فهرست مطالب

پژوهش های کاربردی زراعی - پیاپی 126 (بهار 1399)
  • پیاپی 126 (بهار 1399)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1399/01/01
  • تعداد عناوین: 7
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  • حمیدرضا بابائی* صفحات 1-22

    سویا (Glycine max L.) یکی از گیاهان روغنی مهم در دنیا است که سهم عمده ای در تامین روغن و پروتیین خوراکی انسان و دام دارد. این پژوهش با هدف بررسی تنوع ژنتیکی ژرم پلاسم داخلی سویا در سال 1392 در کرج انجام گردید. بدین منظور زمین آزمایشی با انجام عملیات معمول زراعی آماده و 354 ژنوتیپ ها به هفت گروه شامل چهار گروه 51 تایی و سه گروه 50 تایی تقسیم و ژنوتیپ های هر گروه در دو ردیف سه متری با دو تکرار کشت گردید. در طول فصل رشد و زمان برداشت ژنوتیپ ها از نظر خصوصیات زراعی، مرفولوژیکی و فنولوژیکی ارزیابی شدند. تجزیه واریانس براساس طرح آشیانه ای نشان داد که بین گروه های ژنوتیپی از حیث کلیه صفات مورد بررسی و بین ژنوتیپ های داخل گروه از حیث صفات عملکردی، طول دوره پرشدن دانه و تعداد روز تا گلدهی اختلاف منعی دار وجود دارد. بیشترین تنوع تغییرات فنوتیپی برای صفات عادت رشدی (55 %)، عملکرد دانه (40 %)، بدست آمد. دامنه تغییرات صفات عملکرد دانه 7/25 - 1/2 گرم، طول دوره رشد 126 - 86 روز ، و وزن صد دانه 7/24 - 8/6 گرم بود. تجزیه کلاستر ژنوتیپ ها را در چهار کلاستر قرار داد که اغلب ژنوتیپ ها در کلاستر 1 دیررس و رشد نامحدود، در کلاستر 2 رشد محدود با دوره رشد متوسط، در کلاستر 3 پرمحصول و زودرس و در کلاستر 4 اغلب کم ارتفاع و کم محصول، رشد نیمه محدود بودند. الگوی پراکنش ژنوتیپ ها توسط نمودار دو مولفه صفات فنولوژیکی (PC1) و مولفه عملکردی (PC2) تطابق خوبی با نتایج تجزیه خوشه ای داشت.

    کلیدواژگان: عملکرد، اجزاء عملکرد، مراحل رشد زایشی، تجزیه خوشه ای و تجزیه به مولفه های اصلی
  • غلامحسین احمدی* صفحات 23-43
    تنش خشکی آخر فصل از مهمترین عوامل تاثیر گذار در تولید گندم دوروم (Triticum turgidum var. durum Desf.) است. لذا با هدف شناسایی لاین های جدید متحمل به این تنش، تعداد 154 لاین گندم دوروم در شرایط آبیاری بهینه و تنش خشکی آخر فصل (قطع آبیاری از مرحله آبستنی یا Z=4.5) در ایستگاه تحقیقات کشاورزی اسلام آباد غرب طی سال های 92-1391 و 93-1392 کشت شدند. براساس عملکرد دانه دو محیط، شاخص های تحمل به خشکی محاسبه شد. بین لاین های مورد بررسی تنوع بالایی برای عملکرد و شاخص های تحمل به خشکی مشاهده شد. تجزیه خوشه ای لاین ها را در 6 گروه جای داد. تعداد 12 لاین با قرار گرفتن در یک گروه، براساس بیشتر شاخص های تحمل به خشکی و عملکرد دو محیط نسبت به دیگر گروه ها برتر بودند. نتایج تجزیه به مولفه های اصلی لاین-های برتر نشان داد لاین هایG41، G116، G123 و G199 بهترین لاین ها برای تحمل به خشکی آخر فصل بوده و در شرایط آبیاری بهینه نیز عملکرد مطلوبی داشتند. از طرف دیگر لاین های G50، G46 و G38 برای شرایط بهینه مناسب بوده و واجد تحمل به تنش آخر فصل نیز بودند. لاین های G29 وG157 هرچند در بین لاین های برتر بودند، اما تحمل به تنش پایینی نشان دادند و برای شرایط بهینه مناسب بودند. لاین های G105، G93 و G159 به شرایط تنش انتهایی متحمل بودند، اما در شرایط بهینه عملکرد پایینی داشتند. بطورکلی چهار لاین به شماره های G41، G116، G123 وG199، بویژه لاین G116، پتانسیل تولید رقم برای تنش خشکی انتهای فصل را داشته و برای شرایط منطقه مورد مطالعه یا مناطق مشابه قابل توصیه می باشند.
    کلیدواژگان: گندم دوروم، تنش خشکی، تنش خشکی آخر فصل
  • رضا اقنوم*، حمیدرضا شریفی، مسعود عزت احمدی صفحات 44-60

