فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:23 Issue: 5, 2020
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1399/03/18
  • تعداد عناوین: 11
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  • Ali Adib, Seyed Masoom Masoompour, Hossein Molavi Vardanjani*, Abdullah Gondomkar, Hossein Poustchi, Alireza Salehi, Farhad Islami, Reza Malekzadeh Pages 289-295
    Background

    Associations between hookah and opium use and an increased risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD) have been suggested in a few studies, but more research is needed on the nature of these associations. We aimed to investigate the association between hookah and opium use and the prevalence of IHD in a population with relatively high prevalence of these exposures in Iran.

    Methods

    Using baseline data from the Pars Cohort Study (PCS), a prospective study of individuals aged 40-75 years in Fars province, southern Iran, we calculated adjusted and crude odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the independent association of hookah and opium use with prevalence of IHD.

    Results

    Of 9248 participants, 10.2% (95% CI: 9.5, 10.9) had self-reported IHD. Prevalence of ever use of hookah and opium was 48.9% (95% CI: 44.6, 53.6) and 10.2% (95% CI: 8.3, 12.5) among those with IHD, and 37.0% (95% CI: 35.7, 38.3) and 8.1% (95% CI: 7.5, 8.7) among those without IHD, respectively. Adjusted OR for the association with prevalence of IHD was 1.26 (95% CI: 1.08, 1.46) for hookah use and 1.71 (95% CI: 1.30, 2.24) for opium abuse. No dose-response association was found between hookah and prevalence of IHD.

    Conclusion

    Hookah and opium abuse were associated with prevalent IHD in this study. Although more research is needed on these associations, particularly in prospective settings, reducing hookah and opium use could potentially reduce IHD risk.

    Keywords: Hookah smoking, Ischemic heart disease, Opium use
  • Shadi Kolahdoozan, Sadaf G. Sepanlou, Elaheh Shaker, Ameneh Shayanrad, Reza Malekzadeh, Shahin Merat*, Hossein Poustchi Pages 296-301
    Background

    It is increasingly common to collect and store specimens for future unspecified research. However, the effects of prolonged storage on the stability and quality of analytes in serum have not been well investigated. We aimed to determine whether the stability of liver enzymes extracted from frozen bio-samples stored at the baseline is affected by storage conditions.

    Methods

    A total of four liver enzymes in the sera of 400 patients were examined following storage. After deter-mining the baseline measurements, the serum of each patient was aliquoted and stored at −70°C for three and six months, as well as one, two, and five years after collecting the original sample. The percent change from baseline measurements was calculated both statistically and clinically. Linear models were also used to correct the results of the samples based on the time they were frozen.

    Results

    In almost all samples, liver enzymes were detectable until two years after the baseline, while in a signifi-cant proportion of samples, enzymes were not ultimately detectable five years after the baseline. Linear regression analysis on log-transformed levels of enzymes shows that the performance is acceptable until one year after the baseline. The performance of the prediction model declines substantially two and five years after the baseline, except for GGT.

    Conclusion

    Long-term storage of serum samples significantly decreases the concentration of the liver enzymes from the baseline, except for GGT. It is not recommended to store samples for more than two years, as liver en-zymes are not detectable afterwards

    Keywords: Enzymes, Liver, Storage, Temperature, Time
  • Seyed Mohammad Piri, Sahar Saeedi Moghaddam, Zahra Ghodsi*, Moein Yoosefi, Nazila Rezaei, Soheil Saadat, Anita Mansouri, Mahdi Sharif Alhoseini, Payman Salamati, Seyed Behzad Jazayeri, Alireza Khajavi, Maziar Moradi Lakeh, Ali H. Mokdad, Gerard O’Reilly, Vafa Rahimi Movaghar Pages 302-311
    Background

    Appendicitis is one of the most preventable causes of death worldwide. We aimed to determine the trend of mortality due to appendicitis by sex and age at national and provincial levels in Iran during 26 years.

    Methods

    Data were collected from Iran Death Registration System (DRS), cemetery databanks in Tehran and Esfahan, and the national population and housing censuses of Iran. The estimated population was determined for each group from 1990 to 2015 using a growth model. Incompleteness, misalignment, and misclassification in the DRS were addressed and multiple imputation methods were used for dealing with missing data. ICD-10 codes were converted to Global Burden of Disease (GBD) codes to allow comparison of the results with the GBD study. A Spatio-Temporal model and Gaussian Process Regression were used to predict the levels and trends in child and adult mortality rates, as well as cause fractions.

    Results

    From 1990 to 2015, 6,982 deaths due to appendicitis were estimated in Iran. The age-standardized mortality rate per 100 000 decreased from 0.72 (95% UI: 0.46–1.12) in 1990 to 0.11 (0.07–0.16) in 2015, a reduction of 84.72% over the course of 26 years. The male: female ratio was 1.13 during the 26 years of the study with an average annual percent change of -2.31% for women and -2.63% for men. Among men and women, appendicitis mortality rate had the highest magnitude of decline in the province of Zanjan and the lowest in the province of Hormozgan. In 1990, the lowest age-standardized appendicitis-related mortality was observed in both women and men in the province of Alborz and the highest mortality rate among men were observed in the province of Lorestan. In 2015, the lowest mortality rates in women and men were in the province of Tehran. The highest mortality rates in women were in Hormozgan, and in men were in Golestan province.

