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هنرهای نمایشی و موسیقی - پیاپی 65 (بهار 1399)
  • پیاپی 65 (بهار 1399)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1399/03/01
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
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  • سپیده سامی، احمد الستی*، بهروز محمودی بختیاری صفحات 5-14
    با وجود گستردگی طیف معانی گفتمان در نظریه های مختلف ادبی و فرهنگی، منظور مورد نظر این مقاله، گفتمان از منظر میشل فوکو است که به مجموعه قواعد و ارزش های حاکم بر هر عصر که طی فرایند طرد و حذف حاکمیت یافته و حقیقی تلقی می شود، اطلاق می گردد. گفتمان در این مفهوم دربردارنده ی حذف ها و خشونت هایی است که از سوی ساختارهای قدرت اعمال شده و آن را مرزبندی می کنند. سینما به عنوان یکی از ابزراهای قدرت در القای گفتمان حاکم و روند انقیادسازی افراد نقش موثری داشته و با استفاده از مفاهیم خشونت آمیزی چون مونتاژ، نگاه خیره، مفهوم دوخت و به ویژه خاصیت آپاراتوسی، بیننده را به واقعی پنداشتن توهمات سینمایی وامی دارد. هدف از این پژوهش، بررسی چگونگی کاستن ابعاد مختلف خشونت در فیلم پنهان با استفاده از کمترین تکنیک های خشونت آمیز سینمایی است. از این رو با استفاده از روش تحلیلی- توصیفی و با تکیه بر مطالعات کتابخانه ای این نکته محرز شده است که فیلم پنهان، در پرداخت به خشونت روندی معکوس در پیش گرفته و این فرضیه را به اثبات رسانیده که با پرهیز از به کارگیری مفاهیم خشونت آمیز سینمایی تنها به نقد خشونت پرداخته است و خود حتی با نمایش صحنه های مختلف خشونت، فیلمی خشن محسوب نمی شود.
    کلیدواژگان: ساختار سینمایی، گفتمان فوکویی، مفهوم خشونت، فیلم پنهان
  • کژوان ضیاءالدینی* صفحات 15-24

    یکی از موضوعات موسیقی شناسی ایرانی، نسبت میان موسیقی قومی و موسیقی دستگاهی است. اعتقاد بر این است که میان این دو موسیقی، ارتباط وجود دارد. یکی از نمودهای این ارتباط، نسبت میان آواز بیات کرد موسیقی دستگاهی ایران و موسیقی قوم کرد است. موسیقی شناسان حوزه موسیقی دستگاهی بر ارتباط این دو تاکید دارند، در حالی که درون فرهنگ موسیقی کردی زمزمه های نفی چنین ارتباطی وجود دارد. با این وجود، هیچکدام از اینان نتوانسته اند شواهد قانع کننده ای بر مدعای خود بیاورند. در این پژوهش به چرایی ارتباط بیات کرد و موسیقی کردستان پرداخته می شود و با تکیه بر مطالعه تطبیقی بیات کرد و یکی از گونه های موسیقی کردستان به نام خرده بند «بهاره»، وجود نسبت خانوادگی و شباهت های ساختاری مدال در بیات کرد و موسیقی کردستان تبیین می شود. این پژوهش با تاثیرگیری از شیوه تحلیل مدال معرفی شده توسط استاد داریوش طلایی، ویژگی های مدال بهاره را تحلیل کرده، و سپس به مقایسه بهاره و بیات کرد، بر اساس سه محور اشل صوتی، نقش و فونکسیون درجات، و الگوهای رفتاری گردش نغمات و سیر ملودی، با استفاده از سنجه های مربوطه می پردازد. مطالعه تطبیقی نشان می دهد که این دو در واحدهای ساختاری فواصل و اشل صوتی، دانگ بندی، درجات دارای نقش و جاذبه، و الگوهای گردش نغمات مرتبط با پرورش جاذبه مدال، شباهت بنیادین و کلان دارند.