    این تحقیق به منظور بررسی اثر نظام های کشاورزی حفاظتی و متداول بر جمعیت نماتدهای پارازیت گیاهی به مدت 5 سال زراعی (1396-1391) در نظام تناوبی رایج در منطقه سرد(گندم- چغندرقند) در ایستگاه تحقیقات کشاورزی جلگه رخ به صورت کرت های خرد شده در قالب بلوک های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار انجام شد. روش های خاک ورزی شامل، خاک ورزی متداول، کم خاک ورزی و بی خاک ورزی در کرت های اصلی ومدیریت بقایای گیاهی شامل تیمار بدون بقایا، حفظ 30 و 60 درصد بقایای گیاهی در کرت های فرعی قرار گرفتند. نماتد های پارازیت گیاهی شامل نماتد مولد زخم ریشه (Pratylenchus neglectus)، نماتد سنجاقی).(Paratylenchus spp، Geocenamus spp.، نماتد ساقه و پیاز (Ditylenchus spp.)، Boleodorus spp.، .Filenchus spp و Tylenchus spp. جداسازی و تشخیص داده شدند. نتایج تجزیه واریانس تعداد نماتد های پارازیت گیاهی نشان داد اثر خاک ورزی بر جمعیت Filenchus spp. و اثر برهمکنش خاک ورزی و نگهداری بقایای گیاهی بر جمعیت نماتد سنجاقی و نماتد ساقه و پیاز معنی دار بود. اثر تیمارهای مختلف خاک ورزی، سطوح مختلف نگهداری بقایای گیاهی و برهمکنش خاک ورزی و نگهداری بقایای گیاهی بر جمعیت سایر گونه های نماتد پارازیت گیاهی و تعداد کل نماتد های پارازیت گیاهی از نظر آماری معنی دار نبود. نتایج این تحقیق نشان داد در شرایط اقلیمی جلگه رخ و در نظام تناوبی گندم- چغندر قند، اعمال تیمار های کشاورزی حفاظتی تاثیر قابل ملاحظه ای بر جمعیت نماتد های مهم پارازیت گیاهی نداشته است و خطر وقوع این عوامل بیماریزا را افزایش نمی دهد.

    کلیدواژگان: بقایای گیاهی، بیماری های گیاهی، تناوب زراعی، خاک ورزی
  • علی داد کرمی* صفحات 61-81

    تاثیر سامانه های خاک ورزی حفاظتی و مرسوم بر خصوصیات فیزیکی خاک در اراضی ایستگاه تحقیقات کشاورزی داراب ارزیابی شد. تحقیق در مزرعه ای که سامانه های بی خاک ورزی، کم خاک ورزی و مرسوم، سالیان متمادی در جوار هم اعمال شده بود انجام شد. اثرات سامانه ها با آمار توصیفی و زمین آمار بررسی شد. نمونه برداری بصورت تصادفی و با توزیع یکنواخت انجام و ویژگی های بافت، EC، pH اندازه گیری شد. نفوذ آب به خاک با مدل های کوستیاکوف و فیلیپ بررسی شد. عملکرد گندم در 2 متر مربع در سایت های آزمایشی اندازه گیری شد. با استفاده از نرم افزارهای SPSS، Excel و GS+ تجزیه و تحلیل انجام شد. نتایج نشان داد: عملکرد گندم از 1850 تا 8150 کیلوگرم در هکتار متغیر بود. میانگین عملکرد گندم در کم خاک ورزی، بی خاک ورزی و مرسوم به ترتیب 6137، 4425 و 3589 کیلوگرم در هکتار و در سطح یک درصد اختلاف معنی دار داشت. بین ویژگی های خاک و ضرایب مدل های نفوذ همبستگی معنی داری وجود داشت. بهترین مدل نیم تغییرنما برای pH، EC، درصد شن، سیلت و رس و ضریب A مدل فیلیپ مدل کروی و برای ضریب a و b مدل کوستیاکوف و نفوذ تجمعی در 150 دقیقه مدل نمایی و برای ضریب S مدل فیلیپ، مدل گوسی بود. بهترین میان یاب برای pH، EC، درصد شن، درصد رس، ضریب a و S روش کریجینگ و برای درصد سیلت، ضریب b و A و نفوذ تجمعی در 150 دقیقه روش IDW بود. ضریب a و S نشان داد که خاک ورزی مرسوم با تهدید شرایط فیزیکی خاک حرکت آب در خاک را کاهش داده است. بهترین تیمار روش کم خاک ورزی بود.

    کلیدواژگان: تغییرپذیری مکانی، زمین آمار، کیفیت خاک، نفوذ آب به خاک
  • علیرضا صمدزاده، غلامرضا زمانی، حمیدرضا فلاحی* صفحات 82-104

