فهرست مطالب

Advanced Sport Technology - Volume:4 Issue: 1, 2020
  • Volume:4 Issue: 1, 2020
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1399/03/12
  • تعداد عناوین: 12
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  • Milad Alipour Sarinasirloo, Marefat Siahkouhian *, Amirali Jafarnezhadgero, AmirHossein Rahmanpour Pages 1-8

    Cryotherapy is one of the important factors in changing muscular function. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of using novel cryotherapy method on frequency spectrum of lower limb muscles during running and walking before and after muscular fatigue.This study was quasi-experimental. Ten male novice soccer players volunteered to participate in this study. A wireless electromyography system with 8 pairs of surface electrodes was used to record the electromyography activity before and after muscular fatigue in temperature of 8 and 11 º C during walking and running.  During walking, frequency spectrum of rectus femoris muscle after fatigue at 11 ° C was greater than before fatigue by 16.43% (p=0.047). Frequency spectrum of semi-tendentious muscle after fatigue at 11 ° C was higher than before fatigue by 38.11% (p=0.044). In addition, frequency spectrum of rectus femoris muscle after fatigue at 8 ° C was higher than before fatigue during running by 28.56% (p=0.031).Cryotherapy increased the frequency spectrum at 11 ° C in the semi-tendentious and rectus femoris muscles during walking and increased the frequency spectrum at 8 ° C in the rectus femoris muscle during running. It seems that using cryotherapy after fatigue may improve muscle function during different activities

    Keywords: Cooling, EMG, Running
  • Morteza Azimzade *, Farzad Nobakht, Zahra Aminiroshan, MohammadSaber Sotoode Pages 9-19

    In recent years, the web has emerged as an ideal media, that knowledge and information through which are effectively disseminated around the world. The purpose of this research is to study the websites of physical education and sports sciences with neuro marketing approach. The research method of this study was semi-empirical. The statistical population consisted of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad (FUM) students and other universities and educational institutions active in Mashhad that signed the consent form to participate in the study. Among selected individuals, 28 people were as research samples. In this research, Be Gaze software has been used to convert eye tracker data into quantitative data and to test the hypotheses of research we used repeated measure analysis and SPSS 21. The analysis showed that there was a significant difference between all areas in time of fixation at them; it also had significant differences between all areas in number of fixation, except the right menu and the header menu. FUM student did not affect the number and duration fixation of people at the affected areas, and FUM students were not biased toward their college. In relation to gender, the data showed that gender did not have a significant difference in the number of fixation, but gender was significantly different on the duration of fixation at all areas. In general, based on the areas of interest (AOI), FUM reach ranked among the other universities in a variety of factor and, in general, was better and more fully evaluated.

  • Mohammad Yousefi *, Saeed Ilbiegi, Seyed Ehsan Naghibi, Seyyed Abbas Farjad Pezeshk, Hamidreza Zanguee Pages 20-29

    Among the several postural alterations, the thoracic hyperkyphosis and lumbar hyperlordosis are the most common ones. Hyperkyphosis is defined as an outward curvature of the thoracic spine and hyperlordosis is defined as an inward curvature of the lumbar. There are many methods as invasive and non- invasive for calculating of spinal column abnormalities. The purpose of the present research was to study the reliability of the Body Landmark Analyzer (BLA) method for measuring of the thoracic kyphosis and lumbar lordosis curvatures of the spinal column. Seventeen healthy males participated in this study. Intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) two-way mixed model on absolute agreement was used to identify the inter/intra raters’ reliability and 95% confidence intervals. Considering the results of this research indicated high Intra-class correlation coefficients for the thoracic kyphosis and lumbar lordosis 0.87- 0.90 and 0.84- 0.88 respectively, therefore it can emphasized that BLA method has succeeded to make a high reliability for both of the thoracic kyphosis and lumbar lordosis curvatures of the spinal column. Based on the mentioned capabilities and reliability of this method, it can suggest along with other non-invasive methods for diagnosing of kyphosis and lordosis abnormalities.

