this area and coding proper concepts through content analysis. Based on this article findings, some outdoor features effective in developing residential satisfaction and also home attachment are: "exterior view of the house and neighboring buildings", "neighboring satisfaction", and "quality and good reputation of neighborhood". Lack of these features will result in decreasing residential satisfaction leading to a decrease in home attachment. Concentrating on these factors and presenting physical and social solutions to improve them can result in creating homes that may ease dwellers attachment.
    Keywords: Home Attachment, House Outdoor Environment Features, Residential satisfaction, Causal Process
  • Shirin Izadpanah * Pages 13-25
    From a general perspective, urbanism can be assumed as a bipolar world. On one hand, large-scale plans formulated by official organizations are shaping urban environment and the entirety of our cities; on the other hand, social activists and artists, active in the field of cities, are making an effort to give it a human character. According to De Certo (1984), the first approach to city, adopted by power structures, is composed of strategy, and the second approach, which is taking small-scale actions by ordinary citizens, artists and activists is made of tactic. One of the movement attempting to theorize these tactical actions is Situationist International. In spite of the philosophical and artistic essence, they were deeply interested in subjects related to the city and the everyday life of citizens. This paper aims to analyze the theories of this group and advancing their theory to the practice and supply practical instructions, utilizable in urban design discipline. For this purpose, it was necessary to use a qualitative method in which after spending a lot of time on studying their intellectual and philosophical products, we would be able to analyze and develop them to a theoretical framework utilizable in urban design field, both in scientific and professional approach. At the end of article, principles and indicators for the Situationist urban design will be provided and listed in ten categories.
    Keywords: SituationistInternational, UnitaryUrbanism, spectacle, EverydayLife, psycho-geography
  • Mostafa Akbari Motlaq * Pages 27-36

    By this time, there has been a trend in the direction of devolvement in governance and planning. This trend presents a role for inhabitants, a considerable lot of whom have found an opportunity to express their interests for self-assurance; struggling that current governance structures do not satisfactorily outfit their needs and interests. As planning is inseparably connected to power, this feature definitely helps encouraging or limiting the advancement of which governance shapes. In this manner, the heading of planning practice warrants genuine thought about power, policy and people. This paper disposes the historical positions of planning, in perspective of deciding how the discipline develops and influences by rationalities. The investigation follows the paradigmatic advancement of the discipline to review the regular planning speculations. Eminent perspectives are then investigated and lined up beside transformative planning theories with focus on social approach development. Finally, the study of transitions in both areas of paradigm and rationality, indicates that viewpoints are changing fast from rationalism toward value based humane normative approaches, quantity to quality, and determinism to intuition.

    Keywords: Urban, Planning, Paradigm, Rationality, Humanity
  • Javad Shekari Niri Pages 37-56

    Mithraism was a mystery religion centered on the god Mithras that was practiced in the ancient world including India, Iran, Anatolia, Etc. There is still much uncertainty about its nature and its origin, despite numerous documents such as the most ancient religious books of the world including the Avesta and Rig Veda, and the oldest inscriptions including: Boğazköyand Achaemenid inscriptions, and finding hundreds of temples in the territory of ancient Rome. One of the ambiguities is that how the temples of this religious tradition were built in Iran. The main question here is that “is there any possible similarities in Iranian temples to the European types or not?” To investigate the question, the plans and architectural spaces and components of the Mithra temples are compared using inductive methods and library studies in two civilizations that are altogether different in terms of their environmental and cultural conditions. The research hypothesis emphasizes the difference between the Roman Mithra temples and Iranian types. Despite that, they have a unique root; however, they have some imagined similarities. Finally, it was found, that different environmental conditions gave rise to a different understanding of religion, and so on. The main purpose of the article is to study and introduce several Iranian Mithra temples. The plan of the Roman temples is rectangular, but a study of the Iranian temples of Abāzar, Varjuvi, and Bādāmiyar (Qadamgāh) showed that the most of them had a dome-shaped space with a circular plan and their walls lacked paintings and sculptures. Nevertheless, as Herodotus has already described, the Qarashirān temple has square plan in the meantime; such Iranian temples lack authentic decorations inside and out. The results of the research show that what was depicted in the European Mithra temples, was performed during a special ceremony in Iran; a point that all artistic and written sources acknowledge.

    Keywords: Abāzar original Mithra temple, Varjuvi Mithra temple, tauroctony, Roman Mithraeums, Nerseh Mithraeum
  • Ilgar Ardabilchi, Leila Medghalchi * Pages 57-70
    In reviewing the case studies of traditional architectures according to Christopher Alexander’s theory on “the nature of order” and the fifteen fundamental properties introduced, it is important to note that the ontology of the theory is based on human’s indigenous feeling about architecture, which subsequently implies these kind of studies to be based on people’s cognitive images induced from architecture. In this regard, this paper has examined fifteen properties that make structures alive, in Ganjali-Khan square in Kerman. The presence of the fifteen properties of the living structures in the square and their mutual relations were studied along with the generalizability rate of alexander’s theory to the square, with a quantitative approach and a comparative study method, based on the formal and structural analysis.The purpose of this study is to evaluate the generalizability rate of this theory on the urban public space from the observers’ perspective present in the square to find out its life giving features leading it to eternality. The results show that the fifteen properties of the living structures are visible in the square. However, the feature of roughness is less visible, due to its restoration process. Hence, the Ganjali-Khan square is an urban public space in conformity with Alexander’s theory on the nature of order with all its structural and formal features and their mutual relations in the observer’s eyes; which make it consistent of the properties that define it as a high quality living structure.
    Keywords: nature of order, living structure, generalizability rate, Ganjali-Khan, Kerman
  • Gisoo Mahooti *, Manouchehr Tabibian Pages 71-82
    Today, the tourism industry, as one of the global leading industries and as a strong social, cultural and economic force, has the ability to form and transform human societies, and therefore the development of the tourism industry is particularly important. The purpose of this study was to identify and investigate the effective factors on the development of Bandar-e-Anzali Tourism Industry. The research method is a survey that the statistical population in the first part (Delphi analysis) consists of experts and in the second part (inferential statistics), all employees and managers in the private and governmental decision-making centers about the tourism industry in Bandar-e-Anzali (Cultural Heritage, Handicrafts and Tourism, municipalities, hotels and hospitality establishments). The sample size in the first part is 20, and in the second part is equal to 172 people. Due to the restriction of the census method, a quantitative research questionnaires were distributed and gathered randomly among the subjects. To analyze the findings, exploratory factor analysis, one-sample t-test and Friedman's rank test were used. The findings showed that five components (increasing the level of management decision making, strengthening cultural and educational issues, developing infrastructure facilities, increasing marketing and advertising, and increasing the participation of the private sector) contributed to develop Bandar-e-Anzali Tourism Industry.
    Keywords: Bandar-e-Anzali, Tourism, tourism development, Tourism Industry, Delphi method