فهرست مطالب

پژوهشهای جغرافیای انسانی - پیاپی 111 (بهار 1399)
  • پیاپی 111 (بهار 1399)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1399/01/01
  • تعداد عناوین: 20
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  • کرامت ‏الله زیاری*، حسین رفیعی مهر، جواد زارعی صفحات 1-15

    درحال حاضر بخش قابل توجهی از دل‏ مشغولی‏ های مدیران اغلب جوامع انسانی را مدیریت مجموعه‏ های شهری و ارایه خدمات به ساکنان این مناطق تشکیل می‏دهد.به همین دلیل، توجه بسیاری از دانشمندان و صاحب‏ نظران به مفهوم کیفیت زندگی معطوف شد تا از این طریق تلاش‏ هایی در راستای ارتقای شرایط زندگی و بهبود بخشیدن به بعد کیفی زندگی بشر انجام گیرد.امروزه، در برنامه‏ ریزی شهری از جمله عوامل موثر، که باید در جهت اجرای عدالت اجتماعی و همراه عدالت فضایی رعایت کرد، توزیع مناسب خدمات شهری و استفاده صحیح از فضاهاست. مفهوم کیفیت زندگی در سال‏های اخیر با گسترش شهر و جمعیت شهری و به‏ تبع آن افزایش مشکلات متعدد در شهرها بسیار موردتوجه بوده است. در تحقیق حاضر تلاش شده تا کیفیت زندگی شهری با نگاهی به عدالت اجتماعی و مفهوم شهروندی بررسی شود. این تحقیق به‏ صورت تطبیقی بین دو منطقه 2 و 16 شهر تهران انجام پذیرفته است. نوع تحقیق کاربردی-‏توسعه ‏ای و روش بررسی آن توصیفی‏-تحلیلی است و شیوه گردآوری، اطلاعات و داده‏ های کتابخانه‏ ای و میدانی است. همچنین، با استفاده از روش پیمایشی از طریق پرسش‏نامه (براساس طیف لیکرت) به گردآوری اطلاعات درباره کیفیت زندگی از دیدگاه و منظر مردم اقدام شده است. در این پژوهش تعیین حجم نمونه براساس فرمول کوکران به ‏دست آمد.نتایج پژوهش، نمایانگر توزیع نامتعادل فرصت‏ها و امکانات شهری در این دو منطقه است. ازاین‏رو، در کنار شمال و جنوب جغرافیایی باعث ایجاد شمال و جنوب اجتماعی نیز شده است.

    کلیدواژگان: عدالت اجتماعی، کیفیت زندگی، شاخص‏های کیفیت زندگی شهری، مفهوم شهروندی، مناطق شهری تهران
  • سید مصطفی هاشمی*، عباس علی پور، محسن یوسفی فشکی، میر نجف موسوی صفحات 17-37

    استان قم،یکی از استان‏های کویری و بیابانی کشور، دارای منابع بالقوه برای توسعه گردشگری در نواحی کویری و بیابانی است. براین اساس، در مقاله حاضر به شناسایی، نحوه توزیع فضایی جاذبه‏ های گردشگری در مناطق کویری و بیابان یاستان قم،و اولویت ‏بندی این قابلیت‏ها برای توسعه این نوع از گردشگری پرداخته شده است. روش تحقیق توصیفی-تحلیلی و روش جمع ‏آوری اطلاعات کتابخانه‏ای و میدانی (پرسش‏نامه و مشاهده و بازدید میدانی) است. نتایج حاصل از مدل Getis-Ord نشان می دهد پراکنش فضایی جاذبه ‏های گردشگری کویر و بیابان در استان قم از الگوی خوشه‏ ای پیروی می‏کند و این خوشه ‏ها را می‏توان در سه ناحیه از استان مشاهده کرد: 1. حوالی اتوبان قم-تهران (به شعاع 10 کیلومتر)؛2. حوالی اتوبان قم-کاشان (به شعاع 10 کیلومتر)؛3. نواحی اطراف شهر قم (به شعاع 20 کیلومتر). همچنین،نتایج مدل الکتر نشان می‏ دهد در مقایسه نسبی قابلیت‏ های توسعه گردشگری در مناطق کویریو بیابانی استان قم، در اولویت یکم سه قابلیت قرار گرفته که عبارت‏اند از:«گردشگری علمی»، «امکان جذب سرمایه‏ های دولتی و بخش خصوصی در ارتباط با انواع توریسم» و «توان اکوتوریستی». در اولویت دوم، دو قابلیت با امتیاز یکسان قرار گرفته‏ اند که شامل «گردشگری ماجراجویانه» و «گردشگری ورزشی و برگزاری انواع مسابقات ورزشی» می‏شود. درنهایت،در اولویت سوم نیز سه قابلیت قرار دارد که عبارت‏اند از:«ایجاد زیرساخت‏ها و مجموعه‏ ای مناسب برای برگزاری برنامه‏ های فرهنگی و هنری»، «بازدید گردشگران از جاذبه‏ های این مناطق در قالب تورهای گردشگری» و در نهایت«احداث شهرک درمانی یا سلامت».

    کلیدواژگان: گردشگری کویر و بیابان، استان قم، الگوی توزیع فضایی، مدل الکتر
  • محمدرحیم رهنما، لیلی ابراهیمی* صفحات 39-54

    هدف از این مطالعه بررسی شاخص‏های رضایت شهروند و تاثیر رضایت بر رفتارهای مثبت شهروندی در شهر مشهد است. مطالعات نظری و همچنین تکمیل پرسش‏نامه به روش جمع ‏آوری اطلاعات و داده‏ های پژوهش بود. حجم نمونه برای تکمیل پرسش‏نامه برابر 450 نفر برآورد شد. نتایج آنالیز داده ‏ها برای وضعیت کیفیت ادراک‏شده نشان داد میانگین‏ های به‏ دست آمده برای هر یک از گویه‏ ها اختلاف معناداری را با سطح متوسط 3 نشان می‏دهد و در بیشتر موارد کمتر از سطح متوسط بوده است. بااین‏ حال، نتایج به‏ دست ‏آمده از آزمون مدل برای بررسی روابط متغیرها به این شرح بود که تاثیر کیفیت ادراک‏شده در رضایت شهروند با ضریب مسیر 43/0  مثبت بود. فرضیه تاثیر رضایت در دلبستگی شهری نیز با ضریب 68/0 به ‏عنوان بالاترین ضریب مسیر در بین ضرایب تایید شد. تاثیر منفی رضایت بر قصد ترک و دلبستگی بر قصد ترک به ‏ترتیب با ضرایب 3/0- و 28/0- تایید شد. همچنین، فرضیه ‏های تاثیر مثبت متغیر رضایت در گفتار مثبت (20/0) و متغیر دلبستگی در گفتار مثبت (33/0) تایید شد.

    کلیدواژگان: دلبستگی، رضایت، قصد ترک، کیفیت ادراک‏شده، گفتار مثبت
  • ثریا عزیزی، حمدالله سجاسی قیداری*، حمید شایان صفحات 55-74

    روستا کالبد زندگی است که روح پرهیاهوی انسان‏‏ها و طبیعت در آن دمیده می‏شود و فضایی همراه مبلمان زیبا آذین این کالبد است. مبلمان روستایی مناسب و کارآمد نه‏تنها موجب ارتقای کیفیت محیط روستایی، بلکه سبب پایدار‏سازی سکونتگاه ‏های روستایی می‏شود. هدف از پژوهش حاضر بررسی وضعیت مبلمان روستایی و اثرهای آن در افزایش کیفیت محیط کالبدی در سکونت گاه ‏های روستایی شهرستان شیروان است. پژوهش حاضر از نوع توصیفی- تحلیلی است که از طریق گردآوری اطلاعات کتابخانه ‏ای و میدانی انجام پذیرفته است. جامعه آماری پژوهش شامل همه خانوار روستایی دهستان زوارم شهرستان شیروان است که با استفاده از فرمول کوکران 258 خانوار با سطح خطای 06/0 به روش تصادفی ساده به ‏عنوان نمونه انتخاب شدند. ابزار اصلی پژوهش پرسش‏نامه‏ای است که روایی آن به‏ وسیله پانل تخصصی و پایایی نیز با استفاده از ضریب آلفای کرونباخ محاسبه شده است. تجزیه و تحلیل داده ‏ها نیز با استفاده از   SPSS انجام گرفته است. یافته ‏های پژوهش براساس آزمون خی‏د و نشان می‏دهد که در میان ابعاد کیفیت محیط کالبدی روستایی، ابعاد معنایی- ادراکی و در میان مبلمان‏ های روستایی، مبلمان زیرساختی در افزایش کیفیت محیط کالبدی بیشتر اثرگذار بوده است. همچنین، نتایج حاصل از همبستگی اسپیرمن و رگرسیون خطی ساده نشان داد ارتباط و اثرگذاری معنادار و قوی میان مبلمان روستایی و کیفیت محیط کالبدی به ‏شکل مستقیم وجود دارد. نتایج تحلیل مسیر نیز نشان داد که مبلمان زیرساختی با ضریب 607/0 بیشترین تاثیر کلی را در افزایش کیفیت محیط کالبدی داشته است.

    کلیدواژگان: توسعه روستایی، توسعه کالبدی، کیفیت محیط، مبلمان روستایی
  • نصراله مولائی هشجین*، مریم علینقی پور صفحات 75-87

    امروزه، تعیین و شناسایی سطوح توسعه‏ یافتگی اصلی مهم در تدوین سیاست‏ها و برنامه ‏های توسعه محسوب می‏شود و نتایج آن به‏ عنوان راهنمایی سودمند توسط سیاست‏ گذاران و برنامه‏ ریزان در جهت شناسایی محرو م‏ترین و توسعه یافته ‏ترین مناطق استفاده می‏گردد. در راستای این مهم، ارزیابی سطوح توسعه ‏یافتگی بخش‏های استان گیلان لازم و ضروری به ‏نظر می‏رسد. روش تحقیق توصیفی- تحلیلی و جامعه آماری همه بخش‏های استان گیلان (43 بخش) است که براساس 298 متغیر و 93 شاخص در پنج گروه شاخص ترکیبی (محیطی- اکولوژیک، اجتماعی- فرهنگی، اقتصادی، نهادی، و کالبدی) رتبه ‏بندی شده ‏اند. شاخص‏های مورد مطالعه با استفاده از آخرین داده ‏های موجود سرشماری نفوس و مسکن سال 1390 استان گیلان جمع ‏آوری، با روش تقسیم بر میانگین استاندارد، با بهره ‏گیری از مدل مولفه اصلی هم‏وزن، و سپس با استفاده از روش‏های تاکسنومی ‏عددی، تحلیل خوشه ‏ای، تحلیل سلسله‏ مراتبی، تاپسیس، موریس، و تحلیل شبکه رتبه‏ بندی شده ‏اند و با تحلیل نتایج بخش‏ های استان در پنج گروه توسعه ‏یافتگی بالا (10 بخش)، توسعه ‏یافتگی متوسط (7 بخش)، گذار به توسعه ‏یافتگی (8 بخش)، محروم (9 بخش)، و محرومیت شدید (9 بخش) سطح ‏بندی شده ‏اند و جایگاه هر یک از بخش‏ها در سطوح توسعه با بهره ‏گیری از سیستم اطلاعات جغرافیایی مشخص شده است. درنهایت، با مقایسه سطوح توسعه‏ یافتگی در سال‏های 1385 و 1390 نشان داده شده است در طی این دوره پنج ‏ساله از تعداد بخش‏های موجود در سطوح محرومیت شدید و محروم کاسته و به تعداد بخش‏های موجود در سطح بالای توسعه ‏یافتگی افزوده شده است.

    کلیدواژگان: استان گیلان توسعه روستایی، سطوح توسعه‏ یافتگی، تکنیک‏ های تصمیم ‏گیری چندمعیاره
  • مریم رضاپور، سید حسین بحرینی*، منوچهر طبیبیان صفحات 89-109

    بسط نظریه کنش ارتباطی دیدگاه ‏‏های نوینی را در برنامه ‏‏ریزی شهری پدید ‏آورده ‏است و تدوین شاخص ‏‏های کنش ارتباطی با رویکرد شهرسازی می‏‏تواند مبنایی برای برنامه‏‏ ریزان شهری باشد. باتوجه به ‏اینکه راه حصول پایداری توجه توامان به بعد اجتماعی درکنار ابعاد اقتصادی و محیطی و برقراری ارتباط متعادل میان آن‏‏هاست و با‏توجه به ‏اینکه پژوهشی با محتوای ارتباط بین کنش ارتباطی با پایداری شهری در کشور انجام‏ نگرفته ‏است، در این پژوهش سعی شده شاخص ‏‏های کنش ارتباطی و برقراری ارتباط میان مولفه‏‏ های کنش ارتباطی و پایداری شهری استخراج شود. در این راستا، فرضیات پژوهش تدوین ‏شد که بر وجود رابطه ‏‏ای معنادار بین کنش ارتباطی و پایداری شهری در شهر تهران به ‏‏عنوان نمونه موردی دلالت ‏دارد. این پژوهش از نوع توصیفی‏-‏ ‏تحلیلی است. چارچوب نظری این پژوهش براساس مطالعات اسنادی است. شناسایی شاخص‏‏های کنش ارتباطی در دو مرحله کتابخانه ‏‏ای و تحلیل کیفی با به ‏کارگیری فن دلفی فازی انجام ‏گرفته ‏است و بخش عملیاتی پژوهش با روش تحلیل کمی و براساس مطالعات میدانی انجام ‏شده ‏است و فرضیات تحقیق در نرم ‏‏افزار SPSS با به‏ کارگیری داده ‏‏های مربوط به 384 پرسش‏نامه آزمون ‏شده‏ است. طبق نتایج تحلیل کیفی، شاخص ‏‏های کنش ارتباطی در چهار گروه اصلی شامل حضور در فضای شهری، عقلانیت ارتباطی، نگرش انتقادی، و سرمایه اجتماعی تدوین ‏شد و نتایج تحلیل کمی نشان ‏داد تغییرات کنش ارتباطی در پایداری شهری و همه ابعاد آن تاثیر مستقیم و بسیار زیادی دارد و تقویت کنش ارتباطی می‏‏تواند به افزایش پایداری در شهر تهران منجر شود. نتایج به ‏‏دست‏‏ آمده می‏‏تواند به ‏‏عنوان چارچوبی مفهومی در طرح‏‏ها و برنامه ‏‏های شهری به‏‏ منظور ارزیابی و ارتقای کنش ارتباطی و به ‏دنبال آن پایداری شهری در‏ ‏اختیار پژوهشگران و برنامه‏‏ ریزان شهری قرار ‏گیرد.

    کلیدواژگان: پایداری شهری، تهران، جهان‏زیست، عقلانیت ارتباطی، کنش ارتباطی
  • علی شماعی*، عاطفه دانشور خرم، احمد روان بخش، مجید افسر صفحات 111-130

    تحلیل میزان و چگونگی آسیب ‏پذیری بافت ‏های قدیم شهری به برنامه ‏ریزان و مدیران شهری در تصمیم‏ گیری ‏های مناسب و انتخاب راه‏ حل‏های کنترل و مقابله با مخاطرات احتمالی کمک موثری می‏ کند. هدف از این پژوهش بررسی آسیب‏ پذیری بافت قدیم شهر کاشان در برابر زلزله و چگونگی توزیع شاخص ‏های آن است. شاخص‏های به‏ کارگرفته ‏شده در تحلیل مشتمل است بر: مساحت ‏‏‏قطعات زمین؛ نوع کاربری زمین؛ عرض معابر؛ نوع مصالح؛ تعداد طبقات؛ قدمت ابنیه؛ کیفیت ابنیه؛ دسترسی به فضای باز؛ فاصله از گسل؛ و مدیریت بحران. ماهیت پژوهش کاربردی و روش آن اکتشافی- تحلیلی است. جمع ‏آوری داده‏ ها و اطلاعات در مرحله اول به‏ صورت اسنادی و بررسی متون مختلف است و از روش میدانی به‏ ویژه مشاهده بهره گرفته شده است. برای تجزیه و تحلیل اطلاعات از مدل Fuzzy AHP، سیستم اطلاعات مکانی، و نرم ‏افزار Expert choice استفاده شده است. یافته‏‏ های پژوهش حاکی از آن است که از لحاظ آسیب ‏پذیری 11 درصد مساحت بافت شهر در طیف خیلی کم، 7درصد در طیف کم، 15 درصد در طیف متوسط، 22درصد در طیف بالا، و 45 درصد در طیف خیلی بالا قرار دارد. تمرکز فضایی آسیب‏ پذیری در بخش مرکزی بافت قدیم به ‏سبب مصالح کم‏ دوام، کیفیت نامطلوب ساخت، و قدمت زیاد ابنیه است. کمترین آسیب‏پذیری مربوط به جداره اصلی بافت به‏‏ویژه در بخش جنوب شرقی است. درمجموع، می‏توان نتیجه گرفت در بعد ارتقای کیفیت به‏ کارگیری اصل خطرپذیری مدیریت بحران و در بعد قدمت توسعه اقدامات بازآفرینی در ابعاد زیستی‏- کالبدی،ساخت اجتماعی بارویکرد ترکیبی، و مدیریت بحران می‏توان باعث کاهش آسیب‏پذیری بافت ‏های قدیمی شد.