    معرفی گیاهان جدید سازگار با اکوسیستم های تحت تنش یکی از روش های مفید جهت تولید پایدار محصولات زراعی تیرماه) و تراکم 15 خرداد و 15 اردیبهشت، 15در جهت تامین امنیت غذایی می باشد. در این تحقیق اثرات زمان (بوته در مترمربع) بر رشد رویشی و زایشی گیاه کینوا، بصورت آزمایش فاکتوریل بر مبنای طرح 60 و 45 ،30 ،15کاشت (بررسی شد. اثرات ساده تاریخ و تراکم 1396 بلوک های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در شرایط اقلیمی بیرجند در سال کاشت و نیز اثر متقابل عوامل آزمایشی بر بیشتر صفات مورد مطالعه شامل وزن خشک بوته، تعداد شاخه جانبی در گیاه، عملکرد بیولوژیک، تعداد خوشه (پانیکول) در گیاه، طول و وزن خوشه، تعداد دانه در گیاه و عملکرد دانه معنی دار بود. بوته در مترمربع و تاریخ کاشت اردیبشهت ماه حاصل شد. بیشترین 15 دانه) در تراکم 806بیشترین تعداد دانه در گیاه (کیلوگرم در هکتار که 380 بوته (45و کمترین عملکرد دانه به ترتیب از تیمارهای کاشت گیاه در اردیبشهت ماه با تراکم کیلوگرم در هکتار) به دست آمد. با این وجود، عملکرد دانه 25 بوته در مترمربع (15و کاشت گیاه در تیرماه با تراکم در این تیمار نیز با عملکرد واقعی گیاه تفاوت زیادی داشت و بنابراین ارزیابی سایر ارقام این گیاه و یا سایر تاریخ های کاشت پاییزه، زمستانه و تابستانه دارای اهمیت است.

    کلیدواژگان: ارتفاع بوته، پانیکل، شاخص برداشت، شاخه جانبی، عملکرد دانه
  • ویدا ورناصری قندعلی*، محمود رمرودی، عباس نصیری دهسرخی صفحات 105-124
    به منظور بررسی تغذیه برگی عناصر آهن، روی و منگنز بر عملکرد و اجزای عملکرد لوبیا قرمز تحت شرایط قطع آبیاری، پژوهشی در سال زراعی 96-1395 در مزرعه ای تجاری واقع در شهرستان مبارکه به صورت کرت های خرد شده در قالب طرح بلوک های کامل تصادفی در سه تکرار انجام گردید. کرت های اصلی شامل سطوح قطع آبیاری در سه سطح: شاهد (بدون قطع آبیاری)، یک نوبت قطع آبیاری در مرحله گلدهی و یک نوبت قطع آبیاری در مرحله خمیری دانه و محلول پاشی عناصر ریز مغذی در پنج سطح شامل شاهد (محلول پاشی با آب معمولی)، محلول پاشی منگنز (با غلظت 5/1 در هزار)، روی (با غلظت 5/1 در هزار)، آهن (با غلظت 2 در هزار) و ترکیب این سه عنصر به عنوان عامل فرعی در نظر گرفته شدند. نتایج نشان داد بیشترین ارتفاع بوته (8/61 سانتی متر)، تعداد دانه در غلاف (2/6 عدد) و طول غلاف (1/11 سانتی متر) در شرایط کاربرد تلفیقی عناصر کم مصرف مشاهده گردید که در مقایسه با شاهد (عدم کاربرد عناصر کم مصرف)، به ترتیب به میزان 2/17، 7/34 و 8/16 درصد افزایش داشت. کمترین وزن صد دانه (3/26 گرم) در شرایط قطع آبیاری در مرحله گلدهی مشاهده گردید که در مقایسه با شاهد (عدم قطع آبیاری)، 7/24 درصد کاهش داشت. محلول پاشی توام عناصر ریزمغذی در شرایط عدم قطع آبیاری، قطع آبیاری در مرحله گلدهی و خمیری دانه باعث افزایش عملکرد دانه به ترتیب به میزان 1/21، 8/41 و 8/9 درصد نسبت به شاهد (عدم محلول پاشی) گردید. بر اساس نتایج، در شرایط منطقه مورد مطالعه، محلول پاشی عناصر کم مصرف به ویژه کاربرد تلفیقی آنها می تواند موجب بهبود عملکرد لوبیا گردد.
    کلیدواژگان: بقولات، تنش کم آبی، محلول پاشی، مرحله خمیری دانه، وزن صد دانه
  • رحمان عرفانی، ابوذر عباسیان*، مجید ستاری، علی محدثی، فاطمه توسلی، حسین رحیم سروش، مهران سعیدی، محمد محمد یوسفی، ناهید فتحی، هدی آبادیان صفحات 125-137
    تاریخ کاشت و فاصله کاشت دو عامل مهم برای دستیابی به عملکرد بالا در معرفی ارقام جدید میباشد. این تحقیق به منظور تعیین بهترین تاریخ کاشت و تراکم بوته بر اساس روز- درجه رشد (GDD) در برنج رقم تیسا طی سال های 1394 و 1395 در ایستگاه تحقیقات برنج تنکابن اجرا شد. آزمایش به صورت کرتهای خرد شده در قالب طرح بلوک های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار اجرا گردید. کرت اصلی شامل تاریخ نشاکاری در سه سطح (تاریخ های 15 و 25 اردیبهشت و 4 خرداد) و کرت فرعی شامل تراکم بوته در سه سطح (28، 22 و 18 بوته در مترمربع به ترتیب با فواصل نشاکاری 30 ×12، 30×15 و 30×18 سانتی متر) بودند. نتایج بیانگر آن است که بین سال های آزمایش تنها در صفت طول خوشه تفاوت معنی داری مشاهده شد. اثر تاریخ نشاکاری بر اغلب تیمارها معنی دار بود و بیشترین عملکرد دانه در تاریخ کاشت 4 خرداد به میزان 6/6573 کیلوگرم در هکتار به دست آمد که با تاریخ کاشت 25 اردیبهشت نیز اختلاف معنیداری نداشت. هرچند تیمارهای تراکم بوته بر عملکرد دانه اثر معنی داری نداشتند، اما تیمار 28 بوته در مترمربع (12× 30 سانتی متر) توانست بیشترین عملکرد دانه را با 2/6445 کیلوگرم در هکتار) به خود اختصاص دهد. با توجه به نتایج این تحقیق می توان اظهار داشت که کشاورزان منطقه می توانند برای دستیابی به عملکرد بیشتر این رقم را در محدوده 25 اردیبهشت تا 4 خرداد و با فاصله کاشت 12×30 سانتی متر (تراکم 28 بوته در مترمربع) نشاکاری نمایند.
    کلیدواژگان: تاریخ نشاکاری، فاصله کاشت، عملکرد دانه، اجزای عملکرد
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  • Hamid Reza Babaei * Pages 1-22
    Introduction

