فهرست مطالب

بین المللی ژئوپلیتیک - سال شانزدهم شماره 2 (پیاپی 58، تابستان 1399)
  • سال شانزدهم شماره 2 (پیاپی 58، تابستان 1399)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1399/04/10
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
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  • محمدرضا حافظ نیا * صفحات 1-6
  • فرزانه نقدی، سید مسعود موسوی شفائی*، عبدالرضا رکن الدین افتخاری، محسن اسلامی صفحات 7-31

    ورود به عصر اطلاعات و ارتباطات و پایان جنگ سرد، مفاهیم و عناصر قدرت را متحول و دولت ها را به سمت تجهیز توانمندی های نظامی با قدرت اقتصادی، از طریق توجه به شاخص های توسعه پایدار و گسترش تعاملات بین المللی، هدایت کرد. ایران نیز پس از انقلاب اسلامی و سپس جنگ تحمیلی، هدف کسب جایگاه قدرت اقتصادی منطقه جنوب غرب آسیا را در چشم انداز 1404 قرار داد. تاکنون، مواجهه با مشکلاتی نظیر جنگ و تنش های سیاسی مانع از پیاده سازی برنامه ای راهبردی عملیاتی برای تعاملات بین المللی کشور شده است. این در حالی است که جهانی شدن، موقعیت ژیوپلیتیک و ژیواکونومیک خاورمیانه، و ماهیت منحصربه فرد ج.ا.ایران در منطقه، ضرورت حضور موثر این کشور در زنجیره تولید و تجارت جهانی را ایجاد کرده است. بنابراین درصدد ارایه راهبرد موردنیاز ج.ا.ایران در سیاست گذاری تعاملات بین المللی و تبیین ویژگی های آن هستیم. بنا به فرضیه پژوهش، راهبرد سیاست گذاری پویا، مبتنی بر تعامل سازنده منطقه ای و بین المللی، فهم کارکرد ساختارهای اقتصاد بین الملل و تطابق با استانداردهای بین الملل در چارچوب منافع ملی، راهبرد مناسب تعاملات بین المللی برای تحقق توسعه اقتصادی جمهوری اسلامی است.روش تحقیق، توصیفی-تحلیلی است و به منظور پاسخ گویی به سوال اصلی، از تحلیل محتوای کیفی و کمی داده-ها (ثانویه-کتابخانه ای و نخستین- نظرخواهی از خبرگان) و ابزار آماری نظیر SPSSو تحلیل مسیر استفاده شد. پس از تایید جامعه نمونه در مورد متغیرها، شاخص ها و مدل پیشنهادی، مدل یا الگوی نهایی ارایه شد که به باور این پژوهش و تایید جامعه نمونه، کاربست مدل پیشنهادی درنهایت بهبود قدرت منطقه ای کشور در قالب شاخص های قدرت سازنده را به همراه خواهد داشت.

    کلیدواژگان: توسعه اقتصادی، تعاملات بین المللی، شاخص های اقتصادی موثر در تعاملات بین المللی، سیاست گذاری پویا، قدرت سازنده
  • فاطمه بخشی شادمهری، سید هادی زرقانی*، امیدعلی خوارزمی صفحات 32-57

    زیرساخت های شهری بخش مهمی از دارایی ها کشور محسوب می شوند که آسیب به آنها می تواند امنیت شهروندان را با خطر جدی مواجه نماید. در بین زیرساخت ها، زیرساخت آب شهری به دلیل نیاز پایدار شهروندان و صنایع از اهمیت بیشتری برخوردار است. این پژوهش با روش توصیفی-تحلیلی به دنبال پاسخ این سوال است که عناصر زیرساخت آب به چه میزان آسیب پذیر هستند؟ یافته های پژوهش در دو بخش کتابخانه ای و میدانی نشان می دهد که تهدیدات به صورت مختلفی عناصر زیرساخت آب را در بخش های تامین، تصفیه و توزیع مورد آسیب قرار می دهند. همچنین در آزمون x2 مشخص شده همه دارایی ها به جز چشمه آسیب پذیری بالایی دارند و آزمون فریدمن نشان می دهد که بیشترین آسیب در اقدامات تروریستی به لوله های توزیع آب و مخازن زمینی، در بیو تروریسم سدها و ایستگاه پمپاژ و در تروریست سایبری نیز سدها و تصفیه خانه ها می باشد.