    Keywords: Reliability, BLA system, Hyperkyphosis, Hyperlordosis
  • Hamidreza Rostami, Ahmad Hematfar *, MohammadAli Samavati Sharif Pages 29-36

    In this study, 48 male wistar rats approximately 12 weeks old with  240 ±10g weight are selected.(1st) 8 rats were randomly separated as control group and 40 rats in 5 equal group were gavaged with ethanol (5-7 g/kg weight of body) every 8 hours for 4 days. Six days after the final binge, (2nd) the rats were randomly divided into groups of alcohol with any intervention, exercise, curcumin, sham and exercise + curcumin. Endurance swimming training program was conducted for two weeks, daily and 20-60 min, equally in groups with exercise. There was daily intra-peritoneal injection of curcumin (50mg/kg weight of body), equally in groups with curcumin. Rats in sham group were injected with curcumin’s solvent (dimethyl sulfoxide). The data were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey's post hoc test at the significant level of p< 0.05. Plasma level of ALP enzyme (p=0.0001) significantly increased in the alcohol group compared to the control group. Also the result show that the was significantly decreased in training + curcumin group in comparison with curcuminand training groups. According the finding,alcohol abuse significantly increase Plasma level of  ALP enzyme. It seems that Short-term exercise with curcumin, caninhibit enzymthat enhanced by alcohol abuse.

    Keywords: Endurance swimming, Curcumin supplementation, Alkaline phosphatase, Ethanol abuse
  • Asgar Iranpour *, Bahloul Gorbanian, Lotfali Bolboli, Aydin Valizadehorang, Somaye Azarian Pages 37-51

    Cardiac autonomic function may have beneficial adaptive changes from performing regular aqua aerobic exercise. We examined the effects of regular aqua aerobic exercise on heart rate variability and blood pressure in college male students. One hundred forty-eight subjects were randomly assigned to the aqua aerobic exercise (n = 74) and control (n = 74) groups. The aqua aerobic exercise group received training (65 to 75% of heart rate reserve) for three weeks. Blood pressure and heart rate variability were measured before and after intervention protocol in study groups. Dependent and independent t-test was used to analyze within and between group differences. The correlation between blood pressure and heart rate variability was calculated via Pearson’s correlation. Within and between groups analysis showed significant effects on blood pressure and heart rate variability (p < 0.001) and sympathetic and parasympathetic ratio (p < 0.05) after performing regular aqua aerobic exercise. Also, after performing aqua aerobic exercise, the result showed a significant negative correlation between root mean square of the differences in successive R-R intervals (after r=-0.348, p≤0.003; before r=0.139, p≤0.23) and systolic blood pressure, positive correlation between very low frequency(after r=0.300, p≤0.010; before r=0.00, p≤0.99 ) and diastolic blood pressure, positive correlation between very low frequency (after r=0.269, p≤0.021; before r=-0.050, p≤0.67) and mean blood pressure and negative correlation between root mean square of the differences in successive R-R intervals (after r=-0.232, p≤0.048; before r=0.037, p≤0.75) and mean blood pressure. Performing the aqua aerobic exercise improved cardiac autonomic function and blood pressure levels in college male students. Also, blood pressure levels control due to aqua aerobic exercise associated with some of the heart rate variability parameters.

    Keywords: Blood Pressure, Cardiac Autonomic Function, Aqua Aerobic Exercise
  • Nasrin Azizian *, Mohammad Abdollahpour Darvishani, Amirali Jafarnezhadgero, Mahrokh Dehghani, Fahimeh Momenifar Pages 52-60

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of school sport spaces on electromyography activity of lower limb and erector spinae muscles during running in students.Fifteen students with an age range between 10 to 14 years from schools with suitable sport facilities and fifteen students with the same age range from schools with inappropriate sport spaces. A wireless electromyography system with 8 pairs of bipolar surface electrodes (sample rate: 2000 Hz) was used to record the electromyography activity of back and lower limb muscles during running. The results showed that during the loading response phase, median frequency of the tibialis anterior (p=0.005, d=1.27) and medial gastrocnemius (p=0.021, d=0.93) muscles in the suitable sport facilities group were higher than that the other group by 13.45% and 38.28%, respectively. Also, during the propulsion phase, median frequency of biceps femoris muscle in the suitable sport facilities group was higher than that the other group by 28.88% (p=0.002, d=1.37). In addition, during the loading response phase, amplitude of medial gastrocnemius (p=0.024, d=0.84) and erector spinae (p=0.014, d=0.85) muscles in the suitable sport facilities group were lower than other group by 35.55% and 43.29%, respectively. The results of this study showed that students in schools with suitable sport facilities have better performance of the lower limb and erector spinae muscles while running, which reduces the chance of injury during running.