    Soybean (Glycine max L.) is one of the main sources of vegetable oil and protein in the world, which contains 18-23 percent oil and 40-30 percent protein (Smith & Huyser, 1987). Various factors such as susceptibility to pests, various diseases and environmental stresses, etc. contribute to limited yield in soybeans. In order to overcome these limitations, it is necessary to identify different sources of genetic resources and desirable traits, which will be beneficial for soybean yield improvement (Moe & Girdthai, 2013). The current research was aimed at evaluating important agronomic and botanical characteristics of 354 soybean germplasm obtained from Karaj Seed and Plant Improvement Research Institute as well as classifying them based on some effective characteristics in seed-yield breeding.

    Research Methodology

    In 2013, after the preparation of the experimental land by using conventional cultivation operations (plowing, two times disk, application of fertilizers in soil and forming 60-cm planting rows), 354 soybean genotypes were grown in a nested statistical design with four sets of 51 genotypes and 3 sets of 50 genotypes with two replications . in duration growth period important botanical characteristics such as: day to flowering, day to podding, day to start seed filling, day to end of seed filling, day to physiologic maturity, day to maturity, seed filling duration, long reproductive duration index, growth habit, evaluated based on Fehr and Caviness method (1977). In maturity stage agronomic traits such as: plant Height, no. of nods, no. of pods per plant, no. of branches, no. of seed per plant and no. of seed per pod evaluated and after harvesting seed yield per plant and 100 seed weight determined. Statistical indexes such as: Mean, minimum, maximum and variation coefficient of the traits calculated and to variance analysis of data based on the nested design was used, SAS software, Soybean genotypes were classified using cluster analysis based on hierarchical method (Ward criterion) by SPSS software. To verify the accuracy and the validity of the groups derived from cluster analysis, the principal component analysis was conducted by SPSS software Ver.15. Moreover, the two-dimensional graphical diagram of the first and second components was generated by Gen Stat 12th Edition.

    Results and Discussion

    The results of analysis of variance showed a significant difference between genotypic sets for all the studied traits. Significant variation was observed for the important agronomic traits in the studied genotypes. So that the highest variation coefficient were for growth habit (55%), grain yield (40%) and number of seeds per plant (38%). the variation range of the most important traits were for grain yield 2.1- 25.7 g,. Growth period 126-86 days, length of grain filling period 29 - 13 days, Ratio of reproductive duration to length of growth period 0.71-0.47, number of seeds per plant 21.2-192 and 100 seed weight 6.8 - 24.7 gr. Cluster analysis divided 354 genotypes into four clusters, in which cluster 1 Most of the genotypes were late-maturity, indeterminate type, with a higher height. in cluster 2, Most of the genotypes were determinate type , medium height, in cluster 3, the most genotypes had high yield and seed number per plant with longer growth period and in cluster 4, the most genotypes were semi-determinate, very early maturity and had short height and low yield. The analysis of the principal component analysis showed that the first five components explained 32.5%, 18.1%, 9.8%, 7.98% and 7.5% of the total variance of the data respectively. The biplot of the phenological traits (PC1) and the yield component (PC2) showed that distribution pattern of genotypes had a good agreement with the cluster analysis results and genotypes GN 1130, GN 1028, GN 1040, GN 2129 and GN 2122 can be genotypes due to the high potential yield and number of seeds per plant, and the indeterminate type as superior genotypes for use in breeding programs

