فهرست مطالب

Immunoregulation - Volume:1 Issue: 2, 2018
  • Volume:1 Issue: 2, 2018
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1397/04/10
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
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  • Zuhair Mohammad Hassan *, Ameneh Sarraf Pages 61-66

    Over the past decade, it was widely accepted that some chemotherapeutic drugs can be combined with immunotherapeutic drugs in treatment of cancer. Chemotherapeutic drugs can induce apoptosis in the tumor cell and at the same time stimulate the immune response. Several reports support the use   immunomodulators in treatment of cancers through regulating the immune response and boosting the microenvironments toward T helper (Th1) cells. At the same time these molecule attach to transferrin-Fe2+ and circulate in the blood vessels until they find transferin receptors which are highly detected in tumor cells and induce apoptosis in tumor cells.

    Keywords: Immunotherapy, Cancer, Chemotherapy, Chemoimmunotherapy
  • Shaghayegh Pezeshki Naraghi, Seyed Mahmoud Hashemi * Pages 67-80

    Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory and demyelinating disease of the central nervous system that may lead to disability of the patient. Current MS treatment regimens are still insufficient and research is conducted for developing more effective therapies capable of targeting neurodegeneration, inflammation, and demyelination. Recent results of experimental and clinical studies in cell-based therapy suggest Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) as potential candidates in autoimmune disorders. Immunomodulatory and neuroprotective properties of mesenchymal stem cells might offer the valuable therapeutic potential to modulate inflammatory responses associated with MS and repairing damaged nervous tissue. This review summarizes the main experimental studies and clinical trials using MSCs in MS.

    Keywords: Mesenchymal stem cell, Multiple Sclerosis, Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, Immunomodulator
  • Parisa Rajabi, Amin Isanejad *, Ali Samadi, Hamid Amini Pages 81-86
    Background
    Ageing and physical inactivity can negatively affect immune system. On the contrary, a healthy lifestyle and physical activity can improve immune system and prevent from mild inflammatory diseases. Transforming Growth Factor-β (TGF-β) can play an important role in the regulation of immune function and inflammation. This study aimed to investigate the effects of 8 weeks of theraband resistance training on the plasma level of TGF-β in the elderly women.
    Materials and Methods
    Eighteen inactive elderly women were selected and randomly assigned to either theraband (n=10) and control (n=8) groups. The theraband group attended 24 exercise sessions conducted over an 8-week period (3 sessions/week). Exercise load was increased according to the color of theraband. The TGF-β level in plasma was measured by ELISA.
    Results
    Mean±SD plasma level of TGF-β in the theraband group (39.42±9.46) significantly decreased compared to that in the control group (64.26±21.39) (P=0.031).
    Conclusion
    The results showed that lower level of TGF-β and improvement of immune system following resistance training may (at least partially) protect the elderly women against infectious and inflammatory diseases.
    Keywords: Aging, Resistance training, Elastic bands, TGF-β, women
  • Zohre Farahnejad *, Ali Mohammad Mohseni Majd Pages 87-92
    Background
    Based on the reports, Aloe vera extract, a herbal medicine, has antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory effects. Also, this medicinal plant has considerable effects on innate immunity through cytokine secretion which resist fungal infections such as Candida albicans. Moreover, Aloe vera is considered as immunomodulatory agent and regulate inflammatory responses.
    Materials and Methods
    In this study, twenty Balb/c mice were divided into five groups: four groups of infected mice with Candida albicans treated with different doses of Aloe vera extract and one healthy control group. Then, macrophage vital activity was measured by NBT assay. Nitric Oxide (NO) production as representative of macrophage activity was assayed by MTT test. Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha (TNF-α) and Interleukin-12 (IL-12) cytokines were measured by ELISA assay.
    Results
    Based on our study results, macrophage vital activity and NO production decreased significantly. However, TNF-α and IL-12 cytokines increased significantly in mice model infected by Candida albicans.
    Conclusion
    Aloe vera extract could enhance macrophage activity through increase in TNF-α and IL-12 cytokines in Candida albicans infections. Therefore, Aloe vera could stimulate innate immune responses to eliminate Candida albicans.
    Keywords: Aloe vera, Macrophage activity, Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha (TNF-α), Interleukin 12 (IL-12)
  • MohammadMehdi Adibzadeh Seresgi, Susan Ardestani Kaboudanian, Soghrat Faghihzadeh, Tooba Ghazanfari * Pages 93-100
    Background

    Inflammatory responses in individuals exposed to sulfur mustard occur in some organs such as lung, skin and eyes. These organs manifest overreaction in cellular and humoral immune responses. Over a long period, the immune responses often continues toward chronic inflammatory processes with some interventions. Obviously some elements have been deregulated. Therefore, this study evaluated Vitamin D3 levels as a modulatory agent that could first regulate inflammatory interactions, then switch to suppress inflammatory mechanisms. Several studies showed that Vitamin D3 plays an undeniable role in suppressing inflammatory responses. In addition, some studies showed that calcium and phosphorus could play some role in inflammatory responses, too. Also, levels of serum calcium and phosphorus are associated with serum Vitamin D3 level, because it promotes absorption and reabsorption of calcium and phosphorus in intestine and kidney.

