فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:28 Issue: 126, 2020
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1399/03/10
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
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  • Seyedeh Neda Mousavi, Fatemeh Hassani, Masoumeh Namadian* Pages 1-10
    Background & Objective

     Dietary patterns and the consumption of some macronutrients could influence hypertension as a public health problem. This study was conducted to identify dietary patterns and compare the intake of some micronutrients, as well as food groups, according to the Dietary Approach to Stop Hypertension (DASH) guidelines.

     Materials & Methods

     This cross-sectional study assessed the dietary patterns of 101 people with mild to moderate hypertension who were randomly selected among outpatients attending hospital clinics and health centres at Zanjan. Food intake data were collected using the food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and three-day food diaries. Factor analyses and binary logistic regression were used to identify dietary styles and the associations between types of dietary patterns and hypertension, adjusted for covariates.

    Results

     Two main dietary patterns were identified, including the DASH-style dietary pattern and the modern dietary pattern which contains high intakes of fast foods, junk foods, animal fat, organ meat, chicken, tea, and coffee. A greater odds ratio for hypertension (odds ratio: 3.95; 95% CI: 0.91-17.2) was found at the first quartile of the modern pattern compared to the last one, adjusted for confounding variables. Also, patients at the last quartile of the DASH-style pattern received significantly more sodium (P=0.02). Hypertensive patients consumed more sodium and less potassium, calcium, and magnesium than given in the DASH recommendations for both identified dietary patterns.

    Conclusion

     Two main dietary patterns were found in hypertensive patients. Considering both dietary patterns and micronutrient intake in prevention programs for hypertensive patients is suggested. Future research is recommended

    Keywords: Dietary Approach to Stop Hypertension (DASH), Hypertension, Magnesium, Potassium, Sodium
  • Mitra Samareh Fekri*, Ahmad Shafahee, Rostam Yazdani, Mehdi Hashemi Bajgani, Mohammad Naghavi, Mahnaz Sheykhshoaee Ekhtiarabadi Pages 11-16
    Background & Objective

     Anthracosis is a bronchoscopic finding characterized by the presence of black pigments in the bronchial mucosa. In this study we examined the relationship between anthracosis and pulmonary tuberculosis in a sample size much larger than previous studies in order to alleviate the ambiguities and controversy surrounding this issue.

     Materials & Methods

     This cross-sectional study was conducted from April 2010 to October 2016 on patients referred to the hospital for bronchoscopy due to any respiratory problem. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was sampled during bronchoscopy and the smears and cultures of tuberculosis mycobacterium acquired from the samples were examined.

    Results

     In this study, 2377 patients were studied. The patients aged between 30 and 96 years, and of all patients, 1397 individuals were male. The prevalence of pulmonary tuberculosis among patients with and without anthracosis was 9.24% and 3.07%, respectively (P<0.001). The frequency ratio of females with anthracosis in comparison with males with anthracosis showed that the prevalence of this disease among females is higher than in males (P<0.001).

    Conclusion

     Pulmonary tuberculosis and anthracosis are related to each other and there is a direct relationship between the prevalence of pulmonary anthracosis and age and the female sex.

    Keywords: Anthracosis, Bronchoalveolar lavage, Iran, Tuberculosis
  • Amir Sobhani Eraghi, Nima Hosseinzadeh* Pages 17-22

    Anterior interosseous nerve (AIN) palsy after proximal humeral fracture is very rare syndrome. This report presents a 21-year-old man with axillary nerve and AIN palsy following a proximal humeral fracture. The fracture was treated with open reduction and internal fixation, and nerve palsy was treated conservatively. At 6-month follow-up, proximal humeral and distal radius fractures had a complete union. There was no subluxation of the humeral head, due to complete deltoid muscle recovery. Range of motion of the shoulders was complete and symmetric. FPL, index FDP and deltoid muscles had full strength. EMG revealed complete recovery of the axillary nerve and AIN injury.

    Keywords: Anterior interosseous nerve palsy, Axillary nerve injury, Neuropraxia, Proximal humeral fracture
  • Nasim Ataei, Maliheh Soodi*, Homa Hajimehdipoor, Sholeh Akbari, Mahshid Alimohammadi Pages 23-32
    Background & Objective

     Beta-amyloid peptide (Aβ) causes neural cell death and has a pivotal role in the progression of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The prevention of Aβ-induced toxicity is a target for agents intend to treat Alzheimer’s disease. Our previous in vitro study indicated anti-cholinesterase and anti-oxidant activity of Amygdalus scoparia and Cerasus microcarpa methanolic extracts. In the present study, their neuroprotective effects against Aβ-induced toxicity are investigated.

     Materials & Methods

     The methanolic extracts of the aerial parts of A. scoparia and C. microcarpa were prepared by the maceration method. In the culture, mature cerebellar granule neurons (CGNs) were exposed to Aβ alone or in combination with different concentrations of extracts and incubated for 24 hours, and cell viability was measured by the MTT assay. Oxidative stress markers and AChE activity were also measured. Then, the AChE activity of cultured neurons was measured after incubation with different concentrations of extracts. The LD50 values of extracts were estimated using the limit test.

    Results

     The co-incubation of C. microcarpa and A. scoparia extracts with Aβ protected CGNs against Aβ-induced cell death and ameliorated Aβ-induced oxidative stress. The AChE activity of cultured neurons was inhibited by both extracts in a dose-dependent manner. LD50 was estimated as being above 2000 mg/kg for both extracts.

    Conclusion

     Both extracts attenuated Aβ-induced cell death by ameliorating oxidative stress. Also, the inhibitory effect of extracts on AChE activity might have been involved. Based on these results, these extracts may have therapeutic effects on Alzheimer’s disease.  However, further investigations are recommended.