    Keywords: Yeild, Yeild components, Reproductive growth stages, cluster analysis, principal component analysis
  • Gholamhossein Ahmadi * Pages 23-43
    Introduction
    Wheat, bread and durum, is most important crop of Iran and durum wheat has a historical cultivation background in country. Pasta and macaronis industries of country need 400000 ton of durum annually. To cover this tonnage, releasing and introducing new and high yielding durum cultivar to wheat growers is crucial. On other hand, drought stress, especially terminal drought stress, TDS, is one of the most important factors affecting cultivation of wheat in various environments (Kilic and Yagbasanlar, 2010) and usually happened during filling period in Mediterranean countries (Golabadi et al., 2006). Totally, drought resistance is an erratic and complex trait and its effects depend on growth stage of crop. Lack of drought tolerance cultivars plus drought periods during wheat growing season are main reasons of Iran wheat production fluctuation. Drought resistance indices widely used by scientist to screening and selection drought tolerate wheat genotypes (Bennani et. al., 2017). So to combating these hazard and mitigate effects of water shortage and drought stress on durum wheat production, identifying and releasing new terminal drought tolerate durum wheat cultivars, present study was conducted.
    Material and methods
    The154 durum wheat lines originated from International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT) plus Syrian4 (Saji) cultivar as durum check were investigated under normal irrigation and TDS conditions at Islamabad Agricultural Research Station over 2013-14 and 2014-15 cropping period. Each plot consisted of 2 rows, 2 m length with 0.3m inter row spaces. Cropping density was 450 seed per m2. Sowing was done by hand. Irrigation cut at boating stage (Z = 4.5) of crop. The grain yield, GY, (Kg/ha) of two years was used to calculating 21 drought tolerance indices namely MP, TOL, SSI, STI, GMP, YI, DI, ATI, SSPI, SNPI, MRP, REI, MSTIk1, MSTIk2, HARM, Red, RDI, GM, DTE. The SPSS software was used for cluster analysis and drawing of bipolot.
    Result and discussion
    High variation was observed among the studied lines for GY and drought resistance indices. The cluster analysis by using UPGMA method and square of Euclidean distance, sorted evaluated lines in 6 groups. According to most drought resistance indices and the performance in both environments, the 12 genotypes namely g29, g38, g41, g46, g50, g93, g105, g116, g123, g157, g159 and g199 located at first group and showed remarkable advantages over other groups. The results of the analysis of the main components indicated that g116, g199, g41 and g123 lines were the best genotypes for TDS, which showed good performance under irrigated conditions also. On the other hand, the g50, g46 and g38 lines were the best ones for optimal conditions that showed TDS resistance also. The g29 and g157 lines were among superior lines with less resistance to TDS suitable for optimal conditions, whereas g105, g93 and g159 lines were relatively resistance to TDS with low yield under normal irrigation. Totally four genotypes, g41 (STORLOM/3/RASCON_37/TARRO_2//RASCON_37/4/ D00003A…), g116 (SIMETO/4/DUKEM_1//PATKA_7/YAZI_1/3/PATKA_7/YAZI_1…) g123 (ADAMAR _15/PLATA_18/3/SORA/2*PLATA_12//SOMAT_3/6/LIRO…) and g199 (PLATA_10/6/MQUE/4/ USDA573//QFN/AA_7/3/ALBA-D…), with emphasis on g116 lines, showed potential to mention as candidates to releasing as new cultivars, recommending and presenting to wheat growers of TDS conditions of area of study and similar condition.
    Keywords: Durum wheat, Drought Stress, terminal drought stress
  • Reza Aghnoum *, Hamidreza Sharifi, Masoud Ezzat Ahmadi Pages 44-60
    Introduction

    In recent years, conservation agriculture-based cropping systems have been widely adopted by many farmers in different regions of the world (Hobbs et al., 2008). Many benefits are associated with conservation agriculture which include improvement of soil productivity, reduction of soil erosion, improvement of water-use efficiency, increasing soil biodiversity and soil biological activity and reduction in labour requirement. However, the three main principles of conservation agriculture- e.g., minimal soil disturbance (no-tillage), crop residue management and crop rotation may have direct and indirect effect on the population of soil-borne plant pathogens, including plant parasitic nematodes. Therefore, depending on the local agro-ecological environment, it is necessary to investigate the effect of conservation agriculture practices on plant diseases and pests. The main objective of this research was to compare the possible differential impacts of conservation agriculture practices and the conventional agriculture practices on the population of plant parasitic nematodes in wheat-suger beet rotation system.

    Materials and Methods

    The effects of tillage systems and residue management of the wheat - sugar beet rotation systems on the density population of plant parasitic nematodes were determined during 5 consecutive cropping seasons (2012-2017) at Jolge Rokh Agricultural Research Station, Khorasan Razavi, Iran. The experimental design was a split-plot arrangement in a randomized complete block with three replications. Three tillage systems (conventional tillage, minimum tillage and no-tillage) were assigned to the main plots and three levels of residue management (0, 30, and 60%) were assigned to the sub plots. To determine the population of plant parasitic nematodes in soil, samples were taken from each plot. The nematodes were extracted using sieving and centrifugal-flotation technique and identified based on the relevant diagnostic keys (Hunt, 1993).