    Conclusion

    The mortality rate due to appendicitis has declined at national and provincial levels in Iran. Understanding the causes of differences across provinces and the trend over years can be useful in priority setting for policy makers to inform preventive actions to further decrease mortality from appendicitis.

    Keywords: Appendicitis, Iran, Mortality, Trend
  • Maryam Saboute, Javad Balasi, Saleheh Tajalli, Shaghayegh Heshmat, Nasrin Khalesi*, Leila Allahqoli Pages 312-318
    Background

    As there are different views on the effects of aminophylline on neonatal renal function, we intended to observe the effects of aminophylline on renal dysfunction in neonates with prenatal asphyxia.

    Methods

    This randomized trial was conducted in the Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital, Tehran, Iran, from June 2016 to May 2017, in neonates with moderate to severe asphyxia during birth. Fifty-six neonates were divided randomly into two groups. The intervention group received one dose of 5mg/kg slow intravenous aminophylline injection and the placebo group received 2 mL/kg of intravenous 10% solution of dextrose saline during the first hour of life. They were monitored and compared for renal functional indices, electrolytes, and complications of asphyxia during the three days of life.

    Results

    The mean of Cr (37.9 ± 8.8 vs 38.5 ± 9.4 and 20.8 ± 4.8 vs 30.1 ± 5.2 μmol/L), GFR (21.55 ± 4.7 vs 20.25 ± 4.4 and 30.8 ± 7.1 vs 20.1 ± 6.5 mL/minute/1.73 m2), Na (135.1 ± 12.4 vs134.5 ± 11.2 and 128.9 ± 11.5 vs 134.2 ± 10.9 mEq/L), and urine output (98.2 ± 25 vs 96.8 ± 23 and 148.7 ± 35 vs 108.8 ± 20 cc) were in the aminophylline treated and placebo group on the 1st and 3rd days, respectively. The mean difference of Cr (-9.3 (-8.9; -9.7) μmol/L); (P = 0.02), GFR (10.7 (10.1; 11.3) mL/minute/1.73 m2) (P = 0.009), Na (-5.3 (-5.9; -4.7) mEq/L) (P = 0.002), and urine volume (39.9 (24.9; 54.9) cc) (P = 0.001) presented statistically significant differences on the third day between the intervention and placebo group.

    Conclusion

    Aminophylline was effective in preventing renal dysfunction in neonates with asphyxia. Neonates who received aminophylline indicated a significant improvement in GFR and urine output on the first day of life.the formula is not displayed correctly!

    Keywords: Asphyxia, Aminophylline, Renal Function
  • Zohreh Mehrjoo, Kimia Kahrizi, Marzieh Mohseni, Mojdeh Akbari, Sanaz Arzhangi, Khadijeh Jalalvand, Hossein Najmabadi, Mohammad Farhadi, Mohammad Mohseni, Alimohamad Asghari, Saleh Mohebbi, Ahmad Daneshi* Pages 319-325
    Background

    Ménière’s disease (MD) is a common inner ear disorder which is characterized by recurrent attacks of vertigo, fluctuating sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL), tinnitus, and a sense of fullness in the affected ear. MD is a complex disorder; although six genes have been linked to familial autosomal dominant form of the disease, in many cases, the exact genetic etiology remains elusive.

    Methods

    To elucidate the genetic causes of MD in an Iranian family, we performed exome sequencing on all members of the family: consanguineous parents and four children (two affected and two unaffected). Variant filtering was completed using a customized workflow keeping variants based on segregation with MD in autosomal recessive (AR) inheritance pattern, minor allele frequency (MAF), and in-silico prediction of pathogenicity.

    Results

    Analysis revealed that in this family, 970 variants co-segregated with MD in AR pattern, out of which eight variants (one intergenic, four intronic, and three exonic) were extremely rare. The exonic variants included a synonymous substitution in USP3 gene, an in-frame deletion in ZBED2 gene, and a rare, highly conserved deleterious missense alteration in LSAMP gene.

    Conclusion

    The phenotype observed in the proband described here, i.e. vertigo, poor sense of smell, tinnitus, and borderline hearing ability, may originate from aberrant changes in the cerebellum and limbic system due to a deleterious mutation in the LSAMP gene; hence, LSAMP mutation is a possible candidate for the etiology of MD in this family.

    Keywords: Autosomal Recessive, Exome sequencing, Familial Ménière’s disease, Genetics
  • Elham Madreseh, Mahmood Mahmoudi, Mohssen Nassiri Toosi, Taban Baghfalaki, Hojjat Zeraati* Pages 326-334
    Background

    Liver transplantation is a standard treatment for patients with end-stage liver disease (ESLD). However, with increasing demand for this treatment and limited resources, it is available only to patients who are more likely to survive. The primary aim was to determine prognostic factors for survival.