    کلیدواژگان: آسیب ‏پذیری، بافت قدیمی، زلزله، شهر کاشان، مدیریت بحران
  • جمال الدین سهیلی*، سیما سمیعی فرد صفحات 131-146

    با شناخت مولفه ‏های تاثیرگذار در میزان افزایش تعاملات اجتماعی از دیدگاه صاحب ‏نظران و به‏ کارگیری آن در فضاهای معماری و شهرسازی می توان به دستاوردهای اجتماعی مهمی دست یافت؛ به ‏ویژه در حوزه سالمندان که به بازگشت دوباره در عرصه حضور در جامعه نیاز دارند. ضرورت این پژوهش تدوین مولفه‏ ها در هر یک ازآیتم‏های فعالیت، کالبد، و معنا براساس مدل حس مکان رلف‏- کانتر است و هدف پژوهش طبقه‏ بندی مولفه ‏های کیفی از دیدگاه سالمندان و شناخت تاثیرگذارترین مولفه است. نوآوری پژوهش در جمع‏ آوری کلی مولفه ‏ها و بررسی میدانی و تدوین اولویت مولفه‏ ها از نظر سالمندان است. روش تحقیق پیمایشی و روش استدلال استقرایی است. جمع ‏آوری اطلاعات به ‏صورت میدانی و تکمیل  28 پرسش‏نامه از مراکز روزانه سالمندان بوده است و ابزار تحلیل نرم‏ افزار اسپی اساس است. در پژوهش به این نتیجه می‏رسیم که در آیتم فعالیت تنوع فعالیتی و گروه ‏های سنی بیشترین ارزش را برای سالمندان دارد و باید در یک زمان تنوع فعالیتی متفاوتی را در فضا داشته باشیم تا سالمند باتوجه ‏به سلیقه خود به انتخاب فعالیت بپردازد. در آیتم کالبد عدم حضور در فضای بسته اشاره شده که باید سعی شود تا در طراحی فضا فضاهای باز به ‏صورت بصری و کالبدی برای سالمندان درنظر گرفته شود. در آیتم معنا انعطاف ‏پذیری فضا از اهمیت بیشتری برای سالمندان برخوردار است که به لحاظ شناخت از فضا بهتر است از فضاهای منعطف و چندمنظوره برای سالمندان استفاده شود.

    کلیدواژگان: تعاملات اجتماعی، سالمندان، فعالیت، کالبد، معنا
  • وحید بیگدلی راد*، شهرام ملکی صفحات 147-163

    یکی از مباحث مهم در ارتباط با سکونتگاه ‏های روستایی مقوله پایداری اجتماعی‏- اقتصادی است. این دو معیار، به‏ علت توجه بیشتر به مولفه ‏های پایداری محیطی، تا حد زیادی در سایه و سیطره آن قرار گرفته و کمتر به‏ طور مستقل بررسی شده ‏اند. ازاین‏ رو،نگارندگان در پژوهش حاضر کوشیده ‏اند معیارهای موثر بر پایداری اجتماعی و اقتصادی در مناطق روستایی را ارزیابی و رتبه ‏بندی کنند. بررسی‏ های انجام ‏گرفته بیانگر آن است که تاکنون تحقیق جامع و کاملی در این حوزه انجام نگرفته و فقط به گردآوری معیار‏ها و رتبه‏ بندی روستاها اکتفا شده است. این در حالی است که بدون توجه به میزان اهمیت و تاثیر آن بر پایداری امکان رسیدن به نتیجه مطلوب فراهم نخواهد شد. بنابراین، در تحقیق حاضر با بهره‏ گیری از طراحی ساختار سلسله ‏مراتبی به تحلیل و رتبه ‏بندی معیار‏ها از نظر میزان اهمیت پرداخته شده است. بر این اساس، با مرور منابع علمی معتبر داخلی و خارجی و همچنین مصاحبه با کارشناسان سازمان بنیاد مسکن انقلاب اسلامی، این معیارها شناسایی و دسته‏ بندی شد. به این ترتیب، ده زیرمعیار امنیت، ایمنی، آموزش، مشارکت، جمعیت، بهداشت، فراغت، مسئولیت ‏پذیری، رضایت از خدمات، و تعلق مکانی به ‏عنوان زیرمعیارهای پایداری اجتماعی و ده زیرمعیار نرخ بیکاری، بیمه کشاورزی، دسترسی به بازار، نوسان قیمت، بار تکفل، مکانیزاسیون، میانگین درآمد، سرانه دامی، تنوع اقتصادی، و سرمایه‏ گذاری نیز برای پایداری اقتصادی در مناطق روستایی ایران شناسایی شد. در ادامه و براساس آرای متخصصان و کارشناسان توسعه و برنامه‏ ریزی روستایی مشخص شد که میزان تاثیر معیارهای اجتماعی و اقتصادی بر پایداری سکونتگاه‏ های روستایی تقریبا یکسان است و تفاوت چندانی در میزان اهمیت آن‏ها وجود ندارد. از طرفی دیگر، زیرمعیارهای آموزش و نرخ بیکاری به‏ترتیب موثرترین زیرمعیارهای پایداری اجتماعی و پایداری اقتصادی در سکونتگاه ‏های روستایی کشورند.

    کلیدواژگان: پایداری اجتماعی، پایداری اقتصادی، توسعه پایدار روستایی، روستا، معیارهای موثر بر پایداری
  • مهدی نجاری*، محمد حسنی صفحات 165-180

    پژوهش حاضر با هدف تبیین نابرابری جغرافیایی فرصت‏های دسترسی به آموزش عالی بین شهرستان‏های استان آذربایجان غربی انجام گرفته است. تحقیق حاضر توصیفی‏-تحلیلی و جامعه آماری شهرستان‏های استان آذربایجان غربی است. نمونه‏ گیری به‏ صورت سرشماری بوده است. شیوه جمع ‏آوری آمار و اطلاعات به ‏صورت اسنادی و پیمایشی است. در تجزیه و تحلیل داده‏ ها از مدل‏های تاپسیس، ضریب پراکندگی، تحلیل رگرسیون، تحلیل مسیر،و شبکه‏ های عصبی استفاده شده است. نتایج رتبه‏ بندی مناطق با استفاده از تکنیک تاپسیس نشان می‏دهد که بین شهرستان ‏های استان نابرابری فرصت دسترسی به آموزش عالی وجود دارد و شهرستان ارومیه برخوردارترین و شهرستان چالدران محروم ‏ترین شهرستان استان آذربایجان غربی‏اند. مدل ضریب پراکندگی برای اندازه ‏گیری نابرابری نشان داد که بیشترین میزان نابرابری 75/0 در شاخص آموزشی و کمترین میزان نابرابری 46/0 در شاخص زمینه فردی و خانوادگی بوده است. براساس نتایج تحلیل مسیر شاخص آموزشی دارای بیشترین و شاخص توسعه ‏یافتگی جغرافیایی دارای کمترین تاثیرات مستقیم بر نابرابری فرصت‏های دسترسی به آموزش عالی هستند. نتایج پیش‏بینی با استفاده از شبکه عصبی نیز نشان می‏دهد شاخص‏ های آموزشی و شاخص‏های توسعه ‏یافتگی جغرافیایی به‏ ترتیب بیشترین و کمترین اهمیت را در پیش‏گویی نابرابری فرصت‏ های دسترسی به آموزش عالی بین شهرستان‏های استان آذربایجان غربی داشته ‏اند.نتایج مبین نیاز مناطق کمتر برخوردار از دسترسی به آموزش عالی به برنامه‏ ریزی و توجه ویژه سیاست‏گذاران این حوزه به این نابرابری‏ ها و عوامل موثر است.

    کلیدواژگان: آموزش عالی، شهرستان‏های استان آذربایجان غربی، فرصت دسترسی، نابرابری آموزشی، نابرابری جغرافیایی
  • زهره فنی*، جمیله توکلی نیا، مریم بیرانوندزاده صفحات 181-197

    بازآفرینی شهری پایدار فرایند توسعه ‏ای همه ‏جانبه در عرصه‏ های‏ اجتماعی، اقتصادی، محیطی، و کالبدی به ‏منظور ارتقای کیفیت زندگی در محدوده ‏ها و محله‏ های هدف در پیوند با کل شهر است. پژوهش حاضر به ‏منظور بررسی روابط علی میان مولفه‏ های بازآفرینی پایدار شهری در بافت ناکارآمد شهر خرم ‏آباد با روش توصیفی- پیمایشی تدوین شده است. جامعه آماری شامل شهروندان ساکن بافت است. ابزار مورد استفاده پرسش‏نامه محقق ساخته در طیف پنج ‏گزینه‏ ای لیکرت بود. در این پرسش‏نامه، پنج عامل از عوامل موثر در بازآفرینی پایدار شهری بافت ناکارآمد خرم ‏آباد (اجتماعی، اقتصادی، زیست ‏محیطی، کالبدی، و مدیریتی) بررسی شد. مطالعه عوامل اثرگذار در بافت ناکارآمد شهر خرم ‏آباد نشان می‏ دهد استقرار مراکز عمده اداری و درمانی، مذهبی، در محدوده بافت و وجود قلعه فلک‏ الافلاک به‏ عنوان یک اثر تاریخی قدرتمند و امام‏زاده زیدبن علی در درون بافت از عمده عوامل اثرگذار در روند پیشبرد بازآفرینی در بافت ناکارآمد شهر خرم‏ آباد است. به ‏منظور سنجش عوامل اثرگذار دربازآفرینی بافت ناکارآمد خرم ‏آباد از مدل معادلات ساختاری در قالب نرم ‏افزار AMOS استفاده شد. تجزیه و تحلیل داده ‏ها نشان داد.بین متغیرهای اجتماعی با میزان P Value، 0.00، متغیر کالبدی با میزان 0.04 و متغیر مدیریتی با میزان 0.00 با بازآفرینی بافت ناکارآمد شهر خرم ‏آباد ارتباط معنی‏ داری وجود دارد. نتایج آزمون فریدمن نشان داد عامل مدیریتی دارای بالاترین اثرگذاری در روند بازآفرینی بافت و عامل زیست‏ محیطی دارای کمترین اثرگذاری است.

    کلیدواژگان: بازآفرینی پایدار، تحلیل ساختاری، توسعه پایدار، شهر خرم‏ آباد
  • حیدر لطفی*، حسین موسی زاده صفحات 199-219

    رودخانه‏ های شهری یکی از عناصر طبیعی در شهرها هستند و قابلیت هر شهر برای ایجاد فضاهای پرجنب‏ وجوش و موفق نظیر پارک‏های شهری درنظر گرفته می‏شوند. امروزه، از رودخانه‏ ها به‏ منزله یک ظرفیت بالا برای توسعه و برنامه ‏ریزی شهری استفاده می‏شود.همچنین، رودخانه‏ ها، با ایجاد فرصت‏های تفریحی، نظیر پارک‏ها، مدیریت شهری را دررسیدن به ایجاد امنیت بیشتر در فضاهای غیرقابل ‏دفاع نزدیک می‏ کنند؛ شکل‏ گیری پارک ملت در کنار رودخانه النگدره در شهر گرگان یکی از این نمونه ‏هاست. در همین راستا، مقاله حاضر با هدف ارزیابی متغیرها و شاخص‏های امنیت و کیفیت زندگی شهروندان در اطراف رودخانه النگدره در کنار پارک ملت شهر گرگان انجام گرفته است. این پژوهش از نظر روش توصیفی-تحلیلی و نوع آن کاربردی است. جمع‏ آوری اطلاعات از طریق توزیع پرسش‏نامه در میان 384 نفر به ‏عنوان حجم نمونه انجام شد و با استفاده از آزمون‏ های آماری T تک‏ نمونه‏ ای به تجزیه و تحلیل پژوهش پرداخته شد. نتایج پژوهش بیانگر آن است که میانگین کلی امنیت در پارک موردبررسی 95/2 درصد است که نزدیک به حد متوسط قرار گرفته و شاخص‏های دسترسی فیزیکی، طراحی خوانا، روشنایی، امنیت فیزیکی، احساس امنیت، و آسایش محیطی در بعد آلودگی محیطی (ایمنی، بهداشتی) با میانگین‏های 41/3، 07/3، 89/2، 85/2، 83/2، و 64/2 به ‏ترتیب در وضعیت متوسط رو به پایینی قرار گرفته ‏اند. در پایان نیز، باتوجه‏ به یافته‏ های پژوهش، پیشنهادهایی برای بهبود وضعیت کیفیت زندگی و امنیت شهروندان در اطراف منطقه مورد پژوهش ارایه شده است.

    کلیدواژگان: امنیت، باززنده ‏سازی، رودخانه النگدره، رودخانه‏ های شهری، شهر گرگان، کیفیت زندگی
  • سعدی محمدی*، سوران منوچهری، عبدالرحمان احمدی صفحات 221-239

    مشارکت رسمی زنان در فعالیت ‏های اقتصادی می‏تواند زمینه‏ ساز دست‏یابی به نشاط در میان زنان روستایی باشد و محیطی بانشاط در روستاها شکل دهد. در راستای بررسی این امر، پژوهش حاضر در بخش روستایی خاوومیرآباد شهرستان مریوان، که در چندساله اخیر زنان در فعالیت ‏های اقتصاد روستایی آن نقش پررنگی داشته‏ اند، انجام گرفت. پژوهش، از لحاظ هدف، کاربردی است و گردآوری اطلاعات در بخش نظری با استفاده از منابع اسنادی و در بخش میدانی از طریق توزیع پرسش‏نامه در میان زنان فعال در اقتصاد روستایی بخش خاوومیرآباد بوده است.نخست، به روش هدفمند، تعداد کل جامعه (563 زن فعال در عرصه اقتصاد روستایی) و روستاهای نمونه (18 روستا) شناسایی و سپس با بهره‏ گیری از فرمول کوکران 200 پرسش‏نامه در میان زنان روستایی به روش قرعه ‏کشی و در روستاهای نمونه به روش طبقه ‏بندی توزیع شد. تجزیه و تحلیل داده ‏های گردآوری‏ شده با استفاده از آزمون‏ های ویلکاکسون، T دونمونه ‏ای، T مستقل، و رگرسیون نشان داد تفاوت معنی‏ داری میان میزان نشاط زنان روستایی در دوره بعد از مشارکت در فعالیت‏ های رسمی اقتصادی با میانگین 55/3 نسبت به دوره قبل از آن با میانگین 89/2 و بین سطح نشاط زنان روستایی دارای فعالیت اقتصادی با میانگین 55/3 با زنان روستایی فاقد آن با میانگین 96/2 وجود دارد. همچنین، متغیرهای میزان درآمد حاصله با مقدار بتای 414/0، مدت زمان اشتغال در فعالیت اقتصادی با مقدار بتای 272/0، و تعداد زنان مشغول به فعالیت اقتصادی در روستاها با بتای 327/0 مهم‏ترین متغیرهایی بودند که، در ارتباطی مستقیم و معنی‏ دار، توانایی تبیین میزان نشاط زنان روستایی به‏ واسطه حضور در فعالیت های اقتصادی را داشتند.

    کلیدواژگان: بخش خاوومیرآباد، بهزیستی ذهنی، زنان روستایی، نشاط
  • پگاه ایزدی*، زهره هادیانی، علی حاجی نژاد، جعفر قادری صفحات 241-261

    سیستم مدیریت شهری زمانی موفق است که نهادهای مدیریتی آن هم در بین واحدهای مستقل خود هم در بین نهادهای مدیریتی دیگر هماهنگی برقرار کند. در این راستا، رویکرد هم افزایی به عنوان یکی از نتایج مدیریت یک پارچه مطرح می شود. هدف از این پژوهش بررسی نقش هم افزایی میان نهادی در نهادهای متولی بازآفرینی منطقه 8 شیراز است تا اولا شناخت صحیحی از وضعیت مناسبات نهادهای ذی ربط با یکدیگر حاصل شود و همچنین مشکلات و مسایل هم افزایی نهادهای متولی بررسی شود. روش پژوهش توصیفی - تحلیلی است و، به منظور تحلیل داده ‏های حاصل از پرسش نامه و نیز مصاحبه، از روش کمی تحلیل شبکه و نیز تحلیل محتوای کیفی استفاده شده است. نتیجه تحقیق نشان می‏دهد شاخص‏های کلان شبکه در هر سه شاخص هم‏افزایی شامل مشارکت، اعتماد، و اطلاع‏رسانی دچار ضعف اند. بر این اساس، شاخص تراکم در سه شبکه مشارکت، اعتماد، و اطلاع رسانی به ترتیب 7/32، 41، و 2/28 درصد است که در هر سه شبکه کمتر از میانگین 50 درصد بوده است. میزان شاخص دوسویگی نیز بیانگر سطح پایداری کمتر از 50 درصد در اغلب نهادهای ذی ربط بازآفرینی است. شاخص انتقال‏ یافتگی به ترتیب با میزان 22/22، 36/25، و 85/17درصد در سه شبکه مذکور بیانگر عدم نهادینه شدن روابط در شبکه کلان است. همچنین، باتوجه به وجود رابطه معنی دار (Sig< 0.00) بین سه شاخص هم ‏افزایی (مشارکت به عنوان متغیر وابسته و اعتماد و اطلاع رسانی به عنوان متغیرهای مستقل) این نتیجه حاصل می‏آید که ایجاد مشارکت موثر بین نهادهای بازآفرینی نیازمند بهبود سازوکارهای اطلاع رسانی و نیز اعتماد است.