    کلیدواژگان: آسیب پذیری، زیرساخت آب شهری، تهدیدات تروریستی، ارزیابی امنیتی
  • مصطفی قادری حاجت*، عابد گل کرمی صفحات 58-87

    آمایش سرزمین به عنوان تجلی سیاستگذاری فضایی، تلاقی گاه نهایی محتوای برنامه های توسعه و اسناد بالادستی است که ضمن توسعه و تعادل سرزمینی، بر ارتقا قدرت ملی و وزن ژیوپلیتیکی هر کشوری، نقش بی بدیلی ایفا نماید. رویکرد ژیوپلیتیکی ناظر بر بهره وری قابلیتهای مکانی- فضایی در راستای استفاده بهینه از مزیت های رقابتی در مقیاس های خرد و کلان ارتقاءدهنده قدرت ملی یک کشور و تعیین کننده مناسبات آن با دیگر قدرت ها است. از این رو توجه به جایگاه آن در اسناد سیاستگذاری فضایی کشور با توجه به جغرافیای ایران، از منظر ژیوپلیتیک کاربردی ضروری است. هدف اصلی این مقاله بررسی و تحلیل نگرش اسناد بالا دستی آمایش سرزمین در ایران است. بر این مبنا، این مقاله با تحلیل محتوای کمی و روش توصیفی-تحلیلی به دنبال تحلیل نگرش ژیوپلیتیکی در اسناد بالادستی آمایشی ایران است. لذا، با بررسی آن اسناد، گزاره های ژیوپلیتیکی آنها احصاء و ارزیابی گردید. نتایج نشان می دهد که 78 بند سیاستی دارای نگرش ژیوپلیتیکی بوده است. اگرچه نگرش ژیوپلیتیکی در اسناد بالادستی آمایشی از سال 1377 در سیاست های کلی نظام در بخش انرژی آمده ولی اهمیت این موضوع در سند جهت گیری های ملی آمایش سرزمین با 63 گزاره ژیوپلیتیکی تثبیت شده است که بیانگر درک ارزش هایی فضایی-مکانی ایران می باشند که در قالب گزاره های ژیوپلیتیکی سیاستگذاری فضایی کشور معرفی شده اند.

    کلیدواژگان: اسناد بالادستی، آمایش سرزمین، نگرش ژئوپلیتیکی، گزاره های ژئوپلیتیکی
  • غلامرضا باغبانی*، نورمحمد یعقوبی، عیسی ابراهیم زاده، وحید خاشعی صفحات 88-117

    اصولا بحران یک فشار زایی روانی- اجتماعی است که باعث درهم شکسته شدن انگاره های متعارف زندگی و واکنش های اجتماعی می شود و مدیریت بحران فرآیندی نظام یافته است که بحران های بالقوه درحوزه های مختلف را شناسایی، پیش بینی و سپس درمقابل آنها اقدامات پیشگیرانه تدوین می نماید. از این رو همواره باید مجموعه ای از طرح ها و برنامه های عملی برای مواجهه با بحران های احتمالی تنظیم گردد تا مدیران آمادگی رویارویی با وقایع پیش بینی نشده را کسب کنند. مطالعه حاضر به دنبال ارایه الگوی مدیریت بحران اجتماعی-امنیتی در استان سیستان و بلوچستان می باشد. بدین منظور با روش کیفی و با استفاده از نظریه داده بنیاد با تعداد 35 نفر از متولیان مدیریت بحران استان مصاحبه عمیق به عمل آمد. مجموعه داده های جمع آوری شده پس از طی فرایند مقایسه مستمر داده ها و کدگذاری باز، محوری و انتخابی، در قالب 5 مقوله؛ هویت، نفوذ، مشروعیت، مشارکت و توزیع و 3 طبقه؛ امنیتی- سیاسی، مدیریتی و اجتماعی- فرهنگی، سازماندهی شدند و نتایج حاصل از تحلیل داده ها در قالب مدل مدیریت بحران اجتماعی- امنیتی ارایه گردید. اینک در این مقاله ویژگی ها و شاخص های مهم هریک از بحران های مرتبط، با توجه به شرایط محیطی استان سیستان و بلوچستان تبیین گردیده و تحلیل نهایی بیانگر ضرورت اتخاذ راهبردهای مدیریت بحران اجتماعی- امنیتی در استان از طریق؛ تغییر نگرش مرکز نسبت به این استان، برقراری عدالت اجتماعی و توزیع عادلانه ثمرات توسعه ملی در منطقه، تحکیم فرآیندهای همگرایی-ملی و انسجام امنیتی و اجتماعی می باشد. این رویکرد می تواند به عنوان یک الگو برای خط مشی گذاری و تصمیم گیری در شرایط مشابه نیز بمنظور مدیریت بحران مورد استفاده قرار گیرد.