    کلیدواژگان: بیات کرد، بهاره، موسیقی دستگاهی، موسیقی ایرانی، موسیقی کردستان
  • سید حسین میثمی* صفحات 25-32
    موسیقی در پیشینه حیات عرفانی حکومت صفوی، به صفی الدین اردبیلی در دوران ایلخانی برمی گردد. در این پیشینه موسیقی به عنوان یک عامل مهم نقش بسیار ارزنده ای ایفاء کرده است. یکی از آثار مهم و غنی در این ارتباط، کتاب صفوه الصفا اثر ابن بزاز اردبیلی است که نویسنده به مناقب شیخ صفی الدین پرداخته است. هدف از این تحقیق درک عمیق تر پیشینه موسیقایی حیات عرفانی دوران صفوی است. روش تحقیق کیفی بر اساس تحلیل محتوا با مقایسه دیگر منابع است؛ مبحث سماع به سه نوع عام، خاص و اخص تقسیم می شده، هر سه نوع در عمل در خانقاه شیخ صفی رواج داشته، ولیکن با نوع عام آن رفتاری احتیاط آمیز می شده است. «گفته» در قوالی به معنای نوعی ضربی خوانی به عنوان یک واژه تخصصی در قوالی غزلیات عطار و مولوی مفهوم معناداری داشته است. با توجه به کاربرد اوزان عروضی مختلف، احتمالا سماع ها در ادوار ایقاعی مختلف اجرا می شده اند. با توجه به طولانی بودن زمان سماع ها که احتمالا ملودی های این غزل ها جنبه ی تکرارپذیری داشته، می توان حدس زد که تا حدی بداهه در اجرای آنها نقش داشته است. قوالان را می توان به سه مرتبه اجتماعی درباری، خانقاهی و مردمی تقسیم کرد. قوالان خانقاهی ظاهرا در نواختن نی و گویندگی نقش ایفاء می کردند.
    کلیدواژگان: صفوه الصفا، شیخ صفی، عرفان، سماع، قوال
  • نازنین هنرخواه، علی شیخ مهدی* صفحات 33-40

    گ‍ی‍ورگ وی‍ل‍ه‍ل‍م ف‍ری‍دری‍ش هگل فیلسوف آلمانی (1831-1770 میلادی) در کتاب پدیدارشناسی روح، بخشی را به دیالکتیک خدایگان و بنده اختصاص داده و به روابط قدرت بین دو فرد در کوچک ترین واحد تجمع انسانی در تاریخ تطور روح مطلق پرداخته بود که در قرن بیستم میلادی بر شکل گیری اندیشه های ژک لکان که از پیروان جدید زیگموند فروید در روان کاوی در آن هنگام بود، تاثیر گذاشت؛ به نحوی که او مفهوم میل به موضع مورد شناسایی (ابژه) در نزد فاعل شناسایی (سوژه) را با مفاهیم خدایگان و بنده مورد نظر هگل ترکیب کرد. بر این اساس، دیالکتیک قدرت در هر رابطه دو طرفه ای از جمله رابطه میان زن و مرد برقرار است. این پژوهش به طریق تفسیری -تحلیلی، روابط دیالکتیکی میان زوج های زن و مرد در فیلم گذشته (1392) ساخته اصغر فرهادی را به عنوان نمونه ای مطالعاتی از افراد طبقه متوسط جامعه ای چند ملیتی بررسی کرده است. جمع آوری اطلاعات با استفاده از منابع کتابخانه ای و مشاهده فیلم بوده و اطلاعات با رویکرد روان کاوانه تحلیل شده است. نتایج به دست آمده نشان می دهد که وضعیت قرارگیری شخصیت های زن و مرد در دو جایگاه خدایگانی یا بندگی در فیلم گذشته به جایگاه اجتماعی افراد وابسته است و پدیده مهاجرت بر جایگاه آنان در این دیالکتیک تاثیر به سزایی دارد.

    کلیدواژگان: خدایگان و بنده (1807)، فردریش هگل، زیگموند فروید، گذشته (1392)، اصغر فرهادی
  • پیام فروتن یکتا* صفحات 41-50
    در عرصه پژوهش تیاتر یونان، کمتر تحقیقی درباره چگونگی طراحی صحنه این آثار انجام شده است. با بررسی نمایشنامه های یونانی، مکان های اجرا، منابع موجود و کشفیات جدید باستان شناسی، می توان به نتایج مهمی در این زمینه دست یافت؛ نتایجی که چهره برخی از بزرگان تیاتر یونان را متحول می سازد. اگرچه بسیاری از محققان تیاتر، اشیل را تنها به عنوان یک تراژدی نویس می شناسند؛ اما او نوآوری های متعددی در اجرای نمایش های خود نیز داشته است. با بررسی نوآوری ها و دستور صحنه های نمایشنامه های اشیل، به یک پرسش بنیادین می رسیم. آیا نمی توان از او به عنوان یکی از نخستین طراحان صحنه تیاتر یاد کرد؟ در جایی که دستور صحنه های اشیل از پیچیدگی های صحنه پردازی های او پرده برمی دارند. این نوشتار تلاش دارد تا به واسطه پژوهش در نمایشنامه های اشیل و منابع پیرامون وی، به نقش او در ارتقای طراحی صحنه تیاتر پی ببرد. مقاله حاضر کوشش کرده تا ضمن تاکید بر اهمیت اشیل در عرصه نمایشنامه نویسی، چهره جدیدی از وی به نمایش بگذارد. چهره ای که نشان می دهد اشیل علاوه بر نگارش نمایشنامه، طراح صحنه چیره دستی نیز بوده و با این عرصه آشنایی کامل داشته است. در این پژوهش بنیادی با استفاده از منابع کتابخانه ای از روش تحلیلی و تاریخی استفاده شده است.
    کلیدواژگان: اشیل، طراحی صحنه، تئاتر یونان باستان، نقاشی صحنه، دستور صحنه، اجرا
  • هما رشیدیان دزفولی، ایلناز رهبر* صفحات 51-62

