فهرست مطالب

Applied Biotechnology Reports - Volume:7 Issue: 2, 2020
  • Volume:7 Issue: 2, 2020
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1399/04/21
  • تعداد عناوین: 10
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  • Adel Mohammadi, Abomohammad Asgarkhani *, Seyed Bagher Mirabbasi Pages 59-62

    The role of different sciences in the development of each other is quite clear and undeniable. Today, the application of scientific and laboratory facilities for discovering the truth and collecting evidence has increasingly extended and almost dominated the old methods. Hence, the era of probative evidence has been introduced as the age of scientific and legal evidence convergence. Meanwhile, applying the evidence provided through biotechnological methods has become commonplace among judges for achieving the certainty and getting persuaded. On the other hand, the right to life is on the top of the list of fundamental rights inherited to the human beings which accurse the action of physically removing any person or a group of persons for any specific and non-specific reason. Self-determination is another basic human right which knows people possessing the fundamental right to determine their own destiny by birth. In a legal biological system, scientific experiments providing physical, chemical, and mechanical evidence from laboratory and biological examinations will be taken as the basis of criminal evidence, known as forensic biotechnology. In the present paper, the role of forensic biotechnology in establishing the above-mentioned human rights is summarized.

    Keywords: Forensic biotechnology, Medical evidence, Self-determination, DNA
  • Hadi Esmaeili Gouvarchin Galeh, MohammadReza Karimi, Parisa Rezayat, Masoumeh Bolandian, Majid Mirzaei Nodoushan, Mahdieh Farzanehpour * Pages 63-73

    While the world has faced an epidemic disease resulted from severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), a disease which has derived from a new coronavirus that has a high contagious power causing severe illness in some individuals that may even lead to death, no vaccine or special effective treatment has been offered yet. By noticing the genetic similarity between Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS) and SARS-CoV viruses with SARS-CoV-2 and especially between SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2, the aim of this research was to express the proteins of the SARS-CoV-2 virus including the spike (S), nucleocapsid (N) and other proteins in the virus and their function in entering host cells, virus replication and production on one hand, and developing possible drugs that are effective in treating this coronavirus infection by targeting the above-mentioned proteins. On the other hand, the researchers are looking to offer a possible vaccine to prevent infection with this virus by using the proteins of this virus.

    Keywords: COVID-19 Disease, SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV-2 Viral Proteins, Possible Antiviral Treatments, Possible Vaccine
  • Raghunath Satpathy * Pages 74-80

    Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) interfere with hormone receptors and are associated with a variety of adverse health effects. Therefore, there is a rising global concern about these substances. Numerous xenobiotic substances released into the environment are classified into EDCs that adversely affect the developmental and reproductive functions of living species. The mode of the action of these substances are directly or indirectly binding to the hormone receptors and abnormally controls the hormonal activity. However, major challenges exist in order to analyse the effect of these substances experimentally as it is associated with experimental costs and performance time. Therefore, the bioinformatics basis of the study is used as an alternative to experimental approaches by many researchers. Popular computational methods such as molecular docking is currently used to predict the effect of the EDCs on the endocrine receptor. Molecular docking method uses the EDCs as ligand and hormonal receptor proteins as the target and computationally evaluates the binding affinity, conformational changes and stability. Also, this is the ultimate leads to understand the structural and functional aspects. In this review, specifically the bioinformatics resources and implementation of molecular docking methods towards the evaluation of toxicity, binding affinity, classification of the potential endocrine disrupting substances have been discussed by narrating the literature.

    Keywords: Bioinformatics, Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals, computational tools, Molecular docking, hormone receptor, Metabolic Pathway Analysis
  • Sahar Mohamadi, Saeed Zaker Bostanabad, Reza Mirnejad * Pages 81-86

    Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) which is literally defined as a clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats is an adaptive immune system in bacteria, which enables them to detect and destroy the DNA of the virus. In fact, CRISPR is a defense mechanism in prokaryotic cells, which induces resistance to foreign genetic content, such as that found in the plasmid or phages. The proteins involved in this mechanism are called CRISPR associated proteins (CAS) which have the ability to search, cut and eventually transform phage DNA in a specific way. The CAS is a protein with an enzymatic function which can be called nuclease, given the fact that it plays a special role in the DNA sequence and CRISPR arrays. The CRISPR technology allows changes in DNA, which enables to modify and make any changes to any gene in any living creature, much more accurately and better than all previous methods. In this review, we introduce the mechanisms and benefits of CRISPR in genome editing, briefly reviewing CRISPR programs in gene therapy exploration and CRISPR’s ability to produce different types of mutations through different repair mechanisms.