    کلیدواژگان: الگوی مدیریت بحران، بحران امنیتی، بحران اجتماعی، سیستان و بلوچستان
  • محمود واثق*، احد محمدی صفحات 118-156

    امروزه در جغرافیای سیاسی با نوعی «کثرتگرایی روش شناختی» که ریشه در دو نگرش کلی «تبیینی» و «تفهمی» دارند مواجهیم. پیامد این قضیه، بروز ابهام در جایگاه و هویت علمی جغرافیای سیاسی بوده است. در این راستا دو پرسش اساسی مطرح است؛ نخست آنکه روششناسی معتبر علمی کدام است؟ دوم اینکه، چه موضعی در قبال کثرتگرایی روششناختی در جغرافیای سیاسی میتوان اتخاذ نمود؟ این مقاله در قالب توصیفی-تحلیلی(منطقی) و معرفت شناختی از موضع عقلانیت انتقادی نگاشته شده و نتایج آن نشان میدهد، برخلاف تصور رایج، روششناسی معتبر علمی در جغرافیای سیاسی نه منطبق بر روش پوزیتیویستی سنتی است و نه بر اساس روش شناسیهای تفهمی و فراپوزیتیویستی، بلکه روش معتبر علمی در این زمینه، روش فرضی-استنتاجی به عنوان روش نهایی و واحد علوم تجربی نظیر جغرافیای سیاسی است. با اینحال، روش های دیگر بنا بر برخی نکات مثبت آنها، صرفا در مرحله گردآوری داده ها مورد استفاده جغرافیای سیاسی قرار میگیرند.

    کلیدواژگان: علم تجربی، روش شناسی علمی، رویکردهای تبیینی و تفهمی، روش شناسی فرضی- استنتاجی، جغرافیای سیاسی
  • مرجان بدیعی ازنداهی*، نرجس سادات حسینی نصرابادی صفحات 157-186

    در نگرش سیستمی، شهر بصورت نظامی یکپارچه ازسطوح فضایی مختلف، که نشان دهنده نوعی پیوستگی متقابل میان خرده سیستم های یک سیستم شهری است، مطالعه می شود. به بیان دیگر، یک سیستم شهری درچارچوب رویکرد سیستمی، نه تنها از مجموعه سکونتگاه های شهری تشکیل شده است، بلکه جریان ها و روابط فضایی میان شهرها را نیز دربرمی گیرد؛ بطوری که به دلیل ساختار و کارکردش در مقیاس های گوناگون توسعه به ایفای نقش می پردازد. این مقاله، با بهره گیری از روش توصیفی-تحلیلی، به تبیین دیدگاه های دو تن ازجغرافیدانان سیاسی بزرگ یعنی سایول برنارد کوهن و ادوارد سوجا در باره چگونگی مطالعه شهر به مثابه یک سیستم می پردازد. نتایج این تحقیق نشان می دهند، از نظر کوهن، «سیستم سیاسی» نقطه شروع تحلیل فرایندهای سیاسی است زیرا فرایندها در درون آن عمل می کنند؛ ازاین رو، اولا، مفاهیم «فرایند» و «سیستم»، جدایی ناپذیرند. ثانیا، «نیروهای اجتماعی» اساس سیستم سیاسی شهر هستند زیرا با ایجاد تبادلات سیاسی ، نهادها از طریق آنها عمل می کنند و به محیط مربوط شکل می دهند. درحالی که، سوجا، ضمن توجه به دو سیستم فضایی و سیاسی شهر براین باوراست، «سیستم فضایی شهر»، بخشی از فضاست که به طور رسمی و کارکردی، از طریق الگودهی به ویژگی ها و ساختاربندی جریان ها و اهداف سازماندهی شده است. اما در عین حال، یک نظم جغرافیایی ذاتی در جامعه انسانی وجود دارد؛ یک «آناتومی فضایی» از «رفتار انسان» و «سازمان اجتماعی» که مشخصه های قابل کشف و منظمی دارد. به همین جهت از نظر وی، نوعی نظم و ترتیب در سیستم های فضایی بویژه «سیستم سیاسی شهر» متمرکز است.

    کلیدواژگان: سیستم، شهر، سیستم سیاسی شهر، کوهن، سوجا
  • بردیا روغنی، محمد فرشته پور*، محمدعلی علیایی صفحات 187-216