    تعامل و اشتراک فرهنگی میان دو کشور ایران و هند، در دوران صفوی و گورکانی بیشترین نمود را پیدا می کند و این ارتباط گسترده، سبب ایجاد بیشترین میزان تاثیرپذیری دو کشور از یکدیگر، خصوصا در زمینه ی موسیقی و نگارگری می شود. در این پژوهش تلاش شده است تا به خوانش و بررسی سازهای زه صدا در نگاره های هر دو دوران پرداخته شود. در واقع هدف از نگارش این مقاله، به دست آوردن اطلاعات کلی درخصوص سازهای زهی در نگاره های هر دو دوران و مشخص شدن شباهت ها و تفاوت های کلی آنها با یکدیگر است. در زمینه ی موسیقی، همانند نگارگری، دو فرهنگ صفوی و گورکانی بسیار متاثر از یکدیگر بوده اند و جدا از اشتراکات فراوانی که با یکدیگر داشته اند، تفاوت های بارزی نیز در میان موسیقی آنان به چشم می خورد. با مقایسه ی سازهای تصویر شده در نگاره ها مشخص می گردد که برخی از آنها در هر دو دوره مشترک هستند و تفاوت هایی در موارد جزیی مانند نوع مضراب و در موارد کلی مانند ساختار فیزیکی ساز، در میان آنها مشاهده می شود. همچنین تعدادی از سازها مخصوص به یکی از دوره ها است و سازی مشابه با آنها از نظر ساختاری در دوره ی دیگر وجود ندارد. روش تحقیق در پژوهش حاضر بر اساس هدف، بنیادی و از نظر روش و ماهیت تاریخی، توصیفی- تحلیلی و تطبیقی است.

    کلیدواژگان: دوره ی صفوی، دوره ی گورکانی، نگارگری، موسیقی، سازهای زهی
  • مهناز خطیبی*، مسعود دلخواه صفحات 63-70
    این پژوهش، جستاری در باب چگونگی شکل گیری صدای انسان، در ارتباط با نیروهای موثر بر حرکت های جسمانی است که با بهره گیری از دستاوردهای علوم مرتبط و نیز آموزه های تیاتری و مقایسه تطبیقی با تعدادی کتاب و سایت مراکز مطرح صدا در دنیا، فراهم آمده و در چند کارگاه ویژه، نتایج عینی دریافت ها مشاهده گردیده است؛ صدای بازیگر که ابزار حرفه ای او نیز هست، نیازمند تربیت و مراقبت است، اما نه به تنهایی، چرا که با دیگر عناصر حیاتی او، ارتباطی تنگاتنگ دارد؛ «حواس، افکار، بدن، صدا» ترکیبی چهارگانه می سازند که حذف هر بخش از این ترکیب و یا آشفتگی در کارکردشان، کار بازیگر را با مشکل روبرو خواهد ساخت؛ برآیند این کاوش، ضرورت بازنگری در این ارتباط جدایی ناپذیر میان بدن-گفتار است و نشان می دهد تمرین های نادرست در کلاس های عمومی «فن بیان» یا «صداسازی» چگونه سبب آسیب رساندن به اندام ظریف آوایی و روان هنرجویان می شوند؛ فرآیند "پرورش صدا" زمان بر، پایان ناپذیر و نیازمند آگاهی و شناخت دوطرفه ی بازیگر-مربی است؛ ضروری است درک شود، هر هنرجو براساس ویژگی های متفاوت شخصی، صدایی منحصر به فرد دارد و باید به جست و جوی تمرین هایی مناسب خود بپردازد تا برای دستیابی به توانایی خلق شخصیت های متفاوت، با پرهیز از صداسازی مصنوعی- ابتدا با شناخت وضعیت خود، سپس وضعیت نقش- صدای مناسب را در طول تمرین کشف و بازآفرینی نماید.
    کلیدواژگان: دینامیک درونی، صدا و بیان بازیگر، وحدت بدن و صدا، کشف صدا، دینامیک بازیگر
  • سید علیرضا س گلپایگانی*_منصور حسامی_فرشته حسینی شکیب صفحات 71-81