    Keywords: Electromyography, Frequency spectrum, Students, Running
  • Jamshid Nouri Ghafar, Mahdi Majlesi *, Elaheh Azadian, Amir Fatollahi Pages 61-71

    Stair ascent and descent is a challenging task for people with sight loss. Identifying the effects of lack of visual input in people with sight loss while stair ascent and descent can be effective in planning rehabilitation program and improving locomotion pattern. The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the spatiotemporal variables in stair ascent and descent in people with sight loss and comparing them with people with full-sight. In this study, the spatiotemporal variables of stair ascent and descent in people with sight loss were measured using 3D motion analysis device Vicon with frequency of 100HZ. For within group analysis, repeated measure test and for that of between groups, independent sample t-test were used with level of significance of p<0.05. The spatial‐temporal gait parameters during stair ascent and descent were collected. The results showed that the people with sight loss had less speed, cadence and stride length comparing with people with full-sight (p<0.05). Moreover, stride and step time, single and double support time and stance time were significantly more in people with sight loss comparing with the people with full-sight (p<0.05). There was a significant difference in variables such as cadence and stance time between stair ascent and descent (p<0.05) and in both groups the mentioned difference was the same (p>0.05). Decreased speed and cadence and increased stance time represent motion deficiency in people with sight loss. Regarding the mentioned results, people with sight loss have cautious stair locomotion pattern and spatiotemporal variables in closed eye state in people with full-sight had weaker patterns comparing with people with loss sight.

    Keywords: Sight loss, Spatiotemporal variables, Stair ascent, descent, Open, closed eyes
  • Zahra Mehrpour, Shahabeddin Bagheri *, Amir Letafatkar, Hosein Mehrabian Pages 72-81

    One of the most common causes of shoulder problems in competitive swimmers is thought to be damage to the sub-acromial structures known as shoulder impingement syndrome. The present study aimed was to investigate the effect of a water-based training program on pain, range of motion, and joint position sense of the shoulder joint in elite female swimmers with shoulder impingement syndrome. Thirty elite female swimmers with an age range of aged 20-30 were randomly assigned to experimental or control groups. The experimental group performed a water-based training protocol, and the control group performed conventional swimming stretching exercises for eight-week. Pain, range of motion, and shoulder joint position sense were assessed before and after the intervention. The results showed a significant difference between the mean of variables in the two experimental and control groups before and after the exercise protocol (p˂ 0.001). The mean pain intensity in the experimental group decreased compared to pre-exercise, which was statistically significant (p˂ 0.001), and no significant statistical difference was observed in the control group. Besides, the range of motion, internal and external rotation, flexion, and abduction in the experimental group had increased compared to condition before the training, which was statistically significant (p˂ 0.001). In this section, no significant statistical difference was observed in the control group. The results also show a significant improvement in the joint position sense of in the experimental group compared to the control group (p˂ 0.001). According to the results, the eight-week program of water-based training was effective in improving pain, range of motion, and the joint position sense of women swimmers with shoulder impingement. This can be explained by the improvement of muscle imbalance between the dynamic stabilizers of the shoulder complex and maintain of the subacromial space in a way that prevents soft tissue impinge, reduces pain, and consequently increases range of motion and improve joint position sense in people with this complication.

    Keywords: Training, Swimming, Shoulder Impingement syndrome, Pain
  • Samane Nazarioloum, Yasin Hoseini*, Shahabeddin Bagheri Pages 82-92

    Ankle sprain is one of the most common injuries in different population. One way to treat ankle sprain is to use a Kinsio tape. Given the importance of the ground reaction forces, no research has been done on the effect of the kinesio tape on the components of the ground reaction force. Therefore, in this study, we intend to investigate the effect of Kinsio Tape on the components of ground reaction force. 10 females with ankle sprain participated in this study. Using a force plate (1000 Hz), the components of the ground reaction force were measured while walking in two conditions with and without tape. Then, the peak variables of the ground reaction forces, impulse, and loading rate were extracted. The repeated measure test with a significance level (P ≤0.05) was used for statistical analysis. The results showed that the use of kinesio tape significantly reduced the components of ground reaction force in the direction of Fz1(p = 0.01), Fx1 (p = 0.027) and Fy1 (p = 0.001), but in the other components there was no difference between the two conditions. According to the results of the present study, it seems that Kinesio Tape cannot provide sufficient mechanical support to improve the condition of the ankle, so the use of Kinesio Tape for treatment is ambiguous.