    کاهش پیوسته سطح آب زیرزمینی در بسیاری از مناطق دنیا مشکلات فراوانی را بوجود آورده است. در همین راستا، منابع آب های فرامرزی به خصوص آب خوان ها، منابع مهمی در مناطق خشک و نیمه خشک، محسوب می شوند. علیرغم بیش از یک دهه توجهات فنی و سیاسی در بالاترین سطوح بین المللی به آبخوان های فرامرزی، پیشرفت بسیار کمی در ایجاد و پیشبرد موافقت نامه ها در این حوزه حاصل شده است. دانش علمی مربوط به حدود 600 آبخوان فرامرزی بسیار ضعیف است تا جایی که شناسایی حوضه های در معرض چالش و مناقشه، تنها به یک حدس کارشناسی محدود می شوند. این مقاله، به مرور تعدادی از مهم ترین توافقات انجام شده در عرصه جهانی در قاره های اروپا، آفریقا و آمریکا پرداخته و تجربیات حاصل از هر کدام را بررسی می کند. در نهایت با توجه به نقاط قوت و ضعف موجود در فرآیند ایجاد و دوران حیات این موافقت نامه ها، چارچوبی برای تدوین موافقت نامه های کاربردی ارایه می شود که می تواند به خوبی در حل مسایل مربوط به آبخوان های فرامرزی استفاده شود.

    کلیدواژگان: آبخوان فرامرزی، موافقت نامه، تجربیات بین المللی، همکاری های کاربردی
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  • MohammadReza Hafeznia* Pages 1-6
  • Farzaneh Naghdi, Seyed Masoud Mousavi Shafaee *, Abdolreza Rokneddin Eftekhari, Mohsen Eslami Pages 7-31
    Intrduction

    Throughout its progressive path towards sustainable development and due to the dynamics of the international system, development has experienced several up and downs in different countries, gradually, to reach the era of modern technologies, at the verge of which global economics, politics and communications have been emerged and economic development placed at the focal center of development. The result of series of studies focused on economic development, its methods and theories in different countries led to the strengthening the belief in the increasing role of international interactions for economic development. Eventually, at present, most countries’ vision or policy of economic development is focused on improving the country’s international interactions considering the effects on economic development. Given the role of international interactions in economic development and in view of the 20-year vision of the country, which places the Islamic Republic at the position of regional power of Southwest Asia in 1404, this study intends to present a political strategy to guide the international interactions of the I.R.I in line with economic development.

    Methoddology

    In order to provide the I.R.I with a dynamic political strategy for international interactions in line with economic development as the main question of this study, the research method was based on post-positivism applying comparative as well as survey research approach. An in other words, descriptive-analytical method was used based on a combined (quantitative-qualitative) approach and the theoretical framework is based on dynamic policy making and constructive power. Data was collected through documentary and library studies. Then, based on frequency of indicators, a questionnaire was concluded and distributed among sample society, comprised of economic and political elites and theorists. Accordingly, SPSS means of examinations (regression analysis and path analysis) was applied to examine the collected data (primary and secondary) and the proposed model of political strategy for I.R.I. was presented and approved by the sample society.

    Findings

     The research findings comprised of two parts: descriptive and statistic findings which are presented as follows: 1. Successful economically-developed countries follow a dynamic political strategy in their international interactions in which they pay attention to economic indicators such as FDI as well as foreign policy indicators such as avoiding international sanctions. 2. As per secondary and primary data, nine main indicators of “economic development”, “effective economic indicators in international interactions”, “international interactions”, “dynamic policy- making”,  “dynamic policy- making in international interactions for economic development”, “constructive regional and international interaction”, “understanding the functioning structure of international economy”, “compliance with international standards”,  “national interests” and their sub-indicators (72) were developed and their authenticity as well as applicability in Iranian society were examined and approved through primary data collected from the sample society. 3. Economic and foreign policy indicators such as export development, transparency, etc., are in weak position in I.R.I. 4. Iran needs a comprehensive and dynamic strategy to operationalize the 1404 vision and to increase in its influence in the regional and international system

    Analysis

    Having reviewed the I.R.I. strategies within past decades, it’s been concluded that Iran is favoring potential features of regional power. Also approval of 1404 vision shows that Iranian political leaders and elites are concerned about constructive international and regional interactions and role of such interactions in economic development, however, economic as well as foreign policy indicators has been placed in weak position in I.R.I. which means that 1404 vision is a very broad and general policy. In order to its operationalization, the I.R.I. needs a transparent and dynamic strategy for conducting international interactions. A dynamic political strategy which will improve features of constructive regional power of I.R.I and increase in its influence while mitigating the regional tensions and improving economic interactions in the region and international society.

    Concluding 

    According to the hypothesis of this study, I.R.I strategy for international interaction should follow a dynamic policy-making strategy based on four main indicators of “constructive regional and international interaction”, “understanding the functioning structure of international economy”, “compliance with international standards”, within “national interests” which will eventually improve the position of economic and foreign policy indicators of I.R.I and lead the I.R.I. to build the features of constructive regional powers.