    کلیدواژگان: بازآفرینی، تحلیل شبکه، مدیریت شهری، میان نهادی، هم افزایی
  • کاظم برهانی*، صدرالله گودرزی، شیوا اسمعیلی صفحات 263-281

    امروزه،شهرها با ساخت ‏و سازهای به ‏هم ‏فشرده و وجود انواع فعالیت‏ ها به ‏ویژه در بخش مرکزی کاملا بر اقلیم خود و پیرامون اثر گذاشته‏ اند و به افزایش حرارت شهری و ایجاد جزایر گرمایی منجر شده اند که دارای آثار سوء بر زیست شهری است. در مقابله با مضرات جزایر گرمایی شهری، استراتژی‏ های کاهش اثر و سازگاری توسط مطالعات پیشنهاد شده است. امکان اجرای هر یک از این استراتژی‏ها در شهرهای مختلف جهان، باتوجه ‏به امکانات و ظرفیت ‏های موجود آن‏ها، متفاوت است که مطالعه امکان‏ سنجی مسیر مشخصی را برای مدیریت شهری برای مقابله با جزایر گرمایی مشخص می‏کند. هدف از این پژوهش امکان‏ سنجی اجرای استراتژی‏های کاهش اثر و سازگاری در کلان‏ شهر تهران است. روش تحقیق در این مقاله توصیفی-تحلیلی و از لحاظ ماهیت کاربردی است و جامعه آماری این تحقیق متخصصان شهری بوده‏ و روش جمع ‏آوری داده ‏ها پرسش‏نامه است. روش تجزیه و تحلیل داده ‏ها روش منطق فازی‏- کلامی است. نتایج تحقیق نشان می‏دهد که استراتژی‏ های کاهش اثر (شامل تغییر رنگ پشت ‏با م‏ها و جداره‏ های شهری به رنگ‏هایی با انعکاس بیشتر و...) و استراتژی‏ های سازگاری (شامل آموزش شهروندان با هدف وفق با دماهای بیشتر، ترویج و آموزش شهروندان در زمینه صرفه‏ جویی در مصرف برق و گاز،و بهره ‏گیری از روش های جلب مشارکت شهروندان) بیشترین امکان اجرا در کلان ‏شهر تهران را داراست. به‏ صورت کلی،استراتژی‏ های کاهش اثر امکان بیشتری برای اجرا در شهر تهران را داراست. نیاز به تغییر رویکرد از استراتژی‏های کاهش اثر به سوی استراتژی‏های سازگاری در سیاست‏های کلان مقابله با جزایر گرمایی احساس می‏‏شود.

    کلیدواژگان: امکان‏سنجی، جزایر گرمایی، سازگاری، کاهش اثر، کلان‏شهر تهران
  • محمد ادبی ممقانی، عبدالرضا رکن الدین افتخاری*، مهدی پور طاهری، حسین صادقی سقدل صفحات 283-301

    امروزه، بهره ‏گیری از انرژی‏های تجدیدپذیر در مناطق روستایی برای تامین انرژی از پیش ‏شرط‏ های توسعه پایدار است. پایان ‏پذیری منابع سوخت‏های فسیلی و محدودیت آن‏ها در تامین انرژی و نیز آسیب‏ های زیست‏ محیطی ناشی از بهره ‏برداری از این منابع، توسعه و کاربرد انرژی‏های تجدید‏پذیر به ‏ویژه بهره‏ گیری از انرژی خورشیدی را به ‏عنوان یک منبع انرژی پایدار ضروری کرده است. استفاده از انرژی خورشیدی در مناطق روستایی نیازمند پذیرش توسط روستاییان است. این پژوهش، به دنبال تحلیل سطح پذیرش فناوری پنل خورشیدی از سوی روستاییان است. روش پژوهش حاضر از نوع توصیفی-تحلیلی است و گردآوری اطلاعات به روش کتابخانه‏ ای و پیمایش میدانی انجام گرفته است. در این پژوهش 27 روستا از شهرستان‏های کلیبر و خداآفرین در استان آذربایجان شرقی به‏ عنوان جامعه آماری انتخاب شدند که 5 روستا دارای پنل و 22 روستا بدون پنل‏اند. واحد تحلیل پژوهش سرپرستان خانوار است. در روستاهای پنل ‏دار 60 خانوار و در روستاهای بدون پنل 256 خانوار از طریق روش نمونه ‏گیری کوکران انتخاب شدند که در مجموع 316 سرپرست انتخاب و مورد مطالعه قرار گرفتند. داده‏ ها نیز از طریق آزمون تی تک ‏نمونه ‏ای تجزیه و تحلیل شدند. یافته‏ های آماری بیانگر این است که در روستاهای دارای پنل سطح پذیرش در ابعاد سه‏ گانه اقتصادی، اجتماعی، و زیست‏ محیطی فناوری انرژی خورشیدی در حد پایین‏تر از حد متوسط و مقدار آن برابر با 01/2 است که بیانگر پذیرش پایین در این گروه است. در روستاهای غیربرخوردار، این مقدار بالاتر از میانگین و میزان آن در ابعاد زیست‏ محیطی، اجتماعی، و اقتصادی به‏ ترتیب برابر با 28/4، 14/4، و 12/4 است.

    کلیدواژگان: انرژی خورشیدی، پذیرش فناوری، مناطق روستایی
  • رضا جهان بین*، فریدون بابایی اقدم، شهریور روستایی، اکبر اصغری زمانی صفحات 303-321

    توانمندسازی ساکنان سکونتگاه ‏های غیررسمی آنگاه می‏تواند موفقیت ‏آمیز باشد که با مشارکت همه گروه‏ های اجتماعی و برای همه آن‏ها از جمله زنان انجام پذیرد. یکی از اساسی‏ترین موانع توانمندسازی زنان در اسکان غیررسمی که مانع نقش ‏آفرینی آنان در فرایند مشارکت در سامان‏دهی محلات مسکونی خویش می‏شود سطح بسیار پایین وضعیت اقتصادی آن‏هاست. سازمان ملل نیز توانمندسازی زنان در سطح گسترده را به‏ عنوان یکی از اهداف کلیدی اعلامیه هزاره سوم اعلام کرده است.هدف از این مقاله تحلیل و بررسی رابطه بین عوامل اقتصادی و توانمندسازی زنان در سکونتگاه ‏های غیررسمی است. تحقیق حاضر کاربردی و روش آن پیمایشی است و برای گردآوری داده ‏ها از پرسش‏نامه محقق‏ساخته استفاده شده است. جامعه آماری تحقیق زنان 18سال به بالای ساکن در سکونتگاه ‏های غیررسمی شهر ایلام است که با شیوه نمونه‏ گیری تصادفی طبقاتی متناسب با حجم و براساس فرمول نمونه‏ گیری کوکران 377 نفر انتخاب شدند. روایی پرسش‏نامه با استفاده از روایی محتوا و پایایی آن از طریق آلفای کرونباخ (89/0) به‏ دست آمد. برای تحلیل داده ‏ها با نرم ‏افزار SPSS از آزمون‏های تحلیل واریانس (F)، پس ‏آزمون توکی، همبستگی پیرسون، دونمونه‏ ای مستقل (T)، و تحلیل رگرسیونی بهره گرفته شد. به ‏علاوه از نرم‏ افزار AMOS برای مدل‏سازی معادلات ساختاری (SEM) استفاده شد. یافته‏ های تحقیق نشان می‏دهد بین توانمندسازی زنان و عوامل اقتصادی چون دسترسی به شغل دارای درآمد، نوع شغل، میزان درآمد، دسترسی به تسهیلات بانکی، تحت پوشش نهاد حمایتی بودن، قدرت پس‏انداز، و برخورداری از حق مالکیت قانونی رابطه معناداری وجود دارد.

    کلیدواژگان: توانمندسازی زنان، زنان در توسعه، سکونتگاه‏های غیررسمی، شهر ایلام، عوامل اقتصادی
  • هادی یاقوت حردانی*، سید حسن مطیعی لنگرودی، فضیله دادورخانی، مجتبی قدیری معصوم صفحات 323-346

    رویکردهای استراتژیک ارزیابی محیط زیست ابزاری قدرتمند برای جریان ‏سازی ملاحظات زیست ‏محیطی در کنار مسائل اجتماعی و اقتصادی به‏ شمار می‏روند. در فرایند تدوین، اقدامات استراتژیک اولویت اساسی نظام ‏های برنامه ‏ریزی توسعه درنظر گرفته می ‏شوند. پژوهش حاضر، با هدف غربالگری زیست ‏محیطی اقدامات استراتژیک توسعه روستایی، با تاکید بر سند راهبردی توسعه اقتصادی استان خوزستان انجام شده است. این مطالعه از نظر هدف کاربردی و مبتنی بر شیوه توصیفی‏- پیمایشی است. فرایند غربالگری با استفاده از چک‏لیست و ماتریس و در چارچوب فن دلفی و نظرسنجی از 26 نفر از خبرگان و کارشناسان مسئول در حوزه‏ های مختلف برنامه ‏ریزی انجام گرفته است. نتایج غربالگری نشان داد اقدام استراتژیک مذکور از نظر سازه ‏های کلیدی از جمله ویژگی‏ های محتوایی، پیامدهای زیست ‏محیطی، و محدوده ‏های جغرافیایی تحت پوشش از اهمیت زیست‏ محیطی قابل‏ توجهی برخوردار است و اجرای آن اثرهای بالقوه قابل ‏توجهی در محیط ‏زیست نواحی روستایی خواهد داشت. براساس اجماع خبرگان، میزان توجه اقدام استراتژیک نسبت به یک‏پارچگی و در نظرگرفتن مسایل و ملاحظات زیست ‏محیطی کمتر از حد آستانه (7/0) است. مقدار قطعی درجه ریسک پیامدهای زیست‏ محیطی بر معیشت و رفاه روستاییان برابر با 79/0 و بر سلامت محیط‏ زیست و منابع طبیعی برابر با 78/0 و بیشتر از حد آستانه قابل‏ توجه است. افزون بر این، اهمیت زیست ‏محیطی سند راهبردی مذکور از نظر میزان اثرگذاری در محدوده ‏های تحت پوشش از جمله مناطق پرجمعیت و با تراکم بالا، مناطق و چشم ‏اندازهای طبیعی، مناطق با کاربری فشرده، و مناطق درگیر مشکلات و مسایل زیست‏ محیطی فعلی به‏ صورت بالاتر از حد «قابل‏ توجه» ارزیابی شده است.

    کلیدواژگان: اقدامات استراتژیک، ایران، توسعه روستایی، خوزستان، غربالگری استراتژیک محیط ‏زیست (SES)
  • مرجان بدیعی ازنداهی*، فاطمه سادات میراحمدی، بهادر غلامی صفحات 347-365

    مطالعه و بررسی قانون اساسی هر کشور بنیانی برای شناسایی و تحلیل بسیاری از مفاهیم کلیدی جغرافیای سیاسی مانند «مفهوم حاکمیت ملی» در آن است. کشور ایران در کمتر از یک سده دو انقلاب بزرگ یعنی انقلاب مشروطه و انقلاب اسلامی را تجربه کرده است. پس از رخداد هر دو انقلاب، دو قانون اساسی تدوین شد که هر یک سرآغازی برای عملکرد حکومت و ملت در سرزمین ملی به شمار می‏رفته ‏اند. پرسش اصلی مقاله حاضر، که با استفاده از روش «تحلیلی» نگاشته شده، این است که مفهوم حاکمیت ملی در دو قانون چه تفاوت‏ها و تشابهاتی داشته و چگونه به رابطه حکومت با ملت و سرزمین شکل بخشیده است. نتیجه تحقیق نشان می‏دهد که شرایط و عوامل تاثیرگذار داخلی و خارجی به ‏لحاظ زمانی و مکانی بر چگونگی تدوین این دو قانون و نیز در ابراز مفهوم حاکمیت ملی در آن ها موثر بوده است. مقایسه مفهوم حاکمیت ملی نشان می‏دهد که قانون اساسی مشروطه و متمم آن حاکمیت را فقط از آن ملت می‏داند. درحالی‏ که قانون اساسی جمهوری اسلامی حاکمیت مطلق را از آن خداوند می داند، ولی به حاکمیت انسان نیز قایل است. همچنین، مقایسه شیوه اعمال حاکمیت ملی در قانون اساسی مشروطه عمدتا از طریق انتخاب نمایندگان مجلس شورای ملی است؛ درحالی‏که در قانون اساسی جمهوری اسلامی، مردم برای تعیین نوع نظام سیاسی و تصمیم‏ گیری در مسایل مهم اقتصادی و سیاسی از طریق همه ‏پرسی، انتخابات، و نیز نظارت بر کارگزاران حکومتی به اعمال حاکمیت می‏پردازند. ازای ن‏رو، می‏توان گفت قانون اساسی جمهوری اسلامی ایران به نسبت مفهوم جامع ‏تری از حاکمیت ملی ارایه می‏دهد.

    کلیدواژگان: انقلاب اسلامی، انقلاب مشروطیت، ایران، حاکمیت ملی، قانون اساسی
  • یاسمن اسدی، محمدرضا جلوخانی نیارکی*، کیوان عزی مند صفحات 367-383

    کیفیت زندگی میزان توانمندی محیط برای فراهم ‏آوردن و پاسخ ‏گویی به نیازهای مادی و معنوی افراد جامعه است؛ به‏ گونه ‏ای‏ که یکی از مهم‏ترین اهداف برنامه‏ ریزان و مدیران شهری افزایش سطح کیفیت زندگی در شهرها و بالابردن میزان رضایتمندی در بین شهروندان است. هدف از این پژوهش ارزیابی کیفیت زندگی شهری از طریق تحلیل تصمیم‏ گیری چند معیاره مکانی است. محدوده موردمطالعه در این تحقیق منطقه 6 است. معیارهای مورد استفاده برای شناخت وضعیت کیفیت محیط ‏زیست شهری شامل معیارهای سبزینگی، دمای سطح زمین، آلودگی هوا، آلودگی صوتی، و آسیب‏ پذیری ساختمان است. در این پژوهش، از روش تلفیقی   AHP-OWA برای ارزیابی و تولید نقشه کیفیت محیط ‏زیست زندگی شهری استفاده شده است. نتیجه حاصل از مدل مورداستفاده در این تحقیق پنج نقشه کیفیت محیط‏ زیست زندگی شهری با درجه ریسک ‏پذیری متفاوت است که به طبقات بسیار مناسب، مناسب، متوسط، نامناسب، و بسیار نامناسب تقسیم ‏شده است. سناریوی بسیار خوش‏بینانه ریسک‏ پذیری بالایی در تعیین کیفیت زیست ‏محیطی زندگی شهری داشته و سناریوی بسیار بدبینانه میزان ریسک‏ پذیری در تصمیم‏ گیری برای کیفیت زیست‏ محیطی زندگی شهری را کاهش می‏دهد. نتایج پژوهش نشان می‏دهد میزان کیفیت محیط ‏زیست زندگی شهری در سناریوهای طراحی ‏شده در بدبینانه‏ ترین حالت بیانگر آن است که هیچ محل ه‏ای در گروه بسیار مناسب نیست و سه محله در گروه بسیار نامناسب قرار گرفته است؛ درحالی‏که در خوش ‏بینانه‏ ترین حالت، شش محله در گروه بسیار مناسب قرار گرفته و یک محله در گروه بسیار نامناسب قرارگرفته است. به ‏صورت کلی، محلات واقع در جنوب غرب و شرق در وضعیت مناسب‏تری نسبت به محلات مرکز و شمال شرق قرار دارند.

    کلیدواژگان: روش AHP-OWA، کیفیت محیط ‏زیست زندگی شهری، منطقه 6 شهرداری تهران
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  • Keramatollah Zyari *, Hossein Rafiee Mehr, Javad Zareie Pages 1-15
    Introduction

    The evaluation of the urban quality of life (QoL) is an issue with growing importance in the scientific literature. Several authors, from different academic backgrounds, have approached this theme. Contributions from diverse disciplines illustrate the complexity of this phenomenon: sociology, geography, economy, public health, transport or environment engineering are only some of the possible references that show the interest this issue raises in different areas of knowledge. The multidisciplinary views show, on one hand, the scientific wealth of this issue, but it raises, on the other hand, research constrains as it is difficult to reach a consensual concept of quality of life, as well as the underlying dimensions that should be used for its assessment. In the scientific literature that addresses this theme, the lack of agreement is well shown. The concern of administrative authorities raised by the growth of people living in urban contexts has been followed by the scientific literature. Defining the indexes of life quality, Vienna, Zurich, and Oakland were reported as the best places to live in the world in 2012 and Singapore, Tokyo, and Kobe in Japan as the best cities in Asia and Dubai in the Middle East. The most important goal of urban planning and development is to improve the quality of life and bring happiness to citizens; but the quality of life is a multidimensional concept which deals with different factors. One of the most important goals of urban planning is to analyze the factors of inequality and attempt to improve the quality of life and create equal conditions for all the citizens. By defining objective and subjective indexes, this research tries to make a comparative analysis of life quality and its factors concerning two cases, i.e. Nazi-Abad and Shahrake Gharb.The research also seeks to answer the following questions:1. What are the levels of life quality indexes of these two cases?2. Concerning the social justice, how different are the life quality indexes of them? 3. Which indexes are in a better condition?