    Keywords: kinesio tape, walking, ground reaction force, ankle sprain
  • Shirin Yazdani*, Mohammadtaghi Aghdasi, Saba Mohammadalinezhad Pages 93-104

    Rhythmic auditory cue is one of the accepted techniques for the rehabilitation and improvement of motor control in the healthy elderly and who with movement disorders. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of auditory cue on the EMG activity of the elderly subjects during cycling. 10 healthy elderly males participated in this study. The EMG activity of rectus femoris (RF), biceps femoris (BF) and tibialis anterior (TA) muscles were recorded using an EMG-USB2+ multichannel system (Bioelettronica Italy) (sampling frequency of 1000 Hz) and bipolar surface electrodes. Using OT BioLab software the signals were processed and the RMS of signals was obtained. For the tests, the subjects were asked to pedal with preferred speed with and without rhythmic auditory cue. Each condition was repeated for three times, and each test lasts for one minute. There was 3-minutes rest between repetitions. Data was analyzed using SPSS software (version 24) and repeated measure analysis of variance and paired sample t-tests with significance level of 0.05. The results showed that, the normalized muscle activity in pedaling with auditory cue was significantly higher than that of pedaling without an auditory cue (P=0.05). During pedaling with auditory cue, the normalized EMG activity of right RF and left TA muscles were approximately 1.25 (p=0.03) and 1.22 (p=0.04) significantly greater than un-cued condition, respectively. In conclusion, rhythmic auditory cue increased the EMG activity of the lower extremity muscles among the elderly. So, in designing an appropriate training and rehabilitation program for the lower extremity muscles in the elderly, the use of auditory cue while pedaling as an easy and low-cost training method can be recommended.

    Keywords: cycling, auditory cue, electromyography, elderly
  • Motahhareh Borsalani *, Mohammad Reza Batavani, Mohsen Ghofrani, MojtabaBabaei Pages 105-114

    Due to the increase in the rate of addiction among women; and the importance of the role of parenting and managing for women at home, the importance of health is felt in this stratum by the community and one of the most affecting factors on health is regular exercise. This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of the 8-weeks combined exercise with methadone on liver enzymes (including: ALT, AST, ALP) in withdrawal addiction females. This semi-experimental study was done at Zahedan addiction Camp on 43 available addicted women divided two groups of methadone (N: 20) and methadone with exercise (N: 23), randomly by the same variables such as age, type and duration of drug withdrawal and body mass index. Levels of liver enzymes were assessed by blood sampling before and after 8-weeks. To compares the means between two groups on the same continuous, independent t-test and to compare two means were from same group (pre test vs. post test) paired t-test via SPSS software version 24 were used. Statistical significant level P was taken to be less than 0.05 (P<0.05). Results showed that the levels of liver enzymes (ALT, AST, ALP) in both groups decreased; which one except ALP in methadone with combined exercise group (T=-1.701, P=0.117) all of them were significant (P<0.05). Also, independent t-test showed no significant difference between post-test’s levels of AST, ALT, ALP enzymes between methods (P>0.05). This was a good pilot study upon which it might want to use a more robust study by the bigger sample size to detect more and various findings and from the new technological aspects it suggests that combination exercise (aerobic + strength training) could be a new useful way to use with consuming methadone at withdrawal addiction females probably, too.

    Keywords: ALT, AST, ALP, Combined exercise, Withdrawal addiction females
  • Luke A. Bradford, Andrew C. Fry, Dimitrije Cabarkapa*, Michael T. Lane, Matthew J. Andre Pages 114-123

    Internal consistency can be defined as the reliability across similar items in a test. Considering the importance of power and velocity during resistance training, it is crucial to have accurate testing methods for quantifying these variables. With recent technological advancements, various devices are increasingly used to quantify barbell velocity and power in the weight room to better understand the exercises prescribed. The purpose of the study was to determine the internal consistency of a novel 3-D camera system and a commonly used tether-based dynamometer by comparing them to a laboratory-based linear position transducer. To assure a consistent stimulus, one weight-trained male (age = 28 yrs, height = 1.78 m, mass = 97.1 kg, 1RM squat = 226.8 kg) completed 10 sets of 1 repetition with maximal concentric acceleration at each prescribed load of 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, and 80% of his individual 1RM, for a total of 60 repetition trials. All devices used in this study collected the data simultaneously. All three methods of measurement exhibited strong correlations (r ≥ 0.80) while Cronbach alpha values for mean velocity, peak velocity, mean power, and peak power were 0.998, 0.995, 0.981, 0.951, respectively. Bland-Altman plots showed that all four variables were well within 95% limits of agreement. Based on our results, we can conclude that the use of a 3-D camera system or a tether-based external dynamometer provides measures of barbell velocities and powers consistent with laboratory-derived measures. These findings indicate strength and conditioning professionals can monitor resistance training with any of the systems used and achieve similarly consistent values.

    Keywords: Kinematics, Kinetics, Biomechanics, Technology, Lifting