    Keywords: Economic Development, international interactions, Effective Economic Indicators in International Interactions, Dynamic Decision-making, Constructive Power
  • Fathemeh Bakhshy, Seyyed Hadi Zarghani *, OMID ALI KHARAZMI Pages 32-57
     Intrduction

    Urban infrastructure is an important part of the assets, and urban elements are considered for the task of providing basic needs and services-relief for citizens. So, military attacks and especially terrorist actions which can damage the safety of citizens, urban infrastructure faces serious dangers. One of the fundamental issues in terrorism, modern terrorism of sabotage against terrorist operations and regions and sensitive centers, and vital infrastructure is vulnerable. Meanwhile, due to the need of residents and industry, urban water infrastructure, as the most important element any damage to the infrastructure and serious disruption in its performance could quickly become security and social crisis. Based on this, to settle these kinds of threats and infrastructure protective mechanisms are required.

    Metodology

    The present study based on the method and the nature is descriptive and analytic. The main research question is that “what are the most important terrorist threats which can harm elements of the city’s water infrastructure?”. What are and how vulnerable is the elements of water infrastructure in front of these threats?

    Result and Discussion

    The results showed that, between nine infrastructures, urban water infrastructure, due to the urgent need of civilians and civilian installations has a special place among 17 threats to the elements of water supply infrastructure in three parts and distribution. Also, water supply is vulnerable in front of three types of threat of terrorism, including terrorism, cyber terrorism and bioterrorism and in particular against suicide terrorism. Also test X2 assets have a high degree of vulnerability water infrastructure, and Friedman test results also shows that most damaged infrastructure assets is water and water supply.

    Conclusions

    Overall potable water systems are vulnerable from point of the water supply and having various different components and risks. Most of these key sectors like tanks, the settlements and others are vulnerable due to the high threats by human. Although some components like water pipes are buried, but some are invisible like performance- related accidents like failure, sat down and wastewater. sensitivity of the infrastructure is somehow that chemical contamination of the system can lead to paralysis in the long term service and clean water and restore the water system and makes the infrastructure in broad level: disorder in water treatment; storage and forwarding and transmission facilities; and the dangers of pesticides biological entry into the water system; damage to equipment, personnel; damage to public society; damage to equipment and facilities; damage to private property and problems of hazardous waste.

    Keywords: Terrorism, the city, infrastructure, threat, Crisis
  • Mostafa Ghaderi Hajat *, Abed Golkarami Pages 58-87
     Introduction

    Spatial planning as a spatial manifestation and the final intersection of development programs (economic, social, cultural, etc.) in the geographical space, not only in the country's planning system, is always emphasized by many experts and executive experts. It should be emphasized in the high-level  documents and general policies of the Islamic Republic of Iran for implementation and implementation.Spatial planning or land management, spatial and social justice in all fields, as well as organizing and organizing the geographical space as the habitat of Iranian citizens at the national, regional, local and physical levels, and one of the foundations of the country's development It facilitates the general and political management of the country.Therefore, due to the undeniable link between the development of geographical locations and spaces with their geopolitical status and geopolitical prestige, it is very important to follow the geopolitical trends in the country's planning and spatial documents. So, geopolitical attitudes require one of the most important elements influencing the production of space in the planning system and, most importantly, the high-level documents as determinants, given that space is productive and that no geographical space is formed in a vacuum. The general line of space development should be considered.

    Methodology

      Using the analysis of quantitative content and using descriptive and analytical methods, this article seeks to examine and analyze the geopolitical attitude of the high-level documents of Spatial planning in Iran. In this regard, the country's high-level documents such as the constitution, the promising document, the general policies of the system and other basic documents in the field, including 31 documents, have been reviewed and their preparatory statements have been counted and selected, and then among them, geopolitical propositions have been selected and evaluated Results and findings The high-level  documents of the country's space policy after the Islamic Revolution, in three general forms of mother and base documents, include the general policies of the system and the basic documents of the field, which are presented in the form of tables.Therefore, Spatial planning in high-level  documents seeks to fully recognize and discover the human and natural capacities and geographical location of the country and the optimal use and exploitation of these resources by relying on regional balances and Preserving the living environment is aimed at the comprehensive development of the country and strengthening self-reliance and eliminating deprivation and inequality.However, statistical propositions were calculated according to the conceptual definition and executive areas related to land management, which included 176 policy propositions in six areas: 1- Principles and policies, 2- Activity, 3 - Environment and biological resources 4- Infrastructure 5- Residential system and 6- Social and cultural; are divided into tables (2-7). Then, in the studies on the high-level  propositions of the high-level  documents (31 documents), the propositions that were of a geopolitical nature were counted, which were equal to 85 propositions of geopolitical policy, and were shown in the tables of numbers 9 to 14.  