    Methodology

    The type of the research is practical-developmental and its method of analysis is descriptive-analytical. The method of data collecting is library studying and field research. It has also used the survey methodology by making questionnaires (based on Likert Spectrum) to get data about the attitude of people on their life quality. The results of the research show an unbalanced distribution of life chances and urban facilities. To examine the validity of questionnaire Cronbach's alpha coefficient was used and its reliability was defined based on expert’s comments. Sample size is based on calculated variance from 50 primary questionnaires with a confidence level of 95 per cent. The data from questionnaires were analyzed by SPSS software and the Hypotheses were tested using Pearson correlation test and t-test.

    Results and discussion

    21 main questions were involved into the questionnaire about the life quality in these two places and the effect of providing urban services on it. Table 1 shows the personal information of respondents; table 2 is the results of the average answers to the main questions; table 3 shows the qualitative results based on utility spectrum; and table 4 shows the result of t-test for comparing the average grades of factors with standard criterion. The level of education among the respondents of the first region is low while it is fair for the second group. There is also a wide gap between the two regions in terms of economic activities and job opportunities. Based on the opinions of the residents of these two regions, the difference between the indexes of life quality and provision of urban services in the two regions have caused a significant distinction of cultural, social and economic development and of social security in them. Of course, there are some differences in factors which among them the level of responsiveness and the level of general satisfaction of the residents are more important. On these factors, the results show a similarity between the indexes of the two regions which mostly is because of the level of participation and also the low expectations of the first region citizens.

    Conclusion

    In urban and human geography, the most important role has been given to the social justice and social welfare and human geography gained its place as a scientific field only in purpose of improving human life environment and providing social welfare to him. The purpose of improving life quality in urban area is to provide the services and facilities equally. Life Quality opens a way for local officials and the people to interact with each other so to have a better understanding of the key issues affecting people’s life. In today’s cities, the important factor which makes separations between the areas of a town is economy. Considering the level of incomes in the two regions in the above table, the difference in the economic index shows the gap between them. It should be noted that the level of expectations in the two regions affected their responses on their income level. For example, the respondents with higher level of education (mainly in Shahrake Gharb) were mostly dissatisfied with their income while gaining more incomes in comparison to others. Executing a variety of plans in which the form have priority over meaning, machine over human, body over soul, work over life, etc. have made the city much more important than what it is suppose to be helpful for, i.e. human being. The priorities in urban planning should be the needs of all groups of people in the society to protect the social and economic justice. This could be gain perfectly through the inclusion of all capacities of different social groups and their participation in every part of the planning.

    Keywords: social justice, quality of life, urban life quality indices, the concept of citizenship, urban areas of Tehran
  • Sayed Mostafa Hashemi *, Abbas Alipour, Mohsen Yousefi Feshki, MirNajaf Mousavi Pages 17-37
    Introduction

    In today's world, tourism is one of the most important tools for governments to introduce their culture to other nations using cultural, economic, social and security. One of the fundamental principles in tourism development, identification and efficient use of resources and capacities of tourism in the host society. Given that most of Iran's territory is desert, recognizing and principled way to utilize the full potential of deserts and desert, a crucial requirement of tourism development and economic and social development of the region and even the whole country. So far, there has not been fully recognize the attraction of desert areas and be more precise studies on the characteristics of these attractions as well as appropriate infrastructure for the development of the industry carried out in desert areas. Qom province as a province of desert country, has potential resources for tourism development in desert areas and wastelands. Accordingly, this paper is to identify, spatial distribution of desert and wilderness tourist attractions the province and prioritize the capabilities to develop this type of tourism is addressed.

    Methodology

    The research method is descriptive - analytical and objective is applied. A library and field data collection (using questionnaires and site visits and direct observation) been carried out. Questionnaires using the Delphi method has been completed by experts including employees Administration of Cultural Heritage, Handicrafts and Tourism Qom, managers and senior staff of travel agencies and tourism city of Qom, Qom Province leaders, professors and students of tourism in Qom Province. To study the spatial distribution of tourist attractions Qom province of Getis-Ord model is used and to prioritize capacity in developing desert tourism in tourism and achieve productive economy, the ELECTRE model is used.

    Results and discussion

    According to the findings of the questionnaires and surveys and field visits, Qom Province capabilities to develop tourism in desert areas is classified in 8: 1) settlements or health care; 2) adventure tourism; 3) scientific tourism; 4) sport tourism and held a variety of sports competitions; 5) Tourists visit the attractions of this region in terms of tours; 6) infrastructure and set suitable for artistic and cultural events; 7) be ecotourism and 8) the possibility of attracting public and private investments in relation to the types of tourism. In examining the spatial distribution of tourist attractions Qom province Getis-Ord model results indicated that the Zscore higher than 2.58 and equal to 17.76 is obtained the confidence level (P-value) 0.99 Distribution tourist attractions are clustered in Qom. The focus (clusters) are concentrated in three regions of Qom province that includes: 1) highway near Qom - Tehran (radius of 10 km); 2) highway near Qom - Kashan (radius of 10 km) and 3) the area around the city of Qom (radius of 20 km).Finally prioritization capabilities desert and wilderness tourism in the province based on 86 expert show The relative capabilities in tourism development in desert and wilderness of Qom, the first priority was Three capabilities that include: "Scientific tourism" with a score of ( 5 ), "the possibility of attracting public and private investments in connection with a variety of tourism" with a score of ( 3 ), and "ecotourism" with a score of ( 1 ). The second priority, two capability the same score ( -3 ) are to include "adventure tourism" and "sport tourism and held a variety of sports competitions". The third priority tourism development capabilities in desert and wilderness of Qom three capability with an included "infrastructure and set suitable for artistic and cultural events" and "Tourists visit the attractions of this region in terms of tours" with a score of ( -5 ) and finally "settlements or health care" with a score of ( -7 ) are the last priority.

    Conclusion

    Tourism with minimal pollution can lead to the development of sustainable and the significant achievements and financial security they provide. For this reason, the development of tourism as one of the components and measures are developed at a global level. Iran general and Qom specifically despite its attractions and capabilities of this subject is not innocent And will be able to optimize the use of existing capabilities and the expansion of facilities and the removal of barriers, in order to achieve an effective strides forward. Approach to religious authorities in Qom and tourism industry operators, as well as indirect support and advocacy officials atmosphere, all made to be used all the functionality Tourism Or possibly in their assessment of many activities that do not fit in the framework ignored. The result of this approach to development of tourism, one hundred percent control density tourism activities in the city of Qom Province with a religious approach and neglect of our abilities province. Continuation of this trend is not consistent with the principles and criteria for sustainable development The findings showed Qom province due to additional features and in particular natural and historical endowments, could be positive background of many legitimate activities and leisure - Tourism in the desert and wilderness areas in order to respond to the needs of leisure and other provinces and even other countries in the region provide a wide range And lead to more consistency tourists. Results showed there a lot of potential resources in desert areas Qom Province that they can use to organize and latent demand for the use of their native said, and also provide a potential target markets for tourism in the province to create diversity and distribution of tourists in the province just focused on several specific points that are currently not and the level of facilities. This will first and foremost lead to sustainable development and led some deserted areas of the capital and credit resources will increase.

    Keywords: Desert, wilderness tourism, Tourism potential, Qom, Spatial distribution, electric model
  • M. R. Rahnama, Leili Ebrahimi * Pages 39-54

    Competition between locations is global. Competition for foreign investment and business, tourism income, skilled labor and attracting creative people to become new citizens who are driving the growth of the economy has intensified. In a global environment of intense competition and continuous change, cities must focus on improving service levels and increasing customer satisfaction to maintain competition and achieve long-term survival. Location marketing has been studied for decades. In the past, location marketing studies focused on foreign audiences or tourists, but now, studies have focused on urban residents. And they are recognized as an important target group of local customers who previously their satisfaction less considered, While they shape the location brand with their characteristics and behaviors. Citizens' satisfaction is an important tool for determining the citizen's perspective of the city in which they live, which is formed by the perceived nature or quality of relevant urban environments and people outside the city are always looking for an awareness of its level. Because they are naturally informal, valid , and credible sources of information about the place. Responding to the needs of citizens creates a sense of enjoyment and social welfare and positive behaviors from them. There has been a significant defect In consideration of the role of citizens in the place marketing process. Urban managers need to be aware of the role of citizens as a powerful tool in the local marketing process. The purpose of this paper is to improve policy through the satisfaction and attraction of residents. Accordingly, in this research, residents' perception of the quality of urban life in Mashhad city is firstly evaluated. Then, the relationship between perceived quality of urban life, satisfaction, attachment and citizenship behaviors such as intention to leave a place of life and positive speech in Mashhad city was investigated.

    Materials and methods

    The city studied in this study is Mashhad. Due to the wide extent of the city and in order to generalize the results of the research into the community studied the 3 regions of Mashhad 1, 6 and 9 were selected to complete the questionnaires. The sample size was 382 people. In order to assess perceived quality in Mashhad, 30 items in four dimensions of urban facilities and infrastructure, basic needs, social environment and environment were considered. Questionnaire with 5-options Likert scale was used from I fully agree with the continuum until I completely disagree. In which I totally agree with the score of 5, indicating the opinion, I agree with the score of 4, I do not have a score of 3, I disagree with the score of 2, and I totally disagree with the score of 1, and the respondents were asked to rate the city in 30 selected items. 3 items were developed to assess the overall citizens' satisfaction. Citizens' attachment was also evaluated with 3 items. Also, 2 items were considered for 5-point Likert scale in order to investigate the variables of intention to leave and 2 items in order to evaluate the positive speech variable.

    Results and discussion

    The results of descriptive statistics and t-test for dimension of urban facilities and infrastructures showed that overall average for this dimension is 2.61 and has significant differences with mean of 3. T-test results for basic needs dimension also showed that the overall average of this dimension is equal to 1.92 and has a significant difference with an average of 3. The social environment dimension also showed a significant difference with an average of 3 and, of course, less than this. Finally, the average for the environmental dimension was 2.76. Accordingly, the first hypothesis based on the desired level of perceived quality in Mashhad was rejected. The results of this study showed that in all four dimensions are considered perceived quality was lower than average of 3. In the next stage, the results of the model test and research hypotheses were as follows that the second hypothesis based on the positive effect of perceived quality on the overall satisfaction of citizens was confirmed with path coefficient (β = 0.43) . And it can be said that by increasing the level of perceived quality, the overall satisfaction of citizens will increase. The third hypothesis was confirmed that the citizens' satisfaction had a positive effect on the city's attachment (β = 0.68). The negative effects of citizens' satisfaction on the intention to quit (β = 0.31) and the negative impact of attachment on the intention to leave (β = -0.28) were confirmed. Existence of satisfaction and attachment in citizens has reduced the intention of leaving the city by citizens.The results of this section were also confirmed by the results of the research of (Zenker & Rütter, 2014). Finally, the hypothesis of positive effect of citizenship satisfaction on positive speech with path coefficient and significant number (β = 0.20), as well as the attachment effect hypothesis on positive speech with path coefficient (β = 0.33)) were confirmed.

    Conclusion

    No performance evaluation is possible without assessing citizens' expectations and perceptions. The important thing is that the services provided are efficient and that respond to the needs and requirements of the citizens in a desirable manner. In this regard, measurement is the first step for improvement, and satisfaction surveys should be carried out at regular intervals, the service area must be identified and needs to be estimated and ways of developing and improvement must be investigated. Location attachment is useful. Communities included of many people, try more to maintain their societies. This feeling of emotional attachment should be strengthened by developing meaningful relationships by urban executives. The quality of provided services is a key factor in this regard, since quality leads to satisfaction; something has a positive effect on the attachment and positive behaviors of citizens like positive speech. Therefore, city managers must implement a variety of programs to enrich, increase, maintain, modify, or create a desired level.

    Keywords: Perceived Quality, Satisfaction, attachment, Intention to Leave, Word-of-Mouth
  • Soraya Azizi, Hamdallah Sojasi Qeidari *, Hamid Shayan Pages 55-74

    For many decades’ public places as living spaces have been considered important in planning and designing human physical settlements which also include rural living areas. If our major goals of rural planning are people’s health, relaxation and beauty of environments, thus achieving these main objectives require accuracy, patience, and correct planning of rural Furniture. However, during recent years’ inappropriate development, the increasing growth of cities, huge amount of migration from villages into big cities without any prior infra structural preparations had various negative outcomes on different areas of the country. organizing rural areas and arranging their public applications including rural Furniture would be a suitable appropriate strategy resulting in better quality of physical environments and satisfying various rural needs such as people’s security, physical, psychological and mental health issues to improve the attractiveness of rural places and villages.In the present study we have tried to analyze the effects of rural elements, equipments and Furniture in improving the quality of physical environment.

    Keywords: Rural Physical, Rural Furniture, Quality of Environment, Rural Development, Shirvan
  • Nasrollah Molaey Hashjin *, Maryam Alinaghipour Pages 75-87
    Introduction

    Lack of attention to the rural areas, inattention to the capabilities of rural areas are of the main problems in achieving rural development.According to the fact todays sustainable development is considered as a development dominant approach, addressing this issue is of great importance in development studies. Meanwhile, the important issue of evaluation and classification of the sustainable rural development will enable us to deal with the studied territory's planning and management by having sufficient knowledge about it. Whereas determination and identification of the development levels has been located as a main and significant element in the formulation of appropriate policies and programs in rural development in this syudy the evaluation of the development levels in the parts of Gilan province seems to be necessary.

    Methodology

    This study is an applied,and a descriptive and analytical research in objective and also in nature and methodology point of view, respectively.In collecting the required information, the library method was used and population consist of all parts of Gilan province (43 parts). The statistics of 2011 (the obtained data from the General Population and Housing Census) were used as variables and then, the variables were converted to indexes.These indexes were classified in 5 groups (Environmental-Ecological, Socio-Cultural, Economical, Characteristic and Physical) appropriate to the aspects of the development.Since the number of indexes is different for different groups, a compound index was prepared for each group and then, these compound indexes were entered in analysis because only by this way, each group had equal voting rights.The indexes were entered into the SPSS software and the negative index were turned to the positive ones,firstly.So that,the indexes would have the same value.Alongside determining the degree of development, 298 variables and 93 indexes were collected. The methods of Numerical Taxonomy, Cluster Analysis, Analytic Hierarchy, Topsis, Morris and Network Analysis were used to determine the parts' ranking.First, in each of the development parts and finally,in the form of compound indexes, ranking and obtained results were analyzed.The techniques used in this research were the family members of Multiple Criteria Decision Making techniques. In this study, using the rank of each part while aware of the status of the part in development classification, and identifying the most deprived and the most developed sections, the homogeneity parts of the same floor was discussed and then, the results obtained in the form of a map were shown.In the next step,comparing the development level of years 2006 and 2011 was done by applying Topsis technique.

    Result and Discussion

    The results showed that 10 parts out of the total of 43 parts (Central Shaft, Central Lahajan,Central Fooman,Central Some'ehSara,Rasht's Khoshkbijar,Rasht's Sangar, Rasht's Khomam, Central Bandar-e Anzali,and Central AstanehAshrafieh),7 parts (Rudboneh in Lahajan, Central Langerud, Tolam in Some'ehSara, Central Roodsar, Rasht's Lasht-eNesha, Kiashahr in AstanehAshrafieh, Rasht's Koochesfahan),8 parts(Central Rezvanshahr, Central Amlash,Rankohi in Amlash,Ahmadsargurab in Shaft,Komale in Langerud,MirzaKuchikKhan in Some'ehSara, Rahmatabad and blocks in Rudbar,Central Talesh),9 parts (Shanderman in Masal, Central Siahkal, Deylaman in Siahkal, Otaghour in Langerud, Kalachay in Roodsar, Rahim Abad in Roodsar, Amarlou in Rudbar, Asalem in Talesh, and Lavandevil in Astara),and 9 parts (Central Masal, Parehsar in Rezvanshahr, Sardarjangal in Fooman, Chaboksar in Roodsar, Khorgam in Rudbar, Central Rudbar, Havigh in Talesh, Karganrood in Talesh, Central Astara)are respectively in the high development, moderate development ,transition to development, deprived, and severe deprivation levels. Also, by comparing the development levels in years 2006 and 2011, we can find that in 2006, of the total of 43 parts, 7, 9, 4, 13, and 10 parts and in year 2011, out of the total of 43 parts,12, 6, 11, 11, and 3 parts were in high level of development, medium level of development, transition to development level, deprived level, and severe deprivation level, correspondingly. It means that the number of parts in levels of severe deprivation and deprived has been lessened and the number of parts in the upper level of development has been enlarged.

    conclusion

    To allocate funds and resources among different areas, it is necessary to identify the status of the area in relevant parts and to rank the utilization levels of the benefits of development. Sparsely populated rural areas in the country are not capable to attract suitable investment, services, and technology, for all-round and stable development.So,it is indispensable to create a hierarchical service giving to be able to dispatch equipment, facilities and services properly, by ranking and classification of a system.There are different methods in ranking the different aspects of which does not necessarily entail the same answers. But, it is possible to select methods and then, by combining the results, to attain unit ranking and next, an appropriate classification. Finding an efficient method to measure the development and then, services giving in areas because of the large number of villages in each area, population distribution, diversity of rural area and their distribution in the area, the position of their relationship, rural especial properties, lack of budgets and civil credits, shortage of specialist staff, rural administrative management system and paying less attention to rural settlements is a difficult affairand there is a hope that accordance with the results of this study, the right decision could be taken for giving services to the villages and parts which will improve the welfare of the villagers, activate the rural economy, raise the rural incomes and employment level. Planning and implementation of rural development projectsin parts, prioritizing areas of deprived and severe deprivation in the medium term development program, use a particular strategy to expand the welfare and civil services and upgrading the production capacities and employment in rural areas to maintain the population and preventing the migration are of proposals that are useful in the studied area.