    Methods

    We collected data from 597 adult patients with ESLD, who received a single organ and initial orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) in our center between 20 March 2008 and 20 March 2018. In this historical cohort study, univariate and multiple Cox model were used to determine prognostic factors of survival after transplantation.

    Results

    After a median follow-up of 825 (0–3889) days, 111 (19%) patients died. Survival rates were 88%, 85%, 82% and 79% at 90 days, 1 year, 3 years, and 5 years, respectively. Older patients (HR = 1.27; 95% CI: 1.01–1.59), presence of pre-OLT ascites (HR = 2.03; 95% CI: 1.16–3.57), pre-OLT hospitalization (HR = 1.88; 95% CI:1.02–3.46), longer operative time (HR = 1.006; 95% CI: 1.004–1.008), post-OLT dialysis (HR = 3.51; 95% CI: 2.07–5.94), cancer (HR = 2.69; 95% CI: 1.23–5.89) and AID (HR = 2.04; 95% CI: 1.17–3.56) as underlying disease versus hepatitis, and higher pre-OLT creatinine (HR = 1.67; 95% CI: 1.10–2.52) were associated with decreased survival.

    Conclusion

    In this center, not only are survival outcomes excellent, but also younger patients, cases with better pre-operative health conditions, and those without complications after OLT have superior survival.

    Keywords: Ascites, Dialysis, Hepatocellular carcinoma, Tehran Liver Transplant Center
  • Afshin Azimirad* Pages 335-337

    Cesarean section rates have risen significantly in some Middle Eastern countries like Iran, Turkey, and Egypt. Therefore, this review aims to investigate the cultural background for the high cesarean section rates in some Middle Eastern countries to provide the obstetricians and policymakers a better perspective on the crisis. Firstly, the dimensions of the current crisis in the Middle East are discussed. Then, three famous medieval authors are investigated; Ferdowsi (Shahnameh; the birth of Rostam, the Persian superhero, through the cesarean section), Abu Rayhan Biruni (The Remaining Signs of Past Centuries), and Ibn Abi al-Hadid. All these medieval sources try to teach how proud is the one who is born through a cesarean section, and thus a person born vaginally is of a lower rank and therefore less respected. Then, the influencing ancient resources dealing with this subject are reviewed: the birth of Asclepius, the Greek god of medicine, by his father Apollo through a section on the mother’s corpse, and Talmud of the Jews. In ancient times, a birth through the cesarean section was a pure birth, or a gift from gods and restricted to divinities. Hoping to gain a new and comprehensive understanding of this current crisis in the Middle East, the World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines on reducing the prevalence of cesarean section are subsequently introduced. The C-section prevalence has increased significantly in the Middle East; comprehensive national, regional, and international policies are highly demanded.

    Keywords: Cesarean Section, Iran, Maternal Mortality, Middle East, Obstetric Delivery, Prevalence
  • Leila Doshmangir, Esmaeil Moshiri*, Farshad Farzadfar Pages 338-352
    Objective

    To explore historically primary healthcare (PHC) development in Iran in the light of development plans before and after the Islamic Revolution. The results of this study can be used to outline the future of PHC in the Iranian health system.

    Methods

    We conducted a retrospective analysis of the PHC development in the Iranian health system using data from relevant published and unpublished policy documents. The literature was retrieved and reviewed on the basis of predetermined inclusion criteria with no language or date restriction. The data were integrated and analyzed using content analysis.

    Results

    During various upstream development plans, the attitude of the policy makers to PHC has been very different, resulting in fundamental differences in addressing such an important issue and the consequent outcomes. In the aftermath of Iran’s revolution, due to more understanding of PHC services importance and the principal slogans of the revolution to pay attention to villagers and vulnerable people, health policymakers paid more attention to PHC, which was not evident in previous periods.

    Conclusions

    Despite considerable achievements in PHC, the history of PHC in Iran indicates frequent changes in planning and health provision structure. This suggests that the challenges facing the health sector today, the evolving needs and demands of the people, and population changes necessitate reinforcement and reform in the structure of the current PHC network as the main mission of Iran’s Ministry of Health

    Keywords: Health reform, Iran, Policy plan, Primary healthcare, Public health
  • Negar Rezaei, Farshad Farzadfar* Pages 353-355
  • Mahdi Bijanzadeh*, Shahram Rajaei Behbahani Pages 356-358

    Double trisomy 48, XXY, +21 or Down-Klinefelter syndrome is a rare occurrence and presents clinical manifestation of trisomy 21 in early life and of Klinefelter syndrome after 10 months of age. The phenotypic and karyotyping characteristics of a 2-month-old boy were reported. He had mild clinical feature of Down syndrome and echocardiographic features of atrioventricular (AV) septal defects with severe pulmonary valve stenosis.

    Keywords: Down syndrome, Chromosome abnormalities, Congenital heart disease, Double aneuploidy, Klinefelter syndrome
  • Touraj Nayernouri* Pages 359-361