    Results and Discussion

    Plant parasitic nematodes including root lesion nematode (Pratylenchus neglectus), pin nematode (Paratylenchus spp.), Geocenamus spp., stem and bulb nematode (Ditylenchus spp.), Boleodorus spp. Tylenchus spp. and Filenchus spp. were identified and their populations were measured in different treatments. The results of analysis of variance of the plant parasitic nematodes showed that the effect of tillage on the population of Filenchus spp. and the interaction between tillage × residue retention on the population of pin nematode (Paratylenchus spp.) and stem and bulb nematode (Ditylenchus spp.) was significant at α=5%. The results of analysis of variance also indicated that the effect of tillage methods, residue retention and the interaction between tillage × residue retention on the population of other identified plant parasitic nematodes and the total number of plant parasitic nematodes were not statistically significant in the wheat-sugerbeet rotation system at the Jolge Rokh conditions. In general, the results showed that the conservation agriculture practices have no significant influence on the population of major plant parasitic nematodes in the wheat-suger beet cropping system at the Jolge Rokh conditions. However, since the population dynamics of plant parasitic nematodes are highly influenced by many factors including environmental conditions, physical, chemical and biological properties of soil as well as the crop plants used in rotation system, any technical advice for using conservation agriculture cropping systems should be based on the results of local reseach and agroechological condions. Acknowledgement: This study was supported by the Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO) and the Seed and Plant Improvement Institute (SPII) of the Iranian Ministry of Agriculture Jihad (project number 01-43-03-9153-91002).The authors would like to thank AREEO and SPII for their financial and administrative support. The authors would like also to thank Mr. Amir Ahmadian Yazdi and A. Rastegar Pymani from the Plant Protection Department, Khorasan Razavi Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center for their technical assistance. Key words: Crop rotation, plant disease, plant residue, tillage References: Govaerts, B., Mezzalama, M., Unno, Y., Sayre, K., Luna-Guido, M., Vanherck, M., Dendooven, L., Deckers, J. 2007b. Influence of tillage, residue management, and crop rotation on soil microbial biomass and catabolic diversity. Applied Soil Ecology, 37:18–30. Hobbs, P. R., Sayre K., Gupta, R. 2008. The role of conservation agriculture in sustainable agriculture. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, B .363: 543–555 Hunt, D.J. 1993. Aphelenchida, Longidoridae and Trichodoridae: their systematics and bionomics. CAB International , Hertfordshire, UK, pp 352

    Keywords: Crop Rotation, plant disease, Plant residue, Tillage
  • Alidad Karami * Pages 61-81
    Introduction

    Conservation agriculture (CA) is considered as a suitable technique for protecting the environment, which will lead to major benefits and sustainable production. Minimum and zero tillage are recommended as they tend to reduce the cost of crop production, retain higher quantities of soil water, and provide physical protection for soil organic carbon (Bhattacharyya et al., 2012). CA improves soil physical parameters such as water-stable aggregates, water infiltration and retention as compared to conventional agriculture (Vinod et al., 2016). Conservation agriculture can improve soil physical properties and the associated processes, particularly, soil aeration, soil structure and soil porosity. It can also reduce soil erosion, soil compaction and crusting, and optimize the soil temperature for successful crop production (Indoria et al., 2017). Therefore, this study was conducted to evaluate the effects of conservation and conventional tillage on the soil properties and wheat yield.

    Materials and Methods

    This research was performed using geostatistical method through analyzing soil properties and wheat yield data. The soil properties measured included: soil texture, EC, pH, and soil infiltration. Soil infiltration were determined using double ring method. The infiltration models of Kostiakov and Philip were fitted to the measured data. Wheat yield was measured at 2 m2 interval of each sampling site. Data were analyzed using SPSS, Excel, and GS+ software. Average, variance, skewness, kurtosis and coefficient of variation (CV) of data for each property were calculated using descriptive statistics. Spatial distribution maps of properties were drawn using the best semi-variogran model and the best interpolation method.

    Results and Discussion

    The results showed that wheat yield with a medium CV varied from 1850 to 8150 kg/ha. The best semi-variogram model for wheat grain yield was spherical model, and the best interpolation method for it was point kriging. The wheat yield under minimum tillage system was higher than that of conventional tillage. Wheat yield and coefficients of infiltration models had a significantly correlation with soil properties. The best semi-varogram model for soil pH, EC, sand, silt, and clay percentage, and coefficient A of Philip model was spherical, and for the coefficients a and b of Kostiakove model, and I150 was exponential and for the S coefficient was Gaussian model. The spatial structure of soil pH, EC, sand, silt, and clay percentage, A coefficient, I150, and b coefficient was strong, and for the a and S coefficients were moderate. The best interpolator for soil pH, EC, sand, silt, and clay percentage, and a coefficient was kriging method and for silt percentage, b and A coefficient, and I150 was inverse distance weighting method. The magnitude of a and S coefficient was higher in comparison to the area of conventional tillage

    Conclusions

    Results showed that, the mean wheat yield at reduced tillage, no tillage and conventional tillage was respectively 6137, 4425, and 3589 kg/ha. Conservation tillage methods increased soil infiltration (6%) and decreased soil salinity (12%) relative to the conventional tillage. Conservation tillage slightly reduced soil pH as compared to the conventional tillage. Reduced tillage had a positive impact on parameters of soil infiltration models. There was a significant correlation between soil parameters, which is very important for better field management. Geostatistical models derived from the data of this research are very useful for the estimation of soil parameters in the similar areas. Based on the results of this study, it can be concluded that, although the studied soil parameters had wide spatial variability, geostatistical methods with the limited data can be used to estimate them with high accuracy. The coefficient a and the coefficient S were the highest in the area where conservation tillage was applied. These results indicate that conventional tillage has reduced the movement of water in soil by disturbing soil physical conditions, including the destruction of the soil structure. Finally, the best tillage system was reduced tillage. Acknowledgments: The authors would like to acknowledge the financial support extended by the Agriculture Organization of Fars province and Soil and Water Research Institute. Keywords: Geostatistic, Infiltration, Soil quality, Spatial variability.