    Discussion and analysis

    As the research findings show, the general policies of the system in the Vision period with 1 proposition, the general policies of the system in the oil and gas sector 1 proposition, the general policies of the system in the employment sector 1 proposition, the policies The general system in the transportation sector 1 proposition, the document of fundamental change in education 1 proposition, the general policies of the system in the energy sector 2 proposition, the general policies of the system in the passive defense sector with 3 propositions, the general policies of the Sixth Development Plan with 5 propositions, general policies of Spatial planning with 4 propositions and national orientations of Spatial planning with 63 geopolitical propositions (equivalent to nearly 74% of the total geopolitical propositions) pay attention to the category of spatial planning Have.As can be seen in this study, geopolitical attitudes in statistical documents have been reflected in the general policies of the system since 1998 with statements in the energy sector, and then in chronological order in politics. The general systems of the system are seen in transportation, oil and gas, the Vision period, passive defense, employment, land management and the Sixth Development Plan, and in the Spatial planning National Orientation Document with the mentioned frequencies.It seems that one of the reasons for neglecting the geopolitical implications of development is rooted in the weakness and persistence of the above approach in statistical propositions. Of course, the new approaches have to some extent sought compensation, and it is hoped that these categories will be taken more seriously.

    Conclusion

    The results of the study show that based on the geopolitical attitude of the spatial propositions, it was found that the format of 85 policy clauses (equivalent to 48.29% of the total spatial propositions) can be traced to the geopolitical attitude.Although geopolitical attitudes in statistical documents have been evident in the general policies of the system since 1998 with propositions in the energy sector, the importance of this issue in the context of national orientations of land management with 63 geopolitical propositions (Approximately 74% of all geopolitical statements) are fixed in spatial policy documents.Although the statements made in this study indicate the importance of geopolitical propositions in the country's space policy documents, the propositions that are geopolitical in nature and indicate the geopolitical understanding of Iran's spatial-spatial values It can be presented in the form of geopolitical propositions of the country's spatial policy documents as categorized in the form of policy propositions with a specific reference authority.

    Keywords: High-level Documents, Spatial planning, Geopolitical Attitude, Geopolitical Propositions, Iran
  • Gholamreza Baghbani *, Noormohammad Yaghoobi, Issa Ebrahimzadeh, Vahid Khasheei Pages 88-117
    Introduction

    In fact the crisis is a large and specific psychosocial stressor that disrupts conventional patterns of life and social reactions and creates new needs with physical and financial injuries threats and dangers. Crisis management as a systematic process is obliged to identify and predict potential crises in different areas with proper understanding of the past, present and future and then formulate active preventive systems against them. So, there should always be asset of plans and practical programs to deal with future crises in order to be prepared to face unpredictable events for managers; therefore, crises management emphasizes the necessity for regular prediction and preparation to deal with those internal and external issues that seriously threaten the life of the organization.

    Methodology 

    The present study aims at presenting a social crisis management model with a security approach in Sistan and Baluchistan province. For this reason, 30 crisis management officials of the province were interviewed deeply using qualitative method and data-focused theory. The data set which were collected after continuous comparison process of data and open, axial and selective coding, were organized into five identity, influence and 3 security-political, managerial and social-cultural classes.

    Result and Discussion

    The final result of data analysis collected in the form of social crisis management model with security approach in Sistan and Baluchistan province was presented. This model aims at explaining the important features and indices of each crisis related to the model according to environmental conditions of Sistan and Baluchistan province.

    Conclusion 

    In fact, these findings show social-security crisis management perspective of Sistan and Baluchistan province that can be used as a model for policymaking and decision-making in crisis situations.

    Keywords: Crisis Management Model, Security Crisis, Social Crisis, Sistan, Baluchistan
  • Mahmood Vasegh *, Ahad Mohamadi Pages 118-156
    Introduction

    In scientific studies, research was conducted based on "rational and explanatory" approaches. The rationalist approach longer history started from Aristotle scientific activities. However, after political and social changes arising from the Renaissance movement in the West, the methodology inspired by the Aristotelian and Church that is "school system" encountered major criticisms and disputes, and ultimately, led to emergence and development of a new approach in science called "empirical approach". It was followed by fundamental changes in research methodology extending naturalism to all science fields including natural and human studies. This approach was also confronted with epistemological problems especially in the humanities. Finally, a new methodology called "interpretive and hermeneutic methodology" was emphasized for the humanities. Political geography, along with these developments, turned into theories and schools that followed the interpretive and humanist approaches, and experienced a kind of "methodological pluralism". As it is clear, the first consequence of methodological pluralism in each discipline was emergence of ambiguity about the scientific status and identity of the field. Now, the political geography is facing this situation. There are two fundamental questions in this regard: first, what is the valid scientific methodology? and second, what position can be taken for methodological pluralism in political geography?