    Keywords: Alzheimer, Oxidative stress, Acetylcholinesterase, Cerasus microcarpa, Amygdalus scoparia
  • Akefeh Ahmadiafshar, Abolfazl Ghoreishi*, Saman Afkhami Ardakani, Parisa Khoshnevis, Soghrat Faghihzadeh Pages 33-40
    Background & Objective

     Asthma is the most common inflammatory disorder of respiratory system.The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of asthma and association of asthma with anxiety among 13-14 year-old students in Zanjan.

    Materials & Methods

     In this cross sectional study 1500 students were randomly selected by cluster random sampling ; ISSAC questionnaire was filled by face to face interview and patients with asthma were recognized and their anxiety status was also measured using  Zung questionnaire.

    Results

     A total of 225 students (15%) had symptoms of mild to moderate asthma. The frequency of anxiety among students with and without asthma was 38.7% and 26.7% respectively. There was a significant correlation between asthma with anxiety (P=0.0001). The odds ratio for anxiety in asthmatic group was 1.73, CI95% (1.16- 2.58).

    Conclusion

     These results showed higher prevalence of asthma and anxiety inadolescents and significant  correlation between asthma and anxiety.

    Keywords: Adolescents, Anxiety, Asthma
  • Anahita Mansoori, Maryam Khosravi, Maryam Asadi* Pages 41-46
    Background & Objective

     Recent studies have shown the effect of meal timing on weight-loss diet success with controversial results. The current study evaluated the effect of evening meal timing on weight and body mass index (BMI) in overweight/obese subjects who were on a standard weight-loss diet.

    Materials & Methods

     A total of 70 obese/overweight employees of Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences took part in this randomized clinical trial (RCT). Participants were randomly assigned into a limited meal timing weight-loss (LMTWL) group with the last meal before 06:00 PM and a non-limited meal timing weight-loss (NLMTWL) group with the last meal before 12:00 AM. All participants followed a standard weight-loss diet as follows: 53% carbohydrate 30% fat and 17% protein. Weight and body mass index was measured at the run-in-period (2 weeks), baseline and the end of four weeks. Independent sample T-test was used to compare parametric continuous variables between the two groups.

    Results

     Of participants, 60% were female. However, there was no significant difference between the two groups based on sex. Also, age, height, physical activity level, BMI and energy intake was similar between the two groups. There were no differences in LMTWL and NLMTWL groups based on weight (P=0.89) and BMI (P=0.91) before and after four weeks of the intervention.

    Conclusion

     Meal timing did not influence the amount of weight lost by overweight/obese subjects on a weight-loss diet. However, more RCTs with larger samples and longer follow-up durations (with a focus on nutrient intake, circadian clock patterns, and the interaction between genotype and chronotype) are needed to confirm this finding.

    Keywords: Meal timing, Obesity, Overweight, Weight loss
  • Masoumeh Kourosharami*, Monireh Mohsenzadegan, Alireza Komaki Pages 47-53

    Physiological experiments show that mean blood pressure is controlled by the nervous system in long-term. The nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS), located in the dorsomedial medulla oblongata is extensively recognized as an essential brain area complicated in the integration of numerous viscerosensory processes, such as respiratory, cardiovascular, hepatic gustatory, and renal regulation mechanisms. NTS is a region of the brain stem in which primary baroreceptor afferents terminate and synapse with the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) via a nitric oxidergic pathway and hence is vital in the normal control of arterial pressure (AP). The NTS as a comparator evaluates the error signals between afferents of cardiovascular receptor and central neural structures and sends signals to nuclei that normalize the circulatory variables. Furthermore, during exercise, signals from the muscle receptors reach the NTS that activate sympathetic premotor neurons and thus cause pressor and tachycardiac responses. The GABAergic interneurons of NTS may contribute to baroreceptor reflex resetting by the inhibition of the barosensitive NTS neurons, thereby enhancing the sympathetic nerve activity. The basic functions of the NTS with respect to regulating the cardiovascular system are introduced in this review. Then, the potential mechanisms underlying cardiovascular regulation are discussed with a focus on NTS functions.

    Keywords: Cardiovascular system, GABA, Glutamate, Nitric oxide, Nucleus tractus solitarius
  • Mehdi Maghbooli*, Kasra Akbari, Nooshin Allamehzadeh, Alireza Jandaneh Pages 54-63
    Background & Objective

     Given the probable harmful effects of the electromagnetic fields of mobile phones, the present study investigated auditory brainstem response (ABR) and pure tone audiometry (PTA) modalities in mobile phone users.

    Materials & Methods

     This cross-sectional study was carried out on 96 healthy mobile phone users in Zanjan city. The subjects were evaluated for demographic information, average daily use of mobile phones, the total duration of use in years, the dominant ear of use, and neural and auditory complaints. Subsequently, ABR and PTA tests were conducted. Afterward, the data was analyzed using SPSS V.18 software and P<0.05 was considered as significant.

    Results

     Concerning the relevance of the average latencies of waves and average daily use of mobile phones, a significant correlation was found between mobile phone use and wave Ⅲ (P=0.04), and wave Ⅴ (P=0.03) latencies in the right ear. Furthermore, there was a significant difference in PTA results according to average daily use in the right ear (P=0.05) and the number of years of use (P=0.01) and preferred ear of use in the left ear (P=0.02). There was also a marginally statistically significant relationship (P=0.06) between the average daily use of mobile phones and decreased hearing threshold level in the 8000-Hz frequency in the right ear.

    Conclusion

     Given the effects of average daily use of mobile phones and total years of use, it is proposed that long-term mobile phone use exerts probable harmful effects on the auditory system.

    Keywords: Auditory brainstem response, Pure tone audiometry, Mobile phones