    Keywords: CRISPR, CAS protein, SPACER, Proto-SPACER, DIRECT REPEATS
  • Mohammad Rahmati, Yousef Nikmanesh, Narjes Abshorshori, Behrooz Johari * Pages 87-92
    Introduction
    Trastuzumab is a common treatment for HER2-positive breast cancer. Trastuzumab exerts its effect through inhibiting the intracellular signaling pathway induced by HER2. This study aimed to specifically investigate the cytotoxic effect of trastuzumab against two different breast cell lines, MDA-MB-453 (HER2-high) and MDA-MB-468 (HER2-low).
    Materials and Methods
    The breast cancer cell lines were subjected to various concentrations of trastuzumab (1-1000 ng/mL). The trastuzumab’s effects were regularly monitored via direct observation by inverted microscopy. Effects of trastuzumab were determined on cytotoxicity, cell proliferation and apoptosis at 24 and 72 hours post-treatment via MTT colorimetric, cell cycle and apoptosis assays.
    Results
    Microscopic observation demonstrated a dose-dependent increase in cell death at treated ones. The MTT assay showed that trastuzumab (1-1000 ng/mL) inhibited the growth of both cell lines in a dose-dependent manner. The findings of the present study revealed that trastuzumab induces a statistically higher cytotoxicity at all concentrations in MDA-MB-453 compared to MDA-MB-468 cells. It has been actually revealed that trastuzumab suppresses cell proliferation through inducing G1 phase arrest and triggers apoptosis in both cell lines. However, the effect of trastuzumab was found to be higher in MDA-MB-453, compared to MDA-MB-468.
    Conclusions
    Trastuzumab could inhibit cell proliferation and trigger apoptosis in HER2-positive cells. Although Trastuzumab affected both cell lines, it significantly inhibited the cell growth of HER2-high cells.
    Keywords: Trastuzumab, MDA-MB-453, breast cancer, MDA-MB-468, Cytotoxicity, Apoptosis
  • Boulanouar Bakchiche *, İlginç Kızılpınar Temizer, Aytaç Güder, Ömür Gençay Çelemli, Sevim Çiftçi Yegin, Sanaa Bardaweel, Mosad Ghareeb Pages 93-103
    Introduction
    In the current study, the microscopic and chemical analysis of Algerian honey, pollen, and propolis were investigated.
    Materials and Methods
    The chemical composition of the ethanolic extracts of honeybee products was determined via gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. Furthermore, their in vitro anticancer, antimicrobial, antioxidant activities, total phenolic content (TPC), and total flavonoid content (TFC) were evaluated. Anticancer activities were assessed using the MTT assay while the antimicrobial potential was studied using the microdilution method. The antioxidant activities were investigated using the 2,2’-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH), hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity (H2O2) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). The TPC and TFC were evaluated via Folin-Ciocalteu’s and AlCl3 assays, respectively.
    Results
    In the GC-MS analyses, 36 compounds were identified in the ethanol extract of pollen accounting for 92.73% of the total extract; linolenic acid was the most abundant compound (21.28%). Also, 23 compounds were identified in the ethanol extract of propolis representing 29.91% of the total extract; Z-nerolidol was the most abundant compound (8.96%). Moreover, 17 compounds were identified in the ethanol extract of honey representing 99.40% of the total extract while glyceraldehyde (27.07%) was the major abundant compound. The ethanol extract from pollen yielded the highest TPC with 1169.33 mg Gallic acid equivalent/g dry extract. In the DPPH assay, the SC50 values ranged from 50.74 to 53.05 μg/mL. Significant antimicrobial activities were associated with propolis with Gram-positive bacteria as the most sensitive microorganisms. In addition, remarkable anticancer activities were observed for propolis against five human cancer cell lines with LD50 values in the range of 3-160 μg/mL.
    Conclusions
    Algerian Honeybee products, especially propolis, may be a potential source of naturally occurring bioactive compounds for the treatment of oxidative stress and cancer diseases.
    Keywords: Honeybee Products, GC-MS Analyses, TPC, TFC, Antioxidant, Antimicrobial, Anticancer
  • Nazanin Ahadi, Hamideh Mahmoodzadeh Hosseini, Raheleh Halabian *, Hossien Fahimi Pages 104-110
    Introduction
    Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have novel therapeutic potential to treat a wide variety of diseases but they have poor survival in oxidative stress conditions. Probiotics are one of the most effective antioxidant substances in the improvement of cell resistance to oxidative environments. The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the protective effects of Lactobacillus rhamnosus on MSCs viability in stressful conditions.
    Materials and Methods
    The MSCs were exposed to live or killed L. rhamnosus in oxidative-stress conditions to evaluate the expression of antioxidant genes; heme oxygenase (HO1), metallothionein 1 (MT1), superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) and 2 (SOD2). Also, the antioxidant activity was assessed.
    Results
    In harmful conditions (H2O2) and serum deprivation, killed L. rhamnosus not only increased the expression of HO-1, MT1, SOD1 and SOD2 genes of the MSCs (P ≤ 0.001) but also enhanced the antioxidant activity of MSCs (P ≤ 0.001), leading to a better survival under oxidative stress conditions. The synergism effect of killed L. rhamnosus increased the antioxidant potential of MSCs to resist oxidative stress conditions.
    Conclusions
    The killed L. rhamnosus has protective effects on the survival of MSCs in stress conditions.
    Keywords: Mesenchymal Stem