    Methodology

    Due to its philosophical and rational nature, the present study is a theoretical and fundamental research based on a descriptive-analytic (logical) method using logical reasoning. For this reason, topics and issues of this set are considered as documentary and library research.

    Discussions and Findings

    Nowadays, in social sciences, including political geography, we are facing a kind of methodological pluralism rooted in two general "explanatory" and "hermeneutics" approaches. The explanatory approach in political geography led to emergence of methodological schools such as environmentalism, spatial school, systemic attitude and school of behaviorism and the hermeneutic approach led to schools such as phenomenology, structuralism, discourse and post-structuralist view, and radical and postmodern attitudes. Competition of these methodological schools has led to the emergence of naturalistic and humanistic methodologies in this field. The important point is that each of these approaches and schools aspire for the monopoly of scientific method and each has its own followers. The results and findings of this study showed that, despite multiple and diverse humanistic and hermeneutic approaches in political geography, these methods and approaches do not have the necessary scientific and epistemological features and credibility, and are ideological and political and social viewpoints more than having a scientific nature. Similarly, the traditional empiricism approach based on traditional inductivism does not have essential features for a comprehensive scientific method like hermeneutics. Therefore, contrary to the popular belief, the empirical sciences including natural and social sciences, e.x. political geography, do not have multiple methodologies, but a common methodology called hypothetical-deductive. The other commonly used methods political geography are only applicable at the data collection stage and lack the characteristics of a full-scale scientific methodology.

    Conclusion

    Despite variety of research methods in the social sciences, and in particular, political geography, the researcher has no limit to use various methods in accordance with his own goals and objectives. However, it should be noted that the most valid and complete research method in empirical sciences, both natural and social, is hypothetical-deductive, and other methods, such as discursive methods, structuralism, post-structuralism, etc., are used only in data collection as many of the commonly used methods in the social sciences lack the capacity and efficiency to be used in the main stage of scientific research, i.e. understanding and evaluating data. Therefore, it is not possible to fully utilize these methods in social and geography sciences. As a result, the reliable method for social and geographic sciences is hypothetical-deductive method. This method is based on both "logic and experience" in scientific studies and emphasizes the importance of theories and hypotheses before observation, explanation, interpretation, and analysis. Therefore, it is based on the "deductive" method in scientific research.

    Keywords: Experimental science, Scientific Methodology, Exploratory, hermeneutic Approach, Hypothetical-deductive Methodology, Political Geography
  • Marjan Badiee Azandehie *, Narjessadat Hosainy Pages 157-186
     Introduction

    In political geography, the city as a geopolitical and legal reality with the concept of spatial, physical, and natural, embraces the inequality of power relations. In this regard, city can be studied using a systematic approach as a 'political-spatial system'. The systematic approach seeks to understand the whole system and its components, the relationships between the components and the whole and the relationships between the whole and its subsystem environment. In this approach, the city is studied militarily from different spatial levels, which illustrates a kind of interconnection between the subsystems of an urban system. In other words, an urban system, within the framework of a systematic approach, consists not only of a set of urban settlements, but also of spatial flows and relationships between cities because of its structure and function at various scales. Using a descriptive-analytic approach, this paper explores the views of two major political geographers, Saul Bernard Cohen and Edward Soja, how to study the city as a system. The results of this study show that, for Cohen, the "political system" is the starting point for the analysis of political processes as processes operate within it, so that, first, the concepts of "process" and "system" are inseparable. Secondly, 'social forces' are at the heart of the city's political system because by creating political exchanges, institutions operate through them and shape the relevant environment. Soja, while considering the two spatial and political systems of the city, believes that the "spatial system of the city" is a part of the space that is formally and functionally organized by modeling the characteristics and structuring of organized flows and goals. But at the same time, there is an inherent geographical order in human society- a "spatial anatomy" of "human behavior" and "social organization" that has discoverable and systematic features. For this reason, in his view, some sort of order is concentrated in space systems, especially the "political system of the city".

    Methodology

    This research is fundamental and theoretical type and the method of data collection is based on documentary and library research and the method of information analysis is also descriptive-analytic based on qualitative methodology. In this regard, and in order to achieve a clear and consistent result in this research based on rational deduction, efforts have been made to explain the political system of the city. Thus, using the main variables, such as the phenomenon of city, system, and politics, we try to reach generalized results Findings The findings of this study are discussed under the following themes: 1- From the old times, the concept of the system has been considered by scholars and philosophers. 2- The system approach, which includes the school of organism and integrity, is a comprehensive approach to entities.  3. System thinking; the process of cognition is based on analysis, analysis and composition in order to achieve a comprehensive and comprehensive understanding of an issue in its environment. 4. A system approach based on the prevailing role of comprehensive planning, based on the principles of formal and definitive planning, has created a fundamental change in the bases of urban plans and opened up a new perspective on the future of urbanization. 5. Cohen, in his model, has tried to notice mankind in his political role in society (in political transactions, political structure, and political ideology) and the relation between this political role and the earth (places, regions, and perspectives), the result of this connection and the formation of a political system. 6. For Soja, a spatial system of the city can be seen as a cluster of unified locations or areas, formed through the integration of regional communication of key features such as cultural and attitudinal variables and the interaction of interaction patterns.