    الگوی «اسطوره ی یگانه» یا صورت تغییر یافته ی آن الگوی سفر قهرمان، الگویی بسیار شناخته شده میان نویسندگان و فیلم نامه نویسان است و بسیاری از آثار بزرگ جهان بر اساس این الگو نوشته شده یا بر آن منطبقند. این مقاله قصد دارد کمبودها و ناکاملی های الگوی جوزف کمپبل برای قهرمانان زن را مورد بررسی قرارداده و پس از بررسی مدل های مختلف سفر قهرمان زن، با معرفی الگوی «خودآگاهی در جنگل جهان زیرین» استس (1398) به تحلیل سفر قهرمان زن انیمیشن قلعه ی متحرک هاول (میازاکی-2004) بر اساس این الگو بپردازد. با مقایسه الگوی سفر قهرمان کمپبل و الگوی زن وحشی استس تلاش می شود به سوالات اصلی پژوهش درباره تفاوت های ظاهری و فراتر از آن تفاوت های معنایی و رویکردهای متمایز در جهان بینی دو الگو پاسخ داده شود. این پژوهش توصیفی-تحلیلی بوده و مشخص می کند که گرچه مسیر رشد قهرمان زن داستان، سوفی، در این انیمیشن با الگوی استس همخوانی دارد، میازاکی در روایت خود این الگو را برای قهرمان مرد تغییر داده و با عمیق تر کردن سفر قهرمان مرد و ترکیب آن با الگوی سفر قهرمان کمپبل، غنای کار را افزایش داده و در مقایسه با مدل های انیمیشن غربی، مدل متفاوت، پیچیده تر و جذاب تری هم از قهرمان زن و هم از قهرمان مرد برساخته است.

    کلیدواژگان: سفر قهرمان زن، خودآگاهی در جنگل جهان زیرین، قلعه ی متحرک هاول، هایائو میازاکی، کلاریسا پینکولا استس
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  • Sepideh Sami, Ahmad Alasti *, Behrooz Mahmoodi Bakhtiyari Pages 5-14
    The present study focuses on the characteristic of “violence” in Haneke’s Hidden based on Foucauldian discourse analysis. This concept is based on a set of core societal values and conventions, in a certain era, that prevail through omissions and exclusions exerted by the power structures that constantly constrain the discourses. Foucault's theories of power refer to a transformation of power during the 19th century in which power was transformed from physical violence and exertion onto a body into a psychological manipulation or power from within the body: violence that drives the individual to act willingly and voluntarily. This sense of power and violence can be traced in the cinema. According to the Foucauldian view of power tools, cinematography drastically imposes dominant discourses and subjugates the minds; cinema foists dramatized illusions as dominant meanings through the tricks such as montage, close-ups, assembly, and gaze, and apparatus characteristics of the cinema. The authors examine using a descriptive-analytical method and relying on library resources if Haneke’s Hidden is heavy on violence as the movie revolves around the problem of violence; and also, to what degree the minimal use of violence-bearing cinematographic techniques mitigates the intensity of violence reflected in Haneke’s Hidden. Foucault’s ideas of discourse, the association between science and power, and concepts of ideology and truth are revisited; the authors discuss the subjectivity of violence and the structural violence in cinema. Whether a picture is classified as violent in the cinema depends on the audience's perception and their notion of violence. The term "violent" is sometimes used to describe a variety of violent films as well as particular animated comedy programs for kids. The components of the concept of virtual violence, including cinematic behavior and stylistic domains, are defined. Subsequently, the concept of cinematic apparatus, namely the presentation of imaginary pictures as real, force the viewer to accept the delusion through the process of "sewing.” In addition, apparatus properties of cinematography and its aggressive nature, and how the assembly technique imposes films delusions on viewers are met later. Hidden is analyzed with the emphasis on the Paris massacre of pro-National Liberation Front Algerian demonstrators on October 17, 1961, French atrocities in occupied Algeria and normalization and internalization of segregation and racism discourses in then-French society. The movie involves the concept of "fear of others," the promotion of alienation, isolation, and a lack of dialogue, which are effective in inciting violence and are highlighted by the use of the concept of cut or transition. The message of Haneke’s Hidden is explained through xenophobia where authors also suggest that Haneke uses long shots, flashbacks and transition techniques, and abstracts the apparatus state of cinema, in both content and form, to keep the distance between viewers and the movie, and further alleviate aggressive implications of cinema. The authors conclude that Hidden perversely approaches the violence and criticizes the violence without incorporating concepts of the aggressive essence; the movie, therefore, is not deemed violent despite several graphic scenes. Haneke’s Hidden eloquently tells the horrific inside story of violence and discourse, marginalization and exclusion with minimal demonstration of structural violence.
    Keywords: Cinematic Structure, Foucault Discourse, Concept of Violence, Hidden Movie
  • Kajwan Ziaoddini * Pages 15-24