    Keywords: Evaluation, Development Levels, Rural Development, Multi Criteria Decision Making Techniques, Guilan Province
  • Maryam Rezapour, Hossein Bahrainy *, Manouchehr Tabibian Pages 89-109
    Introduction

    Development of communicative action theory in urban planning, has introduced new perspectives in the contexts such as public interest, urban justice, equal social and economic opportunities, empowering deprived urban classes, rejecting the dominance over nature, participation of people, and rejection of the sovereignty of power and money. Considering that the way of achieving urban sustainability is to pay attention to social dimensions along with economic and environmental dimensions and to establish a balanced relationship between them, this research considers communicative action theory as one of the most important areas of sustainability, and believes that for going toward the sustainability; a relationship between stakeholders should be exist from the lower policy levels to the highest levels, and sustainability will not be possible if this discourse and communication is distorted. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the relationship between communicative action and urban sustainability. In this regard, research hypotheses have been developed that indicate a significant relationship between communicative action and urban sustainability in Tehran city as a case study.

    Methodology

    In this paper, the concept of communicative action includes indicators which are presence in urban space, communicative rationality, critical point of view and social capital; and the concept of sustainability includes the dimensions which are social, economic, environmental, physical, institutional and political; and the relationship between these mentioned variables and dimensions has been investigated. This research is descriptive-analytical. The theoretical framework of this research is based on documentary studies and its operational part is conducted with quantitative analysis based on field study. Based on multistage cluster sampling, region three in the north, region ten in the center and region nineteen in the south of Tehran city were selected. These regions were located on the basis of development indicators such as “housing, education, employment, demographic indicators, access to information; and infrastructure” and were identified respectively as developed, moderate developed and underdeveloped region. Sample size was divided according to the distribution of the population of the administrative neighborhoods of the regions and ultimately (according to the sampling rules) the results will be generalized to the whole city of Tehran. The number of samples based on the Cochran formula was estimated to be 384 that were distributed in proportion to the number of neighborhoods in each of these three regions. The research hypotheses were analyzed by SPSS software.

    Results and discussion

    Reliability of the researcher-made questionnaire of this paper was measured by Cronbach's alpha test and shows that the questionnaire has a high reliability. The questionnaire is also based on content validity and has been reviewed several times. Structural validity (factor analysis) was measured using the KMO test, which indicates the fitting of the data, and the Bartlett test, which suggests that there is the possibility of performing factor analysis on research data. The ten extracted factors are the result of 55 items that have been used in subsequent analyzes.Communicative action analysis was performed based on four components of presence in urban space, communicative rationality, critical point of view and social capital. According to Kruskal-Wallis test, at 99% significance level, the communicative action is different among three regions of Tehran City, so that the third region with the average score of 161.27 has the highest communicative action. These differences indicate that Tehran does not follow a single pattern. But in all three regions, social capital is the highest among the other indexes.The Pearson correlation test was used to identify the relationship between communicative action and urban sustainability. The relationship between communicative action and urban sustainability is significant using Pearson correlation test with a confidence level of 99%, and Pearson coefficient of this relation is about 0.617 in Tehran, which indicates a high correlation between these two concepts. In other words, the reduction or increase of communicative action has a direct and high impact on the sustainability of the city.The results also show that the relationship between communicative action and sustainability is different between the three regions. Thus, the correlation between these two concepts in region three by using Pearson coefficient is 0.635 which is more than of region ten with Pearson coefficient of 0.507 and of the nineteen region with Pearson coefficient of 0.381.In this research, the relationship between communicative action and various dimensions of sustainability has also been evaluated. The relationship between communicative action with social, economic, environmental, physical, institutional and political dimensions of urban sustainability has been measured by Pearson correlation test. The results show that the relationship between communicative action and all dimensions of sustainability is significant at 99% confidence level and the relationship between communicative action and political dimension of sustainability with coefficient of 0.613, social dimension with coefficient of 0.608 and institutional dimension with coefficient of 59.22 is higher among other dimensions.

    Conclusion

    The results show that the changes in communicative action have a direct and significant impact on urban sustainability and all its dimensions; and strengthening communicative action can lead to increase all dimensions of sustainability in Tehran city. In addition, the relationship between communicative action and sustainability varies between the three urban regions. Results show that this relationship in region three is greater than that of region ten; and in the region ten it is more than region nineteen.The third hypothesis of this research is devoted to the relationship between communicative action and the income. The results show that there is a positive and poor correlation between these two variables. With the conclusion of the second and third hypotheses, it can be concluded that the relationship between communicative action and sustainability in a region is more appropriate with the economic conditions. By substantiating the assumptions of this research, its claim to consider communicative action as one of the most important areas of sustainability is accepted.

    Keywords: Communicative Action, Communicative Rationality, Lifeworld, urban sustainability, Tehran
  • Ali Shamai *, Atefeh Daneshvar Khorram, Ahmad Ravanbakhsh, Majid Afsar Pages 111-130
    Introduction

    Due to the increasing occurrence of natural disasters in recent years around the world, especially earthquakes, and consequently the increase in losses and damages caused by earthquake in human societies, especially cities, the reduction of vulnerability against these events have particular importance. The old urban textures in developing countries, for various reasons, are at more risk of earthquake. Therefore, the understanding of earthquake crisis management principles in urban areas may be a first step in the crisis management and one of the most basic guidelines for the implementation of earthquake crisis management. Due to having numerous faults, seismicity background, and lots of old textures, Kashan is at relative risk of moderate seismicity. This necessitates taking measures in earthquake disaster management in Kashan.

    Methodology

    This was a descriptive - analytic study in terms of methodology. Given the nature of data, this was a non-experimental research. In the first step, the data were collected studying the library various texts and documents texts on earthquake and its damage in urban areas, particularly old textures. In the next step, the data were collected by field study and using local information and statistics and information of consulting engineers and related organizations. Finally, the data were transformed to maps. In the analysis, first all the data and values of parameters were extracted. Based on Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) and Expert choice, the relevant indices were weighted. Using GIS software, the zoning map of district vulnerability was provided with FUZZY logic. Finally, conclusions and recommendations were provided with respect to all discussed information.

    Results and Discussion

    The indicators such as the type of material, age of buildings, floors of the building, access to roads, and etc. are important in assessing the vulnerability of cities to earthquake. The synthesis using GIS and multi-criteria assessment AHP methods had an effective role in vulnerability assessment. Also, it made possible the comparing of various indicators and final vulnerability with regard to different indices. The techniques used in this study can be generalized to other cities in Iran. After reviewing the different perspectives and approaches in the field of crisis management and cities earthquake vulnerability, the systematic approach was selected as the theoretical framework of research. This approach is actually originating from crisis management perspective. According to the study purpose which is reduction of vulnerability and earthquake damages, the risk reduction which is mainly related to pre-crisis was selected as policy of this study. According to studies which were conducted on desired area, it was concluded that Mohtasham, Kashan district, with its numerous fault, was among Iran’s high-risk areas. The binary comparison of indicators suggested that given its importance against earthquake, the building materials had the highest score. The experience of recent earthquakes has shown that the type of building materials used to construct is one of the important factors affecting vulnerability caused by the earthquake. In total, nine indices were used to assess vulnerability. The level of damage to buildings in this urban district was divided into five groups including very low, low, medium, high, and complete vulnerable zones.

    Conclusion

    The results showed that 10% of area had very low vulnerability, 19% had low vulnerability, 15% had medium vulnerability, 47% had high vulnerability, and 9 percent had very high vulnerability. The spatial distribution of vulnerability in area was associated with lack of using resistant materials, poor quality, and old buildings. The lowest vulnerability was in major part of texture, especially in the southeastern part of area. The crisis management includes 8 principles. Finally, the results showed that the use of crisis management principles, access to open space, and the use of forward-looking crisis management principles may greatly reduce vulnerability against earthquake risk in Mohtasham area.

    Keywords: Seismic vulnerability, urban textures decayed, Crisis Management, Kashan, AHP- Fuzzy
  • Jamaleddin Soheili *, Sima Samieifard Pages 131-146
    Introduction

    Respect for the elderly and their presence in the Iranian tradition has been, but many social and economic constraints and problems have caused the elderly to get away from their family environment, These problems and the lack of experience in designing the spaces for the elderly have caused the social interactions of the elderly to be routinely diminished in urban spaces, so that the elderly does not have a satisfactory view of the community.Major attitudes toward old age can be categorized into two broad categories. The first view emphasizes the importance of the age of living and the value of knowing this period of life. In the opposite view, the indifference or neglect of the role of the elderly in social life And even preferring the removal of the elderly from being present in the community and only maintaining them as an ineffective social class.

    Methodology

    The research method of the first stage was a descriptive-analytic study in which the objective description of the components of social interactions from the viewpoint of the experts and the recognition of the components was studied and each of the identified indicators was analyzed and evaluated. In this research, resources related to the topic of social interactions in urban space were first studied and collected in a library of subject records. Then, the effective components of social interactions from the viewpoint of the experts in urban space were analyzed and analyzed. In the second part, the research method was survey, which we obtained through the survey (questionnaire) the necessary information. The following cases have been considered in the selection of the case studies: being in city centers, having access to the arches and pedestrians, attending the elderly on a daily basis, having at least space for the activities that the center has been considering for them. The equalization of spatial conditions and activities that can be carried out in the complex, having the condition of the elderly in terms of being able to answer the questions correctly and not having Alzheimer's, have a proper understanding of the way in which they are located and where they are engaged. With regard to the proposed features, the following two sites were selected to answer the questionnaires as follows. Two hatef and aram centers used by the elderly with similar and similar conditions were chosen. These centers are used by women's cultural activities. The statistical population was selected based on Morgan's table. The number of users of the designated centers is 30, according to Morgan's table, 28 questionnaires completed in two elderly centers.

    Results and discussion

    The findings of the research in the first phase of the components were identified from the point of view of experts and classified according to the model of the sense of place of the Rolf-Panter. In the item of activity: Continued use, pedestrian activity, activities, variety and variety, sociality, vitality, uses In the body item, the components of proximity and proximity, invitations, potential capabilities of the environment, access and interconnection, permeability, waiting and pause, multi-unit groups, fields, pavements, symbol of the environment and symbols, Visual beauty, meeting space, closed space (deadlock alley), Form and In the meaning of the item, the components of experience, sense (sensory richness), adaptability, control and supervision, efficiency, justice, readability, flexibility, visual proportions, color, belonging, comfort and mental image, identity, residence time, individual characteristics, protection, Attachment to place, comfort and enjoyment are classified. In the second stage, after the preparation of the questionnaires, the value of each component was evaluated for the elderly.Emphasis on the presence of the elderly in the community and the use of their experiences of the needs of a community can be considered, and in some way, their return to society as a beneficial person, can make the elderly feel useful and efficient.

    Conclusion

    The most striking results from the analysis of the results obtained from Friedman's ranking is that in the activity index, the highest rank refers to the diversity of activities and age groups that elderly say they have a strong interest in engaging in artistic activities and In the second phase, there is a continuing use of the cultural environment of the elderly because they are separated from the daily concerns by their constant use and enjoyment. In the third stage, they are referring to the living environment of the elderly and are interested in engaging and entertaining activities. In the body index, the absence of placement of communicative spaces and social interactions in closed spaces is of more importance among the components of the body, and the presence of outdoor and green is most important to them, and in the second degree, the lack of use of the form Broken and teaspoons are important to the use of physical and curvilinear thermal environments. Thirdly, potential environmental capabilities are more important for the elderly, referring to environmental characteristics (building, access, and green space). In the item of meaning, we also conclude that, in the first place, there are even flexible and flexible spaces to meet their needs in priority. Secondly, having the color of belonging to the elderly, having a place of personal belonging to the individual is given priority and, thirdly, control and supervision are of greater importance to the elderly and they have a sense of security for them, and they also like the relevant factors Manage themselves.

    Keywords: Social Interactions, body, Meaning, Activity, seniors
  • Vahid Bigdeli Rad *, Shahram Maleki Pages 147-163
    Introduction

    Rural settlements in Iran, which are officially reported to have regional inequalities and settlements, are today experiencing a number of problems, such as the decline of the rural economy, massive displacement and migrations, widespread poverty and unemployment, food insecurity, and being the most of the rural population in the margin (Ashrafi et al., 2015, 51). Hence, these problems point to the necessity and priority of attention to social and economic stability in sustainable rural development planning (Karimi and Ahmadvand, 2015, 685). In order to achieve this goal, recognizing the instability and the level of social and economic stability of rural settlements is necessary first and foremost (Tavakoli et al., 2015, 231).

    Methodology

    Information analysis method in this research is based on the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP). AHP is one of the most well-known multi-criteria decision-making techniques that was invented by Thomas L. Saaty in the 1970s. This approach can be useful when decision-making practice has several options and decision-making indicators. Indices can be quantitative or qualitative (Azizi and Khalili, 2010, 33). The basis of this method lies in the pairwise comparisons (Delbari and Davoudi, 2013, 62-63). To apply the Analytic Hierarchy Process in solving the evaluation problem, there are five basic stages: (1) the formation of a hierarchy, (2) the determination of the importance coefficient of the criteria and sub-criteria, (3) the determination of the importance coefficient of options, (4) the determination of the final score (options priority), (5) the examination of adaptation in judgments (Azizi and Khalili, 2010, 33).

    Results and Discussion

    Indicators were identified and categorized to evaluate the impact of social and economic sustainability. These indicators were collected based on the opinion of rural development and planning experts in Iran.Accordingly, 10 sub-criteria including security, safety, education, social involvement, population, health, leisure, social responsibility, service satisfaction and place belonging as a measure of the impact of social sustainability, and 10 sub-criteria including unemployment rate, agricultural insurance, market access, fluctuations in prices, dependency ratio, mechanization, average income, per capita livestock, economic diversification and investment for economic sustainability in rural areas of Iran were also identified. Then, a questionnaire was designed based on the collected criteria. Then, 20 questionnaires were collected by the opinion of specialists and experts in rural development and planning.In the first step, the relative weight of the criteria is calculated. Different methods are used to calculate the relative weight. In this study, the geometric mean method was used.After performing geometric mean, the weight of each of the criteria and sub-criteria is normalized and the impact of each one will be determined based on the final weight. Accordingly, the economic and social sustainability criteria were calculated with normalized weight of 0.515 and weight 0.485 respectively.In connection with the importance of each of the social and economic sub-criteria, it is clear that training sub-criterion is ranked first in the importance of social criteria and has the greatest impact on the social sustainability of rural areas. Leisure sub-criterion has the least impact on this ranking. Moreover, in the economic indicators section, the unemployment rate was ranked first. The sub-criterion per capita livestock in this ranking also has the least impact on the economic sustainability of rural settlements. The overall ranking of social and economic criteria is shown in below Table.Table: The Importance of Social and Economic Sustainability Sub-Criteria in Rural Areas of Iran Ranking Social Sustainability Sub-Criteria Economic Sustainability Sub-Criteria .1 Education Unemployment Rate 2 Service Satisfaction Average Income. 3 Place Belonging Agricultural Insurance.4 Security Market Access.5 Safety Economic Diversification.6 Health Investment.7 Population Fluctuations in Prices.8 Social Involvement Dependency Ratio.9 Responsibility Mechanization.10 Leisure Per Capita Livestock

    Conclusion

    Considering that the rural areas in Iran, according to the statistics of official centers and scientific studies on it, always have many social and economic problems, so this research seeks to identify and evaluate the impact of each of the components of social and economic sustainability. These two criteria have been largely been overshadowed by environmental sustainability components and have been less considered independently. These two dimensions play an essential role in the instability of rural settlements in the country. Therefore, this research sought to assess and measure the impact of social and economic sustainability by some criteria. Accordingly, these criteria were identified by reviewing the authentic internal and external sources and the hierarchical analysis method. In this way, 10 indicators of security, safety, education, social involvement, population, health, leisure, social responsibility, service satisfaction and place belonging are considered as components of social sustainability and 10 indicators of unemployment rate, agricultural insurance, market access, fluctuations in prices, dependency ratio, mechanization, average income, per capita livestock, economic diversification and investment are considered as components of economic sustainability in rural areas of Iran. The results of the evaluation based on Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) show that, according to rural planning experts, the impact of social and economic components on the sustainability of rural settlements is of the same degree and are not significantly different in terms of importance. In the ranking of the effect of components of social sustainability, the sub-criteria of education has the most impact and the criterion of unemployment rate is the most effective component in the economic sustainability of rural settlements in the country. In general, the results show that both social and economic sustainability criteria should be definitely considered in rural settlements in parallel.