    Keywords: Geostatistic, infiltration, Soil quality, Spatial Variability
  • Alireza Samadzadeh, Gholamreza Zamani, Hamid-Reza Fallahi * Pages 82-104
    Introduction

    Introducing of new crops which are adapted to environmental stresses is one of the most effective methods for sustainable crop production and food security in arid regions. Accordingly, the possibility of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) production as a drought- and saline-tolerant, pseudocereal has high importance (Bagheri, 2018). This plant is able to develop even in regions where the annual precipitation is between 200–400 mm. The planting season of quinoa varies from August in the Andean highlands, extending through December, and in some areas from January to March. Quinoa sowing density may vary according to the region. For example, it has been reported to range from 0.4 to 0.6 g m2 in Bolivian Altiplano, and from 0.8 to 1.4 g m2 in Ecuador (Jancurova et al., 2009; Ruiz et al., 2014). Considering the possibility of high adaptation of quinoa to the dry climatic conditions of Iran, the aim of this study was to evaluate the possibility of its cultivation in Birjand region, and in the first step the effects of planting date and density were investigated on its growth and yield.

    Materials and Methods

    In this research the effects of sowing date (5th, May, June and July) and plant density (15, 30, 45 and 60 plant per m-2) was studied on vegetative and reproductive growth of quinoa (Titicac cultivar) using factorial experiment based on a randomized complete block design, with three replications, in Birjand, Iran, during 2017. Planting was done in rows with 30 cm distances and the variable intervals on the row based on the related density. Irrigation was applied in time intervals of 10 days and 130 kg ha-1 Urea (46% pure N) also was used during plant growth. In the last of vegetative phase six plants were sampled randomly and then some vegetative (plant height, plant dry weight, number of lateral branches) and reproductive (panicle number, length and dry weight, grain number per plant, 1000-grain weight) traits were measured. The remained plants were used to measure grain yield, biological yield and harvest index. Data analysis was done using SAS 9.2 and means were compared by LSD test in 5% level of probability.

    Results and Discussion

    The simple and interaction effects of planting date and density was statistically significant on most vegetative and reproductive indices of quinoa including plant dry weight, number of lateral branches per plant, biological yield, number of panicle (cluster) per plant, length and weight of panicle, grain number per plant and grain yield. Plant dry weight decreased with increasing plant density up to 60 plant per m2 and planting in July. The number of panicles (cluster) per plant decreased due to the increase in plant density from 15 to 60 plant per m2 (by 19%) and movement from spring cultivation to summer planting (by 75%). This decrease was somewhat moderated by increasing the number of sub-cluster per cluster. The highest number of grain per plant (806 grain) was obtained in density of 15 plant per m2 and planting in early May. The highest and the lowest grain yields were obtained from May planting date with a density of 45 plants per m2 (380 kg ha-1) and planting in July with a density of 15 plants per m2 (25 kg ha-1), respectively. Against grain yield, planting in July had no negative effect on biological yield, so that, its maximum value (1968 kg ha-1) was obtained from mentioned planting date and density of 45 plant per m2. The main reason for reduction of grain yield in June and July planting dates was the occurrence of high temperatures during pollination period of the plant.

    Conclusions

    Overall, density of 45-60 plants per m2 and sowing of quinoa in May brought the best conditions for its growth and yield. However, grain yield in this treatment was also considerably lower than the actual yield of the plant, and therefore evaluation of other autumn, winter and summer planting dates is require. Observations showed that the approach of the quinoa pollination period to a high temperatures, disturbed pollination and consequently grain production declined sharply. Keywords: Harvest index, Lateral branch, Panicle, Plant height, Grain yield.