    Iranian music consists of two main ethnic and dastgahi music types. One issue in Iranian musicology is studying the relationship of these two music types. Literature concerning Iranian musicology emphasizes the content effect of these two on each other. It is also believed that there is a relationship between these two music types. One illustration of this is the relationship between Bayat-e-Kurd song in dastgahi music of Iran and music of Kurd ethnicity. Musicians in dastgahi music emphasize the relationship of it with ethnic Kurdistan music, believing that the most significant adoption of dastgahi music from Kurdistan music has manifested itself in the framework of Bayat-e-Kurd song. While, from within the culture of Kurdistan music, talks of denying such relationship from musicians and players are heard. Neither confirmers nor deniers of the relationship of Bayat-e-Kurd and ethnic Kurdistan music have not offered convincing evidences for their claims. The status of Bayat-e-Kurd in dastgahi music forum is not clear in a way that some identify it as a music mode and a “corner” in Shoor Dastgah. While, some suggest Bayat-e-Kurd as an independent song and a multimodal set like Afshari and Bayat-e-Tork. Studying contrast and complexity of fundamental layers of these two music types is a central research theme in Iranian musicology. Also, identifying structural similarity of them is one dimension of the relationship of ethnic and national culture, making the way for recognizing the roots of Iranian culture and identity. This study examines the reasons for the relationship of Bayat-e-Kurd and Kurdistan music. It also identifies the existence of a family relationship and structural similarity of modals in Bayat-e-Kurd and Kurdistan music, relying on the adoptive study of Bayat-e-Kurd and a type of Kurdistan music, named Xordeband-e-Bahâre. The more the study penetrates from the more objective and concrete melodic layers to the mental and abstract foundations of modal structure, the more common roots of ethnic and formal Iranian music will manifest. After identifying general features of bahâre in Kurdistan culture, first basic features of bahâre modal is analyzed based on two narrations from two indigenous credible narrators named Mohammad Bitan and Abdolah Golnaz under the influence of modal analysis method introduced by Master Dariush Talaei. Then, Bahare and Bayat-e-kord are compared using related measures based on three axis of acoustic module and distances of degrees, role and function of degrees and behavioral patterns of songs turn and melody trend and their similarities and differences are identified. Adoptive study shows that Bahare and Bayat-e-Kurd have common fundamental and structural features. Acoustic module of both includes two integrated tetra chords with distances of” three-fourth tone, three-fourth tone, whole tone” and “whole tone, semi tone, whole tone”. One leading tone and two types of stops- temporary and final- play a role in their modal relations and these functional notes have the same name in both. Also, developing gravity and the role of mentioned degrees follow the same three patterns of songs´ turn and melody trend. Commonality in these features show fundamental, structural, and structural relationship of these two music types.

    Keywords: Bayat-e-kord, bahare, Dastgahi music, Iranian Music, Kurdistan music
  • Seyed Hossein Meisami * Pages 25-32
    In the history of Sufism life in the Safavid government, music returns to Shaykh Safi al-Din Ardebili (650-735 lunar calendar) during the Ilkhani era. His life was spanned the reign of nine Ilkhani kings. He not only formed one of the Tasavof branches in Ilkhani era, but also played a significant role in the formation of the Safavid kingdom. He was the ancestor of Shah Esameel I (907-930 lunar calendar). The spiritual influence of this particular Tasavof branch can be traced back to the Safavid era. In this background of Sufism, performing music had a very valuable role as an important factor. One important and influential works is Safavata al-Safa by Darvish Tavakkoli ebn-e Esmaeel known as Ibn Bazaz Ardebili, written for Sheikh Safi. Among his description, the author describes the lives of other Sheikhs such as Sheikh Zahed Gilani (the master of Sheikh Safi) and Sheikh Sadr-e-din (who died in 794 lunar calendar, and was the son and heir of Sheikh Safi). This book includes 12 chapters and each chapter is divided into specific sections and each section, consists of stories. Among the stories of this book, there are some significant stories about music. The author not only describes various functional aspects of music in spiritual life, but also infers to the social situation of music of the era as well. This article aims to investigate the role of music in spiritual and social dimensions of the time. Other relevant library resources have been used to analyze its musical content. The applied resources emphasize more spiritual and social aspects; however there are three important musical elements in this work. First, the topic of Samaa, with a mainly philosophical discussion, is divided into three categories of: general, specific and very special types. Regarding the disagreements of the intellectual processes of the era, especially the general type, it can be implicitly perceived that Sheikh Safi and his son were cautious about their speech and behavior, although all three types were practiced in Sheikh Safi' Khanqah. The second one is Qawwali. Gofteh had a meaningful concept as a technical term in Qawwali of the Sufism poems of Attar and Molavi. The existance of different poetic meters provides this assumption that there have been many different Advar-e iqayi. Due to the long duration of the sound, the melodies of these Ghazals are likely to be repeatable; it can be perceived that they have been partially improvised in their performance. The third issue was Qawalan. The Qawalans could have been divided into three social groups: courtiers, Khanqahi, and folk. The first group had a higher social status, the second group was mostly active in Khanqahs and therefore it had a relative lower social status. The third group had a seemingly lower social dignity, was active in musical environment of society. The Qawalan of the Khanqahi apparently played a role in playing the Nay and the Guyandgi. It can be predicted that the conditional activity of singers and musicians in Safavid era depending on the following religious principles can be traced back to this background.
    Keywords: Safvat al-safa, Sheikh Safi, Erfan, Samâ, Qawwal
  • Nazanin Honarkhah, Ali Sheikhmehdi * Pages 33-40

    Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, the German philosopher (1770-1831) in his book:   Phenomenology of  the Spirit, (1807) devotes a section to the dialectics and the “master “and “slave” which  explores the power struggle between two individuals in the smallest unit of human accumulation in the history of spiritual evolution. Hegel has influenced the formation of the ideas of Jacques Lacan, a new follower of Sigmund Freud in psychoanalysis. Lacan introduced the notion of desire of a subject with an object and identification of concepts in regards to the “master” and “servant,” according with a combined view with Hegel. In other words, desire for confirmation that he/she should do with the same manner. Although that confirmation can be implemented only by a living creature, a power struggle starts between two people. This battle must continue close to death because the individual can prove that he/she is truly human if only they endanger their lives for confirmation, but this battle should end near one of the opponent's death since the confirmation can only be done by a living creature. The battle ends when one of the opponents walks away from the desire for confirmation, surrenders to the other, and confirms the conqueror as his/her "master" and becomes his/her "slave". The dialectic of “master” and “slave” are related to psychoanalysis by Karen Horney, Jacques Lacan, and other psychoanalysts. Thus, the relationship between man and woman are the relationship between “master” and “slave”. Therefore, the research issued in this paper analyzes the dialectical relations between the couples (male/female) in Asghar Farhadi's Le Passe (2013) movie, which is produced in France. This article through psychoanalytic signs has implied in characters' action and speech and with a reference to other psychoanalytic schools. Data gathering method in this research is based on observation of the film, in which its content is analyzed through using the interpretative method and psychoanalytical approach. Accordingly, the dialectic of power exists in every two-way relationship, including the relationship between man and woman. This research has, through interpretive-analytical research, examined the dialectical relationships between couples in Asghar Farhadi's other films, as an example of studies of middle-class multinational community. The results show that the position of male and female characters in the two “master” positions or “slave” in the previous film depends on the social status of individuals and the effect of migration on their position in this dialectic. This article opens a different path to Farhadi's films. The result of this research conveys that the position of male and female characters within the category of “master” and “slave” in this film is related to people's social status, and immigration has an enormous effect on people's position in dialectics. This research is conducted based on the relationships between the alleged film's characters as a reflection of real individuals in society and as an analysis of power relations between the individuals in European society.