    Keywords: Village, Sustainable Rural Development, Sustainability Criteria, social sustainability, economic sustainability
  • Mahdi Najjari *, Mohammad Hassani Pages 165-180
    Introduction

    Inequality in all forms and levels can have adverse consequences. The study of regional inequality is one of the essential and fundamental steps for planning and reform to provide economic growth along with social justice which could affect the allocation of resources with the aim of eliminating regional inequalities. Educational inequalities are now one of the most important categories in the field of inequality. Education and its indicators, as one of the most important components of development, have a crucial role in the process of comprehensive development by playing their fundamental and decisive role and providing the necessary conditions for the development of societies. Undoubtedly, the educational system plays an essential role in the training of human resources and community development, and effective human resources will be available through equal educational opportunities. The goal of equal opportunities is to prevent, eliminate or reduce discrimination between individuals in terms of gender, geographical, race, physical status, age, language, social class and etc. Wherever educational inequalities reach their maximum, development track will be reduced. Educational justice is achieved when students have equal opportunities to access education. Equal access to higher education is a very significant subject with direct implications for educational policies, the development of the labor market and quality of life. Providing equal conditions for access to educational opportunities is important in many ways, especially in terms of political, social and economic issues. Equal access to education is one of the fundamental rights of all. Equality of educational opportunities is realized when all people are equal to education. This goal has been accepted internationally today, but it has not been fully realized. Although achieving this goal is difficult and long, but it is essential to search for a more just and better world to live in. The purpose of this study was to explaining of geographical Inequality of higher education access opportunities in townships of west Azarbaijan province. Given the issues raised, the importance of equal opportunities for access to education has become more and more clear. It should be noted that educational planning requires the recognition of the current situation and the establishment of a desirable situation. Since educational indicators play a crucial role in the process of comprehensive development and provide the necessary conditions for the development of societies, the purpose of this study was to study the status of the cities of West Azarbaijan province in terms of equality of access to higher education opportunities and identify the causes and factors of inequality of access to higher education opportunities and finally provide a model, solutions and suggestions for improving the accessibility of different regions of the province.

    Methodology

    The present research is an applied research in terms of purpose. In terms of collecting information, it is descriptive-analytic and carried out in a documentary and questionnaire manner. The statistical society is the townships of West Azerbaijan province. West Azarbaijan is one of 31 provinces of Iran and its center is Urmia. West Azarbaijan province has 17 cities and according to the census in 2016 its population is 3265219 people. The sampling method was census. In collecting statistics and information used of questionnaire and national university entrance exam statistic (2016), education statistic (2016), recent census of population and housing (2016), Statistical Yearbook(2015) of west Azarbaijan province. Excel, GIS and SPSS software’s has been used for computing. Topsis models, dispersion coefficient, path analysis and neural networks were used for data analysis. By reviewing theoretical foundations and summing up the results of research on inequality of access to education, four categories of indicators) individual-family, educational, geographical development and reception system (were developed in this study that in order to study of inequality of access to higher education.

    Results and discussion

    Ranking results of districts by using topsis technique shows that there is an inequality between townships of the province in Access opportunities to higher education, Urmia and Chalderan are the richest and the most deprived educational districts of west Azerbaijan respectively. The dispersion coefficient used for measuring the inequality, indicates that the highest inequality 0.75 was for the educational indices and the lowest with 0.46 was for the individual-family background indices. Based on the results of path analysis, educational indices have the highest and geographical development indices have the lowest impact on the inequality of higher education access opportunities. Neural network analysis shows that educational indices and geographical development indices respectively, had the most and the least importance in prognosis inequality of higher education access opportunities among townships of west Azarbaijan province.

    Conclusion

    The results indicate the need of areas that have less access to higher education, the planning and special attention of policy makers in this area to these inequalities. Access to higher education should be facilitated for people and areas where their achievement in higher education has been hampered by obstacles; because they may have the experience and skills that are valuable in national and social development of the country. Also, inequalities have a profound impact on the achievements of people's occupations and the development of regions. Therefore, as a society wants to move towards comprehensive development, it is inevitable to reduce the inequality of educational opportunities among individuals and regions. To reduce geographical inequalities of access to higher education opportunities based on research findings, following suggestions are presented: Provide more educational facilities to deprived areas, eliminating the barriers to development in deprived areas and trying to raise their level of development, establishing an educational system based on justice and eliminating educational and school inequalities, Creating a justice-centered admissions system in higher education, avoid of classification of education, reducing social gap at the community level, allocating quotas for poor areas and improving the quality of school education in deprived areas.

    Keywords: Geographical Inequality, Educational Inequality, Access Opportunities, Higher Education, Townships of West Azarbaijan Province
  • Zohreh Fanni *, Jamileh Tavakoiniya, Maryam Beiranvandzadeh Pages 181-197
    Introduction

    After about three decades of focusing on unidirectional economic growth, the emergence of the unpleasant consequences of this method of development in the natural arenas and the threat of many non-renewable resources since the 1970s onwards, environmental considerations are a decisive factor in the urbanization debate Became the This section should be considered as the beginning of serious attention to environmental affairs, so that by designing the concept of sustainability and the term sustainable development in the 1980s and publishing the Brundtland Report in 1987, the environment was presented as an integrated and integrated look at urban regeneration Brundtland Income, 1987)) The translation of this attention in the context of the city includes the following and many considerations related to these matters, So, we can say that economic, social and environmental analyzes are taking place in the process of urban regeneration. In this process, the data includes the internal stimuli of change, such as existing strategies, availability of resources, resident preferences, participation status, leaders and guides, and specific regional urban features including urban scale analyzes, neighborhood features Existing policies and programs, goals and goals, and future needs and requirements. Foreign stimuli of change, such as: macroeconomic flows in the economy, national and transnational policies, are rival cities' strategies. The output of the process is in various dimensions, including physical dimensions, neighborhood policies, economic development, environmental measures and neighborhood policy. Khorram Abad, with a legal area of 3475 hectares, has 28 neighborhoods and an inefficient (eroded) point with an area of nearly 260 hectares, with a ratio of inefficient tissue to the total area of the city near 7 percent. It is worth noting that part of the inefficient texture of the city of Khorramabad forms about 150 hectares of the historical city texture, which is located in the geometric center of gravity of the physical structure and spatial organization of the city and has a role and function of economic and cultural resources and positions Different from the newly developed regions and consequently in relation to the overall character of the city. The powerful and influential presence of the Falklat Castle in the historical context has given the distinctive cultural influence to the textures. The fitting of the Old Town's market has had a dramatic effect on the city's potential and economic functions in its historical context. In general, this texture is still the center of service, administration, and culture of the city (Omidvar & Biranondzadeh, 2011, p. 95). According to the mentioned cases, the present study aims to investigate the causal relationships between the components affecting sustainable urban regeneration in Khorramabad city inefficient tissue.

    Methodology

    The research type is descriptive-survey, the study area is inefficient tissue of Khorramabad city. The statistical population consisted of 30 experts and 382 inhabitants of the tissue. The data gathering tool was a researcher-made questionnaire, which has been reviewed by the researchers. Cronbach's alpha test was used to measure the reliability of the questionnaire, and the Cronbach's alpha coefficient for all the studied indices was 0.794, which is acceptable in terms of reliability. For data analysis, quantitative models such as Swat Demattel multi-criteria decision making models have been used. Structural equation model was used to measure the effective factors on inefficient tissue regeneration in Khorramabad city. . Friedman test was used to prioritize and rank the effective variables on inefficient tissue regeneration in Khorramabad city. The main assumption of this research is that sustainable urban regeneration is affected by social, economic, physical, managerial and environmental factors.

    Results and discussion

    Structural modalities were used to measure the effective factors on inefficient tissue regeneration in Khorramabad city. Before normal fitting of the model, it is necessary to study the normality of the data for analysis. Therefore, for calculating the normality of the data, the values of skidding and elongation The data is used in this regard, if the values of skewness and elongation of data are outside the range of -3 and +3 (skewness), and -10 and +10, then the assumption of normalization does not exist in this default analysis,Data analysis indicates that if the critical factor is greater than 1.96, the relationship between the two variables is significant with 95% confidence. Also, for the meaning of the relationship, instead of the critical factor, we can use p-value if p -value test is smaller than 0.05. The relationship between these two variables is significant. Considering these cases, other hypotheses have been approved except for the economic impact on urban regeneration. The results of the calculations obtained from Friedman test show that the value of k square statistic with 4 degrees of freedom, as well as the significance level of the P-Value test, was zero. Regarding the above outcomes, the final result is that the influence of the various factors on the sustainable regeneration of the studied tissue is different from the respondents' point of view. Accordingly, the management factor has the highest rating and the environmental factor with the lowest score.

    Conclusion

    Sustainable urban regeneration is the process of comprehensive development in the social, economic, environmental and physical areas in order to improve the quality of life in target areas and neighborhoods in relation to the whole city. The results of this study, which focused on investigating the factors affecting sustainable urban regeneration in the inefficient tissue of Khorramabad city, showed that, regardless of the potential in the tissue, it would not achieve sustainable regeneration in terms of physical, social, economic and environmental conditions. Due to the fact that more than half of Khorramabad's inefficient texture is located in the historical context of the city, the emphasis on tissue recreation is essential. Historical values in the context can be considered as the identity document of the city and urban economic development despite being Historical, religious and natural tourism capabilities are used by D Among the suggestions of this research in order to achieve sustainable regeneration in Khorramabad, we can mention the following:- Promoting social capital within the scope of the study.

    Keywords: Structural analysis, Regeneration, Sustainable Development, sustainable regeneration, Khorramabad
  • Heydar Lotfi *, Hossein Mousazadeh Pages 199-219
    Introduction

    Natural spaces of the city are among the most valuable urban spaces that guarantee their sustainability and quality of life through its multi-functional processes. Not only do these spaces have ecological value, but their ecological design can, in addition to providing suitable tourist areas, also provide the ground for social interactions, including these natural spaces, rivers and urban areas that have been neglected by the rapid growth of cities and in recent decades an excuse to meet the basic needs of the growing population has been destroyed. Therefore, considering the diverse functions and continuous ecological and potential returns of these spaces, one of the necessities of sustainable urban management and development. Therefore, in the present study, in order to understand the best approaches of intervention to recreate, the study of the restoration project of the Alangdarreh River which has led to the construction of the Mellat Park in Gorgan has been studied.

    Methodology

    The present study is based on the purpose of the study, and is a descriptive-analytic study in terms of the research method. The theoretical framework is carried out using the library methodology and literature review. The data and data were collected by using a researcher-made questionnaire for field analyzes. The city of Gorgan, as the capital of the Golestan province, forms the realm of this research. The statistical population of this research includes all citizens of Gorgan city. The sample size was 300 people based on the Cochran formula and the sampling was done by simple random sampling. Classification and Valuation of Indices have been done using the Likert Five Optional Spectrum. In evaluating the validity of the questionnaire, the formal validity and experts' opinions were used and the reliability of the research tool was used as pre-test and Cronbach's alpha coefficient. The Cronbach's alpha coefficient of the questionnaire was 0.85, which indicates a suitable and acceptable reliability of the questionnaire's tool. The collected data were analyzed by SPSS software using statistical methods such as single-sample T-test.

    Results and discussion

    To measure the security indices in the area (Mellat Park), the Alangdarreh River in Gorgan is lower than average, using single sample T test. To this aim, the indicators in 7 sections include a Survey on the General Situation of Security Indicators in the Mellat Park on the Sides of the Alangdarreh River, Security Assessment, Mellat Park on the Gulf of Alangdarreh River (readable design dimension), Assessment of the security status of the Alangdarreh River (Mellat Park) on the health safety aspect, Assessment of the security status of the Alangdarreh River (Mellat Park) on the physical access point, Assessing the security status of the Mellat park and the margin of the Alangdarreh River in lighting, Assessment of the physical security of the Alangdarreh River border, and Assessing the sense of safety of the Mellat Park on the fringe of the Alangdarreh River. The results of each section can be seen in the relevant tables. According to the final table, one-sample T-test to measure citizens' opinions about their satisfaction from the components affecting their quality of life, and the assessment of the normal distribution of responses, taking into account the previous test, and finally the test Based on the results of this parametric test, it can be stated that the importance of citizens' satisfaction as a result of their consequences on the quality of life from their point of view is very high, which shows on most of the components measured satisfactory level This category can be from the test statistic and the significance level of 99% from all Components have been.

    Conclusion

    The results indicate that the overall average in the boost was 2.59%, which is close to the average. Also, the status of the boosters in terms of physical access indicators, readability design, lighting, physical security, sense of security and environmental comfort - environmental pollution (safety, health) with an average of 3.41, 3.07, 2.89, 2.85, 2.283 2.64 are in the best and worst conditions, respectively. It also seems that the level of satisfaction of citizens and residents of the targeted area is very high on the factors affecting their quality of life and the performance of the authorities. So that it can be clearly stated that the citizens of the region and their level of satisfaction with the components of the various parts of the quality of life are high and directly affect the quality of life of each of them. In general, observance of the principles of security in urban park in order to prevent risks and accidents and to protect human and material resources is one of the most important and most important measures that should always be considered. The ignorance and non-observance of the safety principles in urban parks is a consequence of many accidents and damages to people and the environment. Hence, the wilderness has not been the reason for this, so that the findings of the research indicate that this park is in terms of the status of security indicators in unfavorable conditions. Therefore, it is imperative that we identify and reduce as much as possible the safety of these parks, hazards and incidents. Therefore, achieving this goal is not possible without knowing the risks and incidents and acquiring the necessary knowledge and skills on how to prevent them in urban parks.

    Keywords: Urban Rivers, quality of life, Security, Alangdarreh River, Gorgan City
  • Saadi Mohammadi *, Soran Manochehri, Abdolrahman Ahmadi Pages 221-239

    One of these areas of the country, where rural women are now the official and reliable workforce in the family and the rural economy, is the border area of Khavemyrabad in Marivan. In this area, due to the remoteness and weakness of the economic structures, the level of quality of life indicators was absolutely poor, which resulting in extensive migrations of villagers to the city of Marivan. But in recent years, implementation of diversification programs such as: the establishment of border markets, the collection of milk from the countryside, which followed by livestock redevelopment, the integration of agricultural land and the cultivation of crops, holding Educational and promotional classes in agriculture and crafts have been actions that directly and indirectly involve rural women in economic activities and have been able to turn them from an inactive workforce into active workforce with income. This study and analysis of the effects of women's participation in economic activities on their vitality level as a variable that plays an important role in satisfying their lives and their staying in rural environments is the main goal of the present research is to gain a comprehensive understanding of the status quo of the subjective well-being and

    Methodology

    The present applied research in the regards of method is descriptive - analytical based on comparative method (vitality rate before and after participation in economic activity and among active and inactive women). In order to collect the information in the theoretical part by using documentary resources and in the field sect, by using survey method, observation and distribution the questionnaire have been used. The statistical population of this research is rural women working in Khavemyrabad, which according to the purpose of the research and the views of experts and district development officials in a targeted way among the 30 villages inhabited by this district, 18 villages were selected with employed women and with the identified characteristics of the research. Then, due to the extent of the area, among 18 villages, 50% which were equivalent to 9 villages selected, and then by referring to the villages and coordinating with the villages’ officials, by using a targeted sampling of women with characteristics of the case, research opinion was identified and the questionnaires were distributed among 200 of them.

    Discussion and Findings

    The averages of the periods before and after each vitality indices of rural women are significant due to participation in economic activities at a significant level of 0.05 and 95% confidence. So that the mean of emotional index variables from undesirable value 2.87 to 3.56, the mean of cognitive index variables from undesirable 2.67 to 3.51 and the average social index variables from 3.15 prior period have increased to satisfactory level 3.58 in the period after women's participation in activity economic growth. In total, the desirable amount of T statistics at a significant level of 0.05 and an increase of 0.65 from an undesirable amount of 2.89 in the previous period to a satisfactory level of 3.55 in the subsequent period show that with 95 percent confidence, the presence of rural women in economic activities has increased their level of vitality. Then, the independent t-test was used to measure the difference in vitality of rural women with economic activity with passive women. By considering the significance of the amount of statistical T calculated at the alpha level of 0.05, with 95% confidence, the difference in vitality level of these two groups was accepted and according to the obtained means, it can be seen that the vitality of active women is in the rural economy with a satisfactory average of 3.55 versus an unfavorable average of 2.96 inactive women. In order to determine the factors affecting the vitality of rural women, linear regression test was used and dependent variables were introduced. The final results showed that among the variables considered, the calculated significance amount which was less than the significance level of 0.05, the income level variables, the number of women employed in the village and the duration of participation in the economic activities are variables that explain the vitality of rural women and have a meaningful, positive and direct, relationship with the level of rural women’s vitality. By considering the beta value and the calculated T statistic, this is the amount of income variable that has the most explicit role among the variables affecting the vitality of rural women.