    Keywords: harvest index, Lateral branch, Panicle, plant height, Grain yield
  • Vida Varnaseri Ghandali *, Mahmood Ramroudi, Abbas Nasiri Dehsorkhi Pages 105-124
    Introduction
    Red bean is an annual legume which has high nutritional value for human consumption. The yield of this plant is greatly reduced in arid and semi-arid regions due to water deficit stress. One of the negative impacts of drought stress is the reduction of micronutrient absorption by the plant root. Provision of micronutrients under drought stress conditions can greatly increase plant resistance to stress. In this regard, the aim of this research was to study the effects of foliar application of micronutrients (Fe, Zn and Mn) on yield and yield components of red bean under drought stress conditions.
    Materials and Methods
    The experiment was laid out in a split plot scheme based on a randomized complete block design with three replications in a field located in Mobarakeh city, during the growing season of 2016-2017. Water stress consisted of control (no water stress), cutting of irrigation at flowering and dough stages), which were assigned to the main plots and micronutrients foliar application was comprised of five levels of treatments: 1-control (no use of micronutrients), 2- manganese, 3- zinc, 4- iron and 5- mixture of the three elements, which were allocated to the sub-plots. The investigated traits were plant height, pod number per plant, grain number per plant, pod length, 100-grain weight, grain, biological yield and harvest index. Statistical data analysis was performed with statistical software MSTATC. Significant differences between the means were separated by LSD test at the probability level of 0.05. Simple correlation between traits was computed using SPSS version 16 software.
    Results and Discussion
    The results indicated that cut-off irrigation caused a significant decrease in the all studied traits, but the negative effects of it at flowering stage was more pronounced than those of dough stage. Cutting irrigation at flowering stage reduced the plant height, grain number per pod, length of pod and 100-grain weight by 36.1, 39.4, 12.5 and 24.7 percent compared with control treatment, respectively. In this regard, researchers reported that irrigation cessation at vegetative growth and flowering stages caused a significant reduction in plant height, number of seed in capsule and 1000-seeds weight of mung bean (Jafar dokht et al., 2015). Our results suggested that the foliar spraying of micronutrients increased the plant yield and yield components. The effect of mixture of the three elements was greater than the sole application of the elements. The highest plant height (61.8 cm), grain number per pod (6.2), pod length (11.1 cm) and 100-grain weight (33.3 g) was observed in combined application of micronutrients. The combined use of micronutrients increased the plant height, grain number per pod, pod length and 100-grain weight by 17.2, 34.7, 16.8 and 18 percent in comparison to control treatment, respectively. The maximum pod number per plant (15.3), grain yield (3759.6 kg.ha-1) and biological yield (8044.5 kg.ha-1) were obtained from normal irrigation and combined use of micronutrients, whereas the minimum values of the traits were observed in cut-off irrigation at flowering stage and foliar spraying with water. The combined application of three elements under normal irrigation and drought stress at flowering and dough stages resulted in significant grain yield increasing of 21.1, 41.8 and 9.8 percent compared with control treatment, respectively. In this regard, Varnaseri Ghandali & Nasiri Dehsorkhi (2017) reported that foliar application of micronutrients (Zn and Fe) under irrigation cut-off conditions at flowering and podding stages caused a significant rise in growth characteristics and yield of cowpea. Also, Nasiri Dehsorkhi et al, (2018) reported that water deficit decreased the yield and yield components of cumin but foliar application of Fe chelate in nano and common forms increased the yield attributes. Also the results indicated that under cut-off irrigation at flowering stage, the maximum correlation of grain yield was observed with pod number per plant (0.90**).
    Conclusion
    Based on the results, it seems that in the studied region conditions, terminating irrigation at dough stage and combined use of micronutrients can give yields similar to normal irrigation. Among the micronutrients used in this study, iron and zinc elements had a greater positive effect on yield and yield components than manganese.Keywords: Dough stage, foliar application, legume, water deficit stress, 100-grain weight
    Keywords: Dough stage, Foliar application, legume, Water deficit stress, 100-grain weight
  • Rahman Erfani, Abouzar Abbasian *, Majid Sattari, Ali Mohaddesi Mohaddesi, Fatemeh Tavasoli, Hosain Rahim Sourorsh, Mehran Saeedi, Mohammad Mohammad Yousefi, Nahid Fathi, Hoda Abadian Pages 125-137
    Introduction
    In future climatic conditions, rice yields depend on environmental conditions of the growing season, such as temperature and available radiation rate, which in unfavorable conditions can lead to yield loss in some rice producing countries (Welch et al., 2010). Achievement to the appropriate plant density per unit area is one of the methods in increasing crop yields through crop management that as a result, all environmental factors fully utilized, while intra- and inter-plant competitions be minimized and on the other hand, suitable plant density can provide sufficient space for agronomical operations and high quality access. In general, suitable rice density is a density that is not detrimental for proper crop development and high grain yield. As the density increased, the number of primary and secondary panicles and spikelet per panicle decreased and the number of panicles per m2 increased linearly and with decreasing density, stem thickness increased (Ebrahimi Rad et al, 2018). Knowing the heat indices, such as the accumulated heat unit, which in most sources are referred to as growing degree days (GDD), can provide basic principles for determining the appropriate phenological stages and planting dates. Evaluation of cumulative GDD for different development stages will allow adjustment of planting date for rice genotype with the aim of adapting the environmental conditions in the growth period. Choosing the appropriate planting date is one of the important factors in effective crop management which has a great role in production control by adapting physiological, morphological and phenological processes of the plant such as germination and emergence, vegetative growth, flowering and maturity with favorable climatic conditions. Management of planting time for optimal production of each cultivar is one of the main factors affecting production that can be easily managed by the farmer based on environmental conditions. Proper planting date will optimize the use of yield factors, while inappropriate planting date will disrupt the balance of yield components in the plant (Esmaeilzadeh et al., 2017).
    Material and Methods
    In order to determine proper transplanting date based on GDD and the best plant density in rice (Tisa cultivar), an experiment was conducted at Rice Research Institute of Iran, Tonekabon station during 2015 and 2016. This experiment was carried out as split plot in a randomized complete block design with three replications. The main plot was three transplanting dates with 10 days intervals (May 4, May 14 and May 24) and the sub plot was allocated to plant density at three levels (12×30, 15×30 and 18×30 cm).
    Result and Discussion
    The results indicated that there was a significant difference between the years of experiment only for the panicle length. The effect of transplanting date was significant in the majority of the measured parameters. The highest grain yield (6573.6 kg/ha) was obtained on May 24 planting date, which did not show any significant difference with the transplanting date of May 14. Although plant density treatments had no significant effect on grain yield, 28 plants per m2 (30×12 cm) had the highest grain yield (6445.2 kg/ha). With delay in transplanting, GDD and number of days from transplanting to tillering stage as well as the time required for panicle emergence and complete maturity increased. The highest and the lowest growth degree-day (GDD) from transplanting to tillering, panicle emergence and full ripening stage were obtained on May 24 and May 4, respectively.
    Conclusion
    According to the results of this research, it can be stated that the farmers of the region can transplant this cultivar between May 14 and May 24 with a plant distance of 12×30 cm (density of 28 plants per square meter).
    Keywords: transplanting date, plant distance, Grain yield, Yield components