    Materials and Methods

    Levels of vitamin D3, calcium and phosphorus were measured by ELISA and spectrophotometric method, respectively. 114 exposed individuals as case group and 79 unexposed as control group were evaluated.

    Results

    The results showed that the level of serum Vitamin D3 is low in individuals exposed to sulfur mustard (P

    Conclusion

    According to our findings, chronic inflammation has correlation with status of serum Vitamin D3 deficiency in individuals exposed to sulfur mustard.

    Keywords: Vitamin D deficiency_Chronic inflammation_Sulfur Mustard_calcium_Phosphorus
  • Marjan Aghajani, MohammadReza Vaez Mahdavi *, Mohsen Khalili Najafabadi, Tooba Ghazanfari, Ehsan Kazemi Moghaddam Pages 101-106
    Background

    Social stress is a factor involved in the etiology of many diseases. Also, gender is another factor which predisposes individuals to certain disease. Results from animal and human studies suggest that socially-stressed men are more vulnerable to catching diseases compared to socially-stressed women.

    Materials and Methods

    The role of chronic social stress and gender were examined in the present study through implementing food deprivation, food intake inequality, and unstable social status (cage-mate change every three days) for a period of 14 days on 96 male and female mice. Then, vital activity of peritoneal macrophages and spleen’s lymphocytes were measured using MTT test as well as the concentration of Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha (TNF-α) by ELISA technique.

    Results

    Our results showed that cell viability of peritoneal macrophages and spleen’s lymphocytes as well as serum concentration of TNF-α in all female and male stressed animals increased compared to the controls (P

    Conclusion

    The results suggest that social factors have significant effects on immunity and should be considered in the studies of gender differences for evaluating possible effective mechanisms.

    Keywords: Food deprivation, Inequality, Peritoneal macrophages, Cellular immunity, Gender role, Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha (TNF-α)
  • Hossein Yousofi Darani, Fereshteh Jafaei Nodeh, Seyedeh Tala Ramazaninia, Seyedeh Maryam Sharafi * Pages 107-112
    Background
    Hydatid cyst is the larval stage of the tape worm parasite, Echinococcus granulosus. Human is infected by ingestion of parasite ova excreted in dog feces. The anticancer activity of different antigens of hydatid cyst has been reported in the previous works. In this research, the role of immune system in induction of this anticancer activity has been investigated.
    Materials and Methods
    Spleen cells of mice immunized with hydatid cyst antigens were transferred to the recipient mice that had already been challenged with melanoma cells. Also, mice with melanoma cancer were injected with antisera raised against hydatid cyst antigens. In all above mice, tumor growth was measured using a caliper.
    Results
    Passive transfer of spleen cells resulted in significant inhibition of melanoma cancer growth. However passive transfer of antisera did not affect cancer growth in the recipient mice.
    Conclusion
    According to the results of this work, cellular immunity but not humoral immunity may be involved in induction of anticancer activities of hydatid cyst.
    Keywords: Hydatid cyst, Cellular immunity, Humoral immunity, Melanoma
  • Vahide Lajevardi, Zahra Hallaji, Iraj Shekari, Zohre Khodashenas * Pages 113-117
    Background
    Cutaneous vasculitis is defined as the inflammation of blood vessels of the dermis. However cutaneous vasculitis is not a specific disease but a manifestation that can be seen in a variety of settings. We sought to review the clinical manifestations, laboratorial findings, pathological changes and etiologic association of cutaneous vasculitis in patients admitted to Dermatology Department of Razi Hospital from 1998 to 2011.
    Materials and Methods
    In this retrospective study, we enrolled all patients with records of histological diagnosis of vasculitis between 1998 and 2011 in Razi Hospital. Clinical presentation and inflammatory factors were evaluated, too.
    Results
    We studied 56 patients with cutaneous vasculitis. 35 (62.5%) patients were female and 20 (37.5%) were male. About 75% of patients had hypersensitivity vasculitis, 10.6% Henoch-Schonlein purpura, 9% urticarial vasculitis, and 5.4% polyarteritis nodosa.
    Conclusion
    It seems that hypersensitivity vasculitis is the most common form of cutaneous vasculitis. The main clinical manifestations of hypersensitivity vasculitis are skin and joint symptoms.
    Keywords: Cutaneous vasculitis, Laboratorial finding, Clinical manifestation