    Conclusion

    Sustainability and survival of the rural population depends on their presence in fruitful economic activity, and the economy is the mainstay of creating a vibrant and lively environment in villages, especially deprived and borderline villages, as in the case study, due to the lack of development benefits in centralized planning,the major effort is to survive. As discussed in the theoretical part of the research, the achievement of economic and income benefits among all classes and societies does not have a direct and absolute relationship with their vitality and subjective well-being. But, in poor communities, as in rural areas, and especially in the context of women's discrimination, in the early stages of development, there is a pressing and indisputable need for job creation and income, and the presence of villagers in profitable economic activities, and at this stage, there is a direct relationship between the quality of presence and participation in economic activities and its benefits with the vitality of the villagers. Finally, according to the results, it can be said that at the national level, in the rural development planning system of the country, we have to move towards the creation of diversity in the rural economy, and in this regard, the activities and jobs that are being created should also involve directly the presence of women. To this end, along with economic profitability and livelihoods of villagers, the vitality of rural women has also come to the fore in the pursuit of other goals such as achieving gender equality Which has been introduced as one of the main goals of sustainable rural development. In fact, women's multiple roles in the formulation of laws and policies should be recognized.

    Keywords: Subjective Well-Being, Vitality, rural women, Khawmirabad, district
  • Pegah Izadi *, Zohre Hadiyani, A. Hajinejad, Jaafar Ghaderi Pages 241-261

    The urban management system is successful when its management bodies can coordinate and collaborate between their separate and independent units as well as among other management bodies. In this regard, the synergy approach is considered as one of the results of governance and basis of integrated urban management. Considering the problems of urban decline in the district eight of Shiraz municipality and the ineffectiveness of the plans to reduce these problems, this study seeks to investigate the institutional setting of the regeneration as a step towards the reduction of urban decline in this historical area. The purpose of this study is to examine the interagency synergy related to the regeneration institutions of the case area in order firstly to get an accurate understanding of the status of the relationships of relevant institutions with each other and also, the problems of coordination of trustee institutions will be examined.

    Introduction

    The Eight Municipality of Shiraz, known as the historicalcultural district of the city, today faces various social, economic, physical and environmental problems and suffers from the phenomenon of urban decline, so over the past few years, there have been numerous studies and programs to reduce the urban decline and redevelopment of the region. However, the programs presented have not been realized in many cases or have not been successful in practice. Several factors are involved in the failure to implement urban regeneration plans in this area but one of the important factors in this regard has always been the weakness of the institutional framework in managing and organizing such plans. Reproduction projects show that existing studies often focus on physical problems and institutional framework for the realization of regeneration and the effective factors in managing this approach has been very little considered. Therefore, this research attempts to reduce the urban decline in the historical region by studding the institutional framework and, in particular, the institutional relationship in urban regeneration.This research answers the following questions:Question 1: Are relationships between the trustee organizations of regeneration effective enough to regenerate the historical area of Shiraz?Question 2: Is there a significant relationship between institutional synergy indicators?Question 3: What are the problems of interagency synergy in related to regeneration of the case regional?

    Methodology

    The present research has a theoreticalpractical nature and has been done through descriptiveanalytic method. Required data were collected using questionnaires and interviews. The statistical population of the study includes managers, staff and members of active institutions in the case area, which play a role in regenerating the area. The network analysis method has been used to analyze the data of the questionnaire in order to examine the pattern of interrelationship between the relevant institutions of regeneration and by using the UCINET software; the Institutional Network metrics were extracted. Also, by analyzing the qualitative content of the findings from the interviews, interagency synergistic problems were identified.

    Results and discussion

    • Evaluation of Institutional Indicators of regeneration a. Density: The density at the total level of the partnership link is 32.7%. This amount is 41% in the trust network and 28.2% in the information network. b. Measure of reciprocity: This indicator indicates the number of crosslinks available to the number that should exist. In this regard the municipality organization has a partnership, trust and more informed communication with other recreational institutions (85%, 65%, and 80%). c. Measure of Transitivity: The Measure of Transitivity of the trust network is 25.36%, the transitivity in the participation network is 22.22% and in the information network is 17.85%. It means that, as much as these rates, it is possible to create the participation of each actor with the third actor, the trust of each actor to the third actor, and the availability of information resources to each third party. d. Centrality Degree: Network centrality based on internal links in related to participation is 49% which shows the authority and influence of the central institutions in the network. Based on the centrality degree of the internal links of the partnership network, the reputation of the central institutions in this network is 49%. Central institutions have received a lower level of trust from other institutions (32.5% based on internal links) and also have a lower level of trust to other actors in the network (22% based on external links). The degree of centrality across the entire information network, based on external and internal links, is both 35 percent that is similar and shows that the level of influence of central actors in this network is less than average in terms of reputation and authority.
    Investigating the Relationship between synergy indicators: The significance level of correlation between the two links of trust and participation is zero (sig= 0.001), which indicates that the correlation of the two links is significant. Also there is significant relationship between participation as independent variable and information as dependent variables.Recognition the issues of interinstitutional synergy in the regional regeneration network Interviews were conducted to identify problems faced by institutional synergy. Some of the factors contributing to the institutional synergy that were extracted from the interviews are as follows: Coordination mechanisms Conflict of interest and attitude Legal arrangements Centrality

    Conclusion

    . The following mechanisms can improve the conditions for improving institutional coherence in the regional regeneration network: Increasing the implementation of interagency agreements and adopting legal requirements in this area. Establishing regulations to oblige institutions to coordinate and work together Establishment of intelligent information system, registration of documents and approvals for the transfer of interorganizational information and strengthening of institutional relations in the fields of information acquisition and thematic knowledge of the region. Organizing regular working groups and specialized councils and actively participating institutions

    Keywords: Synergy, interagency, urban management, regeneration, network analysis
  • Kazem Borhani *, Sadralah Goodarzi, Shiva Esmaeili Pages 263-281
    Introduction

    Climate change is one of the brightest examples of human activity. With changes in their environment, humans create conditions that can change the climate and temperature of the air. The clearest indication of human impact on the climate can be seen in cities. Urban development can change in the local and regional climate. The most important impacts of climate change in cities include the urban heat islands. It is well known that urban advancement and development causes climate change, including the creation of a city heat island in metropolitan areas. In fact, urban heat islands are separate units whose temperatures have increased throughout the urban areas and the warmth of which has increased in recent centuries. Despite the heat island, the number of warm days per year also increases. The urban heat island was first introduced in 1819 by Lockheavard in London. Subsequently, this phenomenon was recognized in small and large cities around the world. There are several reasons for the heat island. The main reason for the increase in night heat in buildings in flat, overnight and evapotranspiration nights in urban areas is generally due to asphalt and cement used in urban areas. Modern urban areas usually have dark and no-cost areas over the suburbs. This difference affects the climate, energy consumption and urban habitability. In sum, the dark levels and the lack of vegetation will warm the air of urban areas, which will result in the creation of urban thermal islands. In a summer afternoon (in the air), the weather in a city is about 2.5 degrees Celsius warmer than the surrounding rural areas.The city of Tehran has faced the problem of the thermal islands in the last few decades, due to the concentration of population and economic activity in it. From 1303 to last year, the minimum temperature in Tehran was negative by 15 degrees, which has now reached a negative 5 degrees due to climate change, which means a rise in Tehran's temperature, which has led to a decrease in precipitation and a temperature increase of 2 to 3 degrees. . According to meteorological statistics during these years, the minimum temperature of Tehran and maximum temperature in Tehran have increased and precipitation has decreased by at least 10%. These are the result of climate change due to the excessive use of fossil fuels. In Tehran, about 100 million liters of fossil fuels consumed at a time when most of these fuels become carbon and pollutant gases. Hafteir Square, Enghelab Square, Shoosh Square, Azadi Square and Ghaytrieh Areas are the thermal islets of Tehran. Considering the presence of thermal islands in Tehran and the negative effects on urban society, it appears that using adaptation strategies and reducing the impact of urban planning and management in order to increase the resilience of urban communities seems to be appropriate. The purpose of this paper is to explore the effects of adaptation strategies on urban heat and waste in Tehran. To do this, we first understand these strategies and then, using the viewpoint of experts and managers, the feasibility of their implementation in the city of Tehran has been addressed.

    Methodology

    This research has been conducted on the basis of an analytical descriptive method and its type has been essentially applied. In the first part of the descriptive study, theoretical foundations and scientific literature have been studied and in the analytical section using the fuzzy verbal technique (FMCDM), the feasibility of using strategies Adaptation and reduction of impact against urban islets. In order to implement this technique, a questionnaire designed by experts is being developed. Many experts often cannot use precise numerical values to express their opinions. Therefore, the use of verbal assessments seems to be more realistic. Grades can be transmitted through verbal data such as (very much, much, etc.). ) To fit the theory of fuzzy sets seems to be more appropriate. Therefore, the problem under consideration is a fuzzy multi-criteria decision making (FMCDM) problem. The statistical population of the research is urban planners, designers and managers, a method for determining the sample size of a snowball model.

    Results and discussion

    In order to rank the reduction strategies in terms of the possibility of implementation, the results of the questionnaires were analyzed and the results were obtained based on verbal fuzzy method and digitalization of the numbers. According to the results of the analysis of the questionnaire by fuzzy method, the strategies for changing the colors of the roofs and changing the colors of the urban walls into more reflective colors can be implemented more than other strategies. The strategy of using modern technologies in the architecture of buildings with the least possible use of cooling systems and the use of green roofing technology for residents in the region also have the least possibility of implementation.Adaptation strategies have been less feasible due to their long duration and the need for more planning and budget than some of the strategies to reduce the impact. Civic education strategies aimed at adapting to more temperatures, promoting and educating citizens in the field of saving energy and gas, using methods of attracting participation of citizens in this problem from the possibility of implementation more than other strategies They have adaptation.

    Conclusion

    According to experts, it can be acknowledged that whatever strategy has been considered to be easier to implement, it has gained more privilege in implementing ranking, while strategies that implement stringent conditions And the need for planning and budget has been remarkable, it has got lower ratings in terms of implementation. In general, it can be concluded that the effect reduction strategies are more likely to be implemented in Tehran. Of course, among the reduction strategies, there are some issues that due to the high cost and the need for specialized work and the appropriate field of study, some of the adaptation strategies are in the possibility of implementation in the lower ranks.

    Keywords: Feasibility study, Heat Islands, adaptation, Mitigation, Tehran Metropolis
  • Mohammad Adabi Mamaqani, Abdolreza Roknoddin Eftekhari *, Mehdi Purtaheri, Hosein Sadeghi Pages 283-301
    Introduction

    Today, the use of clean and renewable energy in rural areas to provide sustainable energy is a prerequisite for sustainable development. The endless of fossil fuels and their constraints in providing energy and environmental damage caused by the use of fossil fuels, necessitates the use and development of renewable energy applications, in particular solar energy utilization as a The source of sustainable energy and free of environmental pollution. The necessity of using these resources due to the depletion of conventional energy resources and the limitation of fossil resources, the negative environmental impacts of the use of hydrocarbon resources, rising prices of fossil fuels, political conflicts and its impact on the provision of sustainable energy and environmental issues related to some of the reasons. The use of solar energy, as one of the forms of renewable energy in rural areas, requires acceptance by residents of rural areas. The present paper is also based on the hypothesis that "solar energy technology (solar panel) has low acceptance among villagers". With the aim of analyzing the level of acceptance of this kind of energy among the villagers, this way the villagers' attitude toward it is determined. This paper seeks to analyze the level of acceptance of the solar panel technology by the villagers (consumers) and to measure the attitudes of the villagers towards the solar energy technology.

    Methodology

    With respect to the components studied and nature of subject, this research is carried out by a descriptive – analytical method. Reviewing the concepts and principles of related issue, required data was collected by using library and field survey (questionnaire). In this study, 27 villages from Kaleybar and Khodaafarin Township in East Azarbaijan province were selected as the statistical population. Five villages with solar panels (Qalehloo, Ilanhekesh, Hormaghan Sufla, MusaKandy and Hasanbigloo) and 22 villages without solar panels are selected as research case study. The research unit of this study is household superintendents with 60 households in 5 villages with solar panels as a unit of analysis. In non-panel villages, 256 households were selected through Cochran's sampling method. In total, 316 household heads were selected as the sample population. Collected data were analyzed by sample t-test.

    Results and discussion

    Statistical findings indicate that in the villages of the solar panel, the level of acceptance in the three dimensional dimensions of sustainable development including the economic, social and environmental dimensions of solar energy technology is below the average and is equal to 2.01. However, this amount is higher than the average, and its rate in the three dimensions of environmental, social and economic is 4.28, 4.14 and 4.12, respectively. The attitude toward solar panels technology is positive in villages without solar panel technology.Based on the results of the findings of this article, one of the main challenges facing sustainable development in rural communities is energy and environmental issues. Today, environmental protection and energy shortage issues and the use of renewable energy technologies (such as solar energy) are being increasingly addressed by many people around the world. This issue has also been recognized and recognized by the majority of people in developed and developing countries. This is more important for villages that are far away from the global electricity grid. On the other hand, many rural areas of the country due to limitations such as high altitude, gravity and poor weather conditions, and the remoteness of energy resources, the possibility of electricity to provide the necessary energy for those areas, often away from the bronze roads, Either not available or economically feasible. Hence, rural-scale solar panel technology can be a suitable option for addressing the problems of sustainable rural energy supply due to its simplicity and low cost, and is an effective step towards sustainable rural development. Photovoltaic systems among other solar systems, in addition to the ease of use and usefulness after installation, also have the lowest maintenance costs. Meanwhile, the replacement of traditional and fossil sources with the use of renewable technologies by the rural community requires the introduction, publication, and ultimately change of attitude and acceptance between the target community. If solar technology is to be addressed as an innovation, the dissemination of those requirements will include increasing the knowledge and knowledge of villagers about the benefits of using new energies against the flaws of fossil fuels and providing appropriate funding. Hence, education and continuity in knowledge, knowledge and knowledge, and continuous use of knowledge of the day about how the management and development of the use of new energies by the rural community can affect the adoption of modern renewable energy technologies, especially solar energy technology. Ultimately, the dissemination and diffusion of energy efficient renewable energy and its application by villagers requires that technology and policy makers, in addition to considering and adopting appropriate technology with the rural environment, must change the attitude of the villagers and also new environmental changes in To consider

    Conclusion

    The diffusion of the solar technology as an innovation, requires increasing the knowledge and awareness of villagers about the benefits of using renewable energies and providing appropriate funding. However, education and continuity in knowledge, awareness the use of new energies by the rural community can affect attitude toward the adoption of modern renewable energy technologies, especially solar energy technology.In addition, by examining the results of the findings and comparing them with studies carried out in this field, we can say that the results of this paper are compared with the work of Yang Feng (2012), Shellley (2014), M. Oder et al. (2015) in Uganda, Lutra et al. (2015), because the researchers also concluded in their study that public awareness and understanding of renewable energy and solar power Also, informing the villagers plays an essential role in changing the attitudes of the villagers and accepting solar energy on their behalf. But Veronique Vasser and Rene Camp (2015) in their study in Holland have identified the economic factors and cost of solar cells as a factor in the lack of acceptance of solar energy by the villagers.

    Keywords: acceptance, technology, Solar energy, Rural Areas, East Azarbaijan
  • Reza Jahanbin *, Freydoun Babaei Agdam, Shahrivar Roostaei, Akbar Asghari Zamani Pages 303-321
    Introduction

    In recent decades, cities in developing countries have witnessed the formation of a disrupted urbanization in developing countries, which, according to Charles Abrams, are marginalized, and in the urban cycle of " Social Gate Keepers". Informal settlements, as a striking feature of urban poverty and spatial inequality, have created a critical focus on sustainable human development, and it seems that all human groups in it are in multi-faceted poverty conditions, but Complications and injuries caused by informal settlements are more noticeable in children and women. Concerns about the inclusion of a group of women in the "poorest poor" group have led to the development of different approaches, including "empowering women." This theory seeks to empower women through the redistribution of power within the family and society. Studies in Ilam's informal settlements indicate the rule of poverty, especially in the women's group. Accordingly, The present paper aims to analyze the relationship between economic factors and empowerment of women in informal settlements of Ilam city. So there are some questions: What are the most important economic factors and how is each of them related to the empowerment of women?

    Methodology

    The present research is an applied nature and has used survey as a method. To collect the data, a researcher-made questionnaire was utilized. The research population is women, 18 years of age and older, residing in informal settlements in Ilam selected through random sampling. Based on the Cochran's formula 377 women were selected. The validity of the questionnaire was determined through content validity and its reliability was determined through Cronbach's alpha (0.89). Data were analyzed using SPSS and running Analysis of Variance (F), Pearson correlation test, T-test, and regression analysis. AMOS was used also for the structural equation modeling(SEM).