    Keywords: Master, Slave(1807), Friedrich Hegel, Sigmund Freud, Le Passe (2013), Asghar Farhadi
  • Payam Foroutan Yekta * Pages 41-50
    If we consider the concept of ritual ceremonies and festivals throughout the history of theatre, the birth and core of all productions begins with ancient Greece and Aegean civilizations and the influential number of tragedies and comedies, such as the plays of Euripides, Aeschylus, Sophocles and Aristophanes and others, which have come to us from that time. There have been many continuous studies on Greek theater, ritual ceremonies, myths, Philosophy and so on; however previous studies focused more on the content, concepts, structures and philosophy of Greek plays while fewer studies have been conducted and focused on the modality of the scenic designs of these works. For example, construction of stage, styles of stage design, the painting of Pinakes (flats) and Priaktoi (Three dimensional volumes and prisms used on the stage), the most famous of stage designers and painter of scenes. Because of the nature of set designs and theatrical scenery which with the completion of each show is dismantled, there are limited written and visual resources and documentations in this field. However, by investigating the plays production venues, available limited resources and new discoveries of archeological sites, we can reach discern significant and relevant results in this regard. Aeschylus was considered as one of the greatest ancient Greek playwrights as a poet who according to many scholars was the first tragedy writer in the history of the theater. Many scholars of theater have known Aeschylus only as a tragedy writer even though he is credited with several innovations in regards to directing and dictating complete details in his plays. Increasing the number of actors from one person to two, reducing the importance of the singers’ presence in the plays and bringing up dialogs between actors are considered totally as Aeschylus’ innovations. However, by checking the scenes of his plays and paying attention to the fact that Aeschylus draws his own plays on stage, perhaps he could be considered one of the first scenic designers in theater history. Whereas in ancient Greece there was no scene designer and the artist was known as the scene painter. This study tries to explore Aeschylus’ role in the development and promotion of the ancient Greek theater design via review and research of his plays and written references around him and Greek theater; a known form of scenery that continued alongside the Classic and Hellenic architecture for centuries and its structures and systems continued up to the Renaissance and even centuries later. In this study, several articles and books written in this field have been applied and identify Aeschylus in the scenery of the Greek theater as one of the first scene writers for theater history, while studying the role of and attempting to emphasize his importance in regards to play writing and introducing a new face to his audiences. In this research, historical and analytical methods have been used to direct us to the magnificent of the Ancient Greeks and the continuous credit and influence that they continue to have on modern theatre.
    Keywords: Aeschylus, Scenic Design, Ancient Greek Theater, Scene Painting, Performance
  • Homa Rashidian Dezfooli, Ilnaz Rahbar * Pages 51-62

    Iran and India have had a long history of cultural relationship. This widespread association has influenced the culture and art of these two countries and this influence is most evident during the reigns of the Gurkani and Safavid kings. The interest of the Gurkani kings of India in Iranian art, as well as the weaknesses and inefficiency of the Safavid kings in supporting Iranian artists, led the Gurkani kings to associate Iranian art with indigenous Indian art, and to cultivate it widely in their land. In the field of music, as in painting, the two Safavid and Gurkani cultures were highly influenced by one another, and apart from the many commonalities they had with each other, there were obvious differences between their music and their instruments. These differences are visible in minor cases, such as the color and decoration of the instrument, and in general cases such as the physical structure. Regarding the differences in the physical structure of the instruments in the illustrations, most of which are found in stringed instruments, there may be such things as the shape of the body of the instrument, the size of the resonating bowl, the length and thickness of the neck, the number of pegs and strings and the presence or absence of plectrum in the player's hand. There are also a number of instruments in common in both periods, such as the harp and some of them are specific to one of the periods, however there are no similar instruments in terms of name and structure in the other periods such as the Indian Rudra Vina instrument. Various types of music, such as chamber music and naubat ensemble, are seen in the illustrations. They are present in a variety of scenes such as banquet, battle, hunting, court-related scenes, dervishes, and separately images (in Gurkani) and banquet, hunting, mourning, polo, public life, etc. (in the Safavid Era). Also, in these illustrations, depending on the type of music performed, there are instruments of four groups, chordophones, aerophones, membranophones and idiophones, which differ in the number and types of instruments depending on their performance in the illustrations. In this study, it has been attempted to investigate the illustrations containing musical instrument, which are the main source of this research. To get a comprehensive understanding of the music and string instruments common in each era, their physical structure, playing techniques, gender, and the position of the musicians in the illustrations. By comparing the illustrations of both eras, it can be concluded that the cultures of those two lands have had a considerable influence on one another. In fact, each of them, in an effort to preserve its originality and character, has been reared in a different culture, and the influence of Iranian culture on Indian culture is considerably greater. The research method in this study is based on purpose, fundamental and in terms of method and nature, historical, descriptive-analytical and comparative.