    Analysis 

    Urban systems and their elements can be studied over time to study their dynamic properties. Such a revolutionary view or developmentism in geography, on the one hand, is closely related to the study of spatial development, and on the other hand, it is due to the emphasis on the study of the cognitive structure of geographic units. As a result, a city's political system is initially a collection of citizens, which is the philosophy of survival and infrastructure. Parties that are catalysts for categorizing citizens' thoughts and ideas and various pressure groups that act as hidden and half-hidden, as well as the media that organizes the public opinion of communities in their own way, and decision-makers from other subsets political city. In the political system of the city, two internal and external environments influenced by ideological, natural, economic, and demand forces and advocates that lead to certain policies if they are considered by the main elements of the political system. These policies have particular feedback given their spatial manifestations and this systematic cycle will continue.  

    Conclusion

    Using this descriptive-analytic method, the present paper focuses on the political system of the city based on Cohen and Soja theory. According to Cohen, the departure point for analyzing political processes is the "political system" that processes within it. Indeed, in his view, the concepts of "process" and "system" are inseparable. Social forces are the basis of the city's political system, because social forces create the system and political transactions through which institutions act and shape the environment. For Soja, "spatial" and "spatial analysis" of the concept of city's space system is heavily woven together. A "spatial system of the city" is part of a space that is formally and functionally organized through the patterning of the characteristics and structure of flows and goals.

    Keywords: System, City, political system, cohen, soja
  • Bardia Roghani, Mohammad Fereshtehpour *, Mohammad Ali Olyaie Pages 187-216
    Interoduction

    Groundwater resources are considered as the second largest source of freshwater in the world. The continuous decline of groundwater levels to meet the needs of agriculture, domestic and industry have caused numerous problems in different parts of the world in the second half of the last century. Accordingly, shared transboundary aquifers are taken into account as important water supply resources, especially in arid and semi-arid regions. To date, valuable experiences have been made on transboundary rivers in different levels, but despite more than a decade of technical and political attention at the highest international levels to transboundary aquifers, little progress has been made in developing and implementing agreements in this domain. The scientific knowledge of about 600 transboundary aquifers in almost every country is very weak, so that the identification of contaminated basins, the study of their pollution levels and the probability of their drying is limited to only expert's judgement.

    Methodology 

    This article reviews a number of global agreements in the continents of Europe, Africa and America and examines the experiences of each of them using descriptive-analytical method. The information used in this research is based on official documents, books, magazines and domestic, foreign and internet publications. Finally, based on strengths and weaknesses of those agreements, a framework is presented for the development of cooperation and the formulation of practical agreements for Iran.

    Discussion and Results

    The results of the research show that there are number of factors for successful transboundary aquifers management such as making agreement explicitly refer to groundwater, harmonizing and sharing information with neighboring states and emphasizing on cooperative and local approaches. Moreover, the proposed framework consists of four general sections: in the first part, the initial agreement (including the provision of initial financial resources using the capacity of international institutions) would be made. In the second part, all important and influential institutions should operate in the form of the Water Diplomacy Committee. In the third part, it is necessary to provide a comprehensive assessment of the state of the transboundary aquifers by creating, coordinating and integrating various information databases. Finally, considering the different political structures of the watershed management in the countries of the aquifer, a comprehensive agreement, is made.

    Conclusion

    Although competition over the use of shared water resources may have benefits in the short term to the upstream countries, but in the future, its negative effects affect all the countries in that shared basin. The failure of many governments of developing countries to apply restrictive policies on groundwater extraction, make these governments and even the global community feel anxious. Despite more than a decade of technical and political attention at the highest international levels to transboundary aquifers, little progress has been made in passing and implementing agreements on these resources. In this paper, after reviewing the conceptual models of transboundary aquifers, some of the most important global experiences in Europe, Africa and the America were studied. The results showed that, except for the French-Swiss aquifer, other agreements were not able to achieve predetermined objectives for various reasons such as the lack of national approval of the agreement, lack of financial supports, etc. Accordingly, based on the lessons learned, a framework for practical cooperation between Iran and its neighbors was proposed. The present research has taken the initial steps towards achieving practical cooperation, and its further development will lead to more acceptable results.

    Keywords: Transboundary Aquifer, Agreement, International experiences, Practical cooperation