    Results and discussion

    In this research, the impact of economic factors such as access to a job with income, type of job (free, state), income, access to banking facilities such as loans, legal ownership (home, land, cars, bank deposits, gold and jewelry), The power of savings, covered by the supportive institution of empowerment of women. The research data showed that women in terms of ownership of property and assets are at a low level and there is a significant and indirect relationship between the enjoyment of legal ownership rights and the empowerment of women. That is, the higher the level of legal ownership of women, the less women's empowerment and vice versa. In terms of employment, 90% of women in the marginalized areas of Ilam are unemployed and women without employment are very poorly trained. The accountable women who are employed, 8 percent are employed in free and 3.4 percent in government jobs. The empowerment of women employed in the public sector with unemployed and unemployed women has a significant difference, and women working in the public sector have a higher level of ability than unemployed and self-employed women. There is also a direct relationship between women's income and empowerment. Whatever the income of women, their empowerment will increase. There is a direct relationship between access to banking facilities and women's empowerment. The less the access of women to the bank facilities, the less they are empowered. Research data also indicate that 15% of female respondents are covered by a supportive institution. Empowering women who are protected by the institution is more. And in the end, 85% of women have a low back-up power. Women with lower retention power are less likely to empower them. Regarding the regression coefficients of the research variables, among the independent variables, the variable having the legal ownership right with the -0.978 = has the most effect on the women's empowerment variable, after which access to the bank facilities (= 409), the income = 226/0, retention power with = 155/0, protected by the institution with 0.071 =, job type with 0.057 =, and finally, access to a job with income = 0.30 = 0 in the explanation The dependent variable has been affected. In this research, after the data extraction and analysis of their results, a structural equation model was drawn.

    Conclusion

    Following the revision of the concept of sustainable development, developing countries are now struggling to foster women's participation in the development process, but in suburban neighborhoods, a very low level of women's economic status hinders their social activity and their effective participation. Studies in the informal settlements of Ilam city all indicate the domination of economic deterrent structures for women's groups. The findings of this study showed that economic factors such as access to a job with income, type of job, income, bank facilities, protection of the supporting institution, saving power, and legal ownership of women empowerment have a role. Among these variables, the enjoyment of legal property rights has the greatest impact on the empowerment of women. In terms of ownership of property and property, women are at a low level, and at the time of their enjoyment, they will not increase their decision-making in the individual and family.In terms of employment status, 90% of accountable women are unemployed in the informal settlements of Ilam and 83% are unemployed. 86% of them have limited access to bank facilities. Research data also suggest that only 15% of women are covered by supporting institutions, and, finally, 85% of women have a low retention power. In this paper, structural equation modeling method, one of the new methods for studying causal relationships between variables, was used using AMOS software. In this paper, structural equation analysis of the proposed model was performed. according to the indicators of goodness and fit of the model, the research model has a relatively suitable fit.

    Keywords: empowerment of women, economic factors, Informal Settlements, women in development, Ilam City
  • Hadi Yaghoot Hardani *, Seyed Hasan Motiee Langroodi, Fazileh Khani, Mojtaba Ghadiri Masoum Pages 323-346
    Introduction

    Today, efforts to integrate the principles and objectives of sustainability and the combination of environmental along with economic and social considerations as the main target of planners and policy makers in the field of rural development. In this context, strategic approaches to environmental assessment can be available as a powerful tool for reaching the above goal for decision-makers of rural development. Based on several decades of development planning experience in Iran, efforts to achieve rapid economic growth have caused that the integrity of environmental, economic and social considerations not considered in many national and regional and local development initiatives and as a result, have significant damage to the human and natural environment in many parts of the country. Especially, it is very important for rural areas of khuzestan province which have a direct dependence on natural resources and environmental resources for meet your livelihood needs. The purpose of this study is to use environmental screening in relation to the strategic actions of rural development and with emphasizing on the strategic document of economic development in khuzestan province as one of the most important of strategic measures in the urban and rural development of khuzestan province.

    Methodology

    The present study was an applied research based on the objective and type, while it was classified in the descriptive and analytical studies group in terms of nature and methodology. The screening process has been conducted by using checklists and matrices in the Fuzzy Delphi framework. In this research, 26 of environmental experts and intellectualin planning areas have been asked to participate in various levels of data collection. According to the methodology framework, the screening process has been carried out based on three key structures and components A: the characteristics of strategic action, B: characteristics of the environmental effects and C: the area likely to be covered and affected and also 27 environmental screening criteria. In addition, in order to make a final decision, three essential conditions were identified as a prerequisite for deciding whether to accept or reject the environmental significance of strategic action. Among the three conditions, the first condition of the structural distances is less than the threshold of 0.2 in relation to acceptance or rejection of the structures, and the second condition is the percentage of the consensus of the experts and the decision group higher than the threshold of 0.75 and the third condition The criterion rating in the structure is based on the definite values of significance above the threshold of 0.7 in relation to the screening criteria.

    Results and discussion

    Screening results showed that the strategic action has significant environmental impactin in terms of key structures such as content characteristics, environmental impacts, and geographic coverage and its implementation will have a significant potential impact on the environment of rural areas. The results showed that according to first prerequisite, the specific value of threshold value,d-construct (Tvd-c) estimated for three key structures and components such as A: the characteristics of strategic action, B: characteristics of the environmental effects and c: the area likely to be covered and affected respectively was 0.005, 0.007, and 0.01 and lower the threshold value of 0.2. So, represents a high level of decision-making agreement about the environmental significance of "strategic document for economic development of khuzestan province". According to the data collected from consensus of experts, estimated values for environmental screening criteria including (A1) the degree to which the strategic action sets a framework for projects and other activities; (A2) the degree to which the strategic action influences other PPS including those in a hierarchy; and (A4) environmental problems relevant to the strategic action is above the threshold (0.7) and the estimated values for (A3) the relevance of the strategic action for the integration of environmental considerations in particular with a view to promoting sustainable development and (A5) the relevance of the strategic action for the implementation of community legislation on the environment is below the threshold (0.7). Furthermore, the results showed that based on second prerequisite (consensus of experts (above 75%)) and third prerequisite (Crisp values (above 0.7)), the definite amount of risk of environmental outcomes on livelihoods and welfare of rural communities is equal to (0.79) and on environmental health and natural resources equal to (0.78) and for (a) the probability, duration, frequency and reversibility of the effects, transboundary nature of the effects is above the threshold (0.7) and which is significant. In addition, the environmental significance of the above-mentioned strategic document, from the aspect of the geographical area and size of the population likely to be affected including populated and high-density areas, habitats with natural landscape, intensive land used areas and areas affected by current environmental problemshave been evaluated higher than "remarkable''.

    Conclusion

    According to the principles of sustainable development theory, attention to the environment and the goals of sustainability and the integration of environmental considerations must be made at all levels of strategic decision-making. In rural development planning system, strategic approaches to environmental assessment including Strategic Environmental Screening Process (SES), can be used as a powerful tool for achieving the above goal and for Mainstreaming environmental considerations alongside socioeconomic issues. In this research, based on the results of the strategic environmental screening, the "strategic document for economic development of khuzestan province" in relation to the key structures and components such as A: the characteristics of strategic action, B: characteristics of the environmental effects and c: the area likely to be covered and affected and as well as many of the screening criteria including environmental impacts on livelihoods and welfare of villagers, impact on environmental health and natural resources has significant environmental impactin and its implementation will have a significant potential impact on the human and natural environment of rural areas in khuzestan province. Therefore, it is suggested that in order to change and modify the policies and development strategies the strategic action to be reviewed and or subject to strategic environmental assessment.

    Keywords: Rural Development, Strategic actions, Strategic Environmental Screening (SES), Khuzestan, Iran
  • Marjan Badiee Azandehie *, Fatemeh Mirahmadi, Bahador Gholami Pages 347-365
    Introduction

    Although the issue of “constitution” is usually studied in the field of public law, it is also a subject of interest to political geographers. One of the issues following which the constitution is formed is the occurrence of a revolution or coup de ’tat in one country. Iran is a country that has experienced two major and important political revolutions in less than a century: the “Constitutional Revolution” and the “Islamic Revolution”, the greatest achievement of both being the development of constitution. This article compares the concept of “national sovereignty” as one of the most important and fundamental concepts of political geography in these two laws.

    Methodology

    This present study is an applied research. In order to compare the concept of national sovereignty in the constitutional system and Islamic republic constitutions, the “documentary method” has been used and then data has been analyzed in an analytical manner. Data has been collected through library and computer resources.

    Results and discussion

    Both domestic and foreign conditions and factors have affected the development of both constitution as well as expressing the “concept of national sovereignty” in terms of “time” and “place”. For example, the “constitutional constitution” reflects the political, economic, and cultural factors of the country and the mentalities of the influential people in the Constitutional Revolution. So that the text of “the constitution and its complement” also explicitly represents the customs and traditions, beliefs and desires of the various social classes, the apparent and hidden forces and powers affecting and dominating the constitutional revolution. The spirit of the “constitutional constitution” has also been influenced by external factors, especially the constitution of countries such as France and Belgium. While the spirit of the “Constitution of the Islamic Republic”, under the influence of internal and external factors, reflects the ideological nature of the Islamic Revolution of Iran, Imam Khomeini's ideas, freedom from the domination of foreigners, joining the Muslim world and supporting the oppressed people of the world.The concept of “national sovereignty” in the constitution of the Islamic Republic, while having similarities with the constitution of the constitutional system, also has serious differences with that law. Both laws, consider “sovereignty of people” on their political destiny, in both laws the “rule of sovereignty” has been considered under the control of the three forces (albeit with differences), in both laws for the political participation of the people, special attention has been paid to “election”, and finally, in both laws, the conformity of the laws with the “Islamic rules” has been considered. But at the same time, the concept of “national sovereignty” in the constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran has some differences with the constitution of the constitutional system. As an example, there is a major difference between the political system of the constitutional revolution and the Islamic Republic. Moreover, in the constitution of the constitutional system, “the sovereignty of the nation” was envisaged, while in the constitution of the Islamic Republic the “double sovereignty” (both the God and the nation) was considered; also in the constitution of the constitutional system, “the leadership of the state” was with the “king”. While in the constitution of the Islamic Republic, a religious leader called “the supreme leader” is at the head of government; the Islamic Republic's constitution also emphasizes the “implementation of Islamic law”. In order to adapt the contents of the laws of the Islamic Consultative Assembly to Islamic standards and the constitution, a 12-member assembly called the “Constitution Guard Council”, with the participation of six members of just and well-informed jurisprudents of the time, to elect a leader and six lawyers has been predicted by the Islamic Consultative Assembly. The Guardian Council has also interpreted the constitution and confirmed the credentials of presidential candidates and Islamic Consultative Assembly members. Finally, it seems that both constitutions, despite having been drafted in different time and space, have drawn attention to the “concept of national sovereignty” jointly. Although the constitution of the Islamic Republic, contrary to the Constitution of the constitutional system, has emphasized the “relative sovereignty of the nation”, it has witnessed a greater emphasis on the role of the people in the national state through emphasis on elections in different affairs and referring to people's direct opinions.

    Conclusion

    The comparison of “the concept of national sovereignty” in the two constitutions shows that “the constitution of constitutional system, considers “sovereignty” as belonging to only that nation, while the Islamic Republic's constitution considers absolute sovereignty as belonging to God but at the same time believes in the “sovereignty of man”. The concept of sovereignty in the constitution of constitutional system refers to the sovereignty of the people on their political and social destiny and their country, but in the “Constitution of the Islamic Republic’, the notion of “sovereignty of the people” refers to their sovereignty over political and social fate and their country, the right to legislate, the independence and territorial integrity of the country. The method of “exercising national sovereignty” in the “Constitution” of constitutional system is mainly through the election of Parliament representatives, while in the “Constitution of the Islamic Republic”, people exercise sovereignty by defining the type of political system, drafting, approving and reviewing the constitution, deciding on important economic and political issues through referendum, election of the leader, the election of the president, the election of parliamentarians, the election of city and village Islamic councils, and the oversight of government officials. In other words, the mainstream way in order to exercise national sovereignty in the “Constitution of the Islamic Republic” is “election”. Therefore, it can be said that the “Islamic Republic of Iran Constitution” provides a more comprehensive concept of “national sovereignty”

    Keywords: National Sovereignty, Constitution, Constitutional Revolution, Islamic Revolution, Iran
  • Yasaman Asadi, Mohammadreza Jelokhani Niaraki *, Keyvan Ezimand Pages 367-383
    Introduction

    The environment is arena of human life and. In the last few decades, concerns about the quality of the living environment has been one of the most important problem of the society. Unsustainable and irregular development of cities that the producing the majority of the contaminants and are the center of all other human activities (Seyfadin and Mansourian, 2011, p53), cause different kind of crisis like environmental problem and reduced quality of the environment (Camp et al, 2003, p. 16). Thus improvement of the quality of urban living environment is one of the most important goals of any society. Quality of life is a complex and multi-dimensional concept that encompasses social, economic, environmental and physical dimensions of urban quality is one of the key dimensions of quality of life. Tehran is a metropolis that is in critical environmental conditions in many of the 22 regions (Farhadi and Taheri, 2009: 204). In 2017, the city ranked 199th out of 231 major cities in the world in terms of urban quality (Mercer Human Resources Advisor, 2017). At present, the continuation of the current trend can seriously affect the viability of Tehran in the not too distant future, therefore, special studies and investigations are needed to improve and improve the quality of Tehran's environment. The main objective of this study is to assess the quality of the environmental dimension of urban life with incorporation AHP-OWA method in different scenarios and based on different degrees of risk taking. As well as the analysis and study of dimensions and identifying effective indicators on the environmental dimension of urban life quality, and remarking the problems and deficiencies in order to help managers and urban planners are the goals of this study.

    Method

    In terms of the nature, this study is a descriptive-quantitative and analytical one because by providing information about studied option, we describe it, then analyzes the data through different procedures.In this method first criteria are extracted using satellite images, layers of information and pollution measurement stations data that contains: greenness, the temperature of the Earth's surface, air pollution, noise pollution and vulnerability of urban buildings. In the second stage, the analysis and comparison of two for two criteria done using hierarchical analysis method for the determination of the final criteria weights. Finally, we overlap the above mentioned indicators through the AHP-OWA consolidated method in the Arc GIS and final indicator the environmental of urban life quality resulted. Region 6 of Tehran is selected as the research territory and geography and statistical population resulted from this region. This is an area with a surface of 45.2138 hectares, approximately 3.3 percent of the city surface and in view of geographic location is located in the central district of Tehran.

    Results

    After providing the standard criteria affecting the final quality of the living environment, the final environmental dimension of quality of urban life derived using the analysis overlap. To calculate the weight of the criteria, Choice Expert software is used. Paired comparison matrix indicates that air pollution has the most and the temperature of the Earth's surface has the lowest importance in evaluating the quality of the urban environment. The amount of incompatibility in paired comparison criteria is 0.04 and shows being the comparison is acceptable.Findings of criteria map shows that Keshawarz Boulevard, Saei and Valfajr neighborhoods have appropriate greenness, while in Vanak neighborhood due to high density of buildings greenness is not sufficient. The Earth's surface temperature criteria suggests that Northern neighborhoods have the highest value of land surface temperature and the neighbors with sufficient vegetation have the minimum value. The amount of air pollution in the central and southern to southwest regions of Tehran is higher than north and northeast of city.In terms of noise pollution criteria, the neighborhoods located in the south of the city have worse situations than north and central localities. Finally the results of the vulnerability of the building shows that 42% of buildings have low vulnerability, 53% with the average vulnerability and 5% have high vulnerability.

    Conclusion

    Results in different scenarios suggest that 7% of the region is in very appropriate, 29% in appropriate, 17% in the medium condition, 22% in an inappropriate situation and 24% are in very bad situations. According to the environmental quality of urban life in designed scenarios, The environmental quality of urban life in the most pessimistic designed scenarios indicates that no neighborhood is in a very good group and 3 are in a very inappropriate group, 4 are in the middle group and 2 are in the appropriate group, while the most optimistic. The state has 6 neighborhoods in the appropriate group and 1 neighborhood in the inappropriate group. Also, 1 neighborhood in the inappropriate group, 2 neighborhoods in the middle group and 4 neighborhoods in the appropriate group. This indicates that in modeling the quality of life in this area even if the degree of risk taking in decision-making is increased or a very optimistic view of the environmental dimension of quality of life is still 1 neighborhood of this area namely Amirabad neighborhood with very poor quality of life and 1 neighborhood. That is, Ganjavi's Nezamy district has a poor quality of life. The results also suggest that of the south and southwest parts of the region are in better situation compared to the north and north-astern. According to the different scenarios in different degrees of risk taking, in this area, air pollution is the first and the most effective factor in reducing dimension of environmental life quality. So planning and preventive measures to reduce air pollution is proposed to solve this problem.

    Keywords: Urban Environment quality_remote sensing_Multi criteria analysis_AHP -OWA method_region 6 of Tehran municipality