    Keywords: Safavid period, Gurkani Period, Painting, Music, Stringed Instruments
  • Mahnaz Khatibi *, Masoud Delkhah Pages 63-70
    In workshops and books on acting education, we have repeatedly faced the phrase “inner dynamics.” In Persian translations, the phrase has been perceived and translated as a combination of inner bodily forces which drive physical motions and/or emotions within us. This article is a query into how these forces may affect the actor’s voice. The actor’s voice, which also functions as his professional tool, is closely connected with other vital elements; senses, thoughts and body along with the voice form a quadruple combination. The absence of any of these elements or even their malfunction would result in an actor’s faulty performance. In this study, making use of the findings of other fields (including physics, music, physiology, neurology, sociology, complementary medicine, chemistry, nutrition, sports, and geography,…) on  how voice is formed and how internal and external factors may affect it, we are after a substantial reconsideration on how the inseparable body-speech relationship is perceived in order to serve as a stern warning against improper voice trainings which are performed as so-called “oratory” and adversely harm the delicate vocal organs as well as the trainee’s vulnerable spirit. Each individual actor, considering his physical and mental characteristics, possesses a unique voice, hence requires his own specific exercises in order to train his voice to achieve the capability to create diverse personas. The actor is to make an individual endeavor, under the guidance of a knowledgeable trainer, to figure and devise the types of practice, which suit his own conditions. According to the ancients, "sound" is the spirit level and, in modern languages, represents our thoughts, feelings, and emotions. For example, students at the Christian Lynchlt Center in Scotland, in the first step of their education, are advised to understand the "Psychophysiology" of their voices, because this understanding allows the ways of communication which have become ordinary and routine for them, to be fundamentally repaired and rebuilt - This branch of psychology examines the relationship that may exist between the behaviors, traits and psychological functions of individuals with physiological factors in the body. Since the sound is generated from a point within the body and is not a phenomenon that is readily observable, it is necessary to study what process is in progress in the relevant limb and how sound communication with them is. This is the first step. In many parts of the world, after basic knowledge, with the help of modern scientific achievements, with the help of physical exercises, students learn to concentrate on mental and physical abilities, develop respiratory skills and many other useful practices. The effects of the body and the sound of other factors should not be overlooked; the dynamics of the earth and energy centers in the body, the effects of climate, heat and cold, the place and community, and, in general, the impact of the environment on us and, accordingly, on the sound are obvious.
    Keywords: Inner Dynamics, Voice, Oratorical of Actor, Unity of Voice, Body, Voice Discovery, Actor Dynamics
  • Seyed Alireza S Golpayegani *_Mansour Hessami_Fatemeh Hosseini Shakib Pages 71-81

    Joseph Campbell's "monomyth" or its adaptation in Vogler's book The Writer's Journey is a common known framework of a hero's journey among all contemporary writers and screenwriters, and there are a great number of works which are written based on this structure and can be argued that the writer had, instinctively and unbeknownst to himself, followed this model. The purpose of this essay is to analyze and pinpoint the deficiencies and shortcomings of Campbell's monomyth in regard to the female heroin and her journey, explaining that according to female psychologists and feminist theorists how this structure ignores women and their quests for wholeness and growth, to introduce and study different theories regarding the "Heroin's Journey" and explore Clarissa Pincola Estes' "La Selva Subterránea: Initiation in the Underground Forest" theory in order to analyze Hayao Miyazaki's Howl's Moving Castle (2004) according to Estes' structure and insight. Following the comparison of Joseph Campbell's monomyth and Estes' wild woman archetype, this essay strives to answer questions about these theories superficial and semantic differences, the diversity between their distinct approaches in defining the world and women's role and position in these worlds. As this essay is a descriptive-analytical essay, it argues that Howl's Moving Castle heroine journey follows Estes' "La Selva Subterránea Initiation in the Underground Forest" theory. The heroine of the story, Sophie, goes through all the stages which consists of the bargain without knowing, the dismemberment, the wandering, finding love in the underworld, the harrowing of the soul, the realm of the wild woman, and the wild bride and bridegroom.  These stages are depicted in her transition from a dull and depressed girl with no desire to a wild woman who acknowledges her power and beauty, breaks her own and her friends’ curse, rescues the king and finally finds her true love. Miyazaki with his unique storytelling had moved beyond Estes' King's journey in her "La Selva Subterránea: Initiation in the Underground Forest" theory and changes the path of Howl or King of the underworld in Estes' theory. It is discussed that in his change of narrative during the adaptation process, from Dianna Wynne Jones novel to his animation script, Miyazaki has combined Estes' king's Journey with Joseph Campbell's monomyth and thus has enriched and deepened Howl's Journey. Miyazaki's Howl goes through the three main stages of the monomyth (the departure or separation, the initiation and the return), and with Sophie as the one who calls him to adventure, the one who is his mentor, ally, goddess, they put an end to an aimless war and find true love. Additionally, Howl returns with the elixir, and becomes the wild bridegroom, which is connected to Sophie’s journey. He is a groom that has followed his love and after enduring so much hardships and escaping from the clutches of the natural predator of the psyche has become a man worthy of his wild bride. Thus Miyazaki, creates a new narrative structure and tells a story which is more complicated than his western counterparts, with more powerful and deeper characters that transform and evolve in a different and more beautiful way.

    Keywords: The Heroin's Journey, Initiation in the Underground Forest, Howl's moving Castle, Hayao Miyazaki, Clarissa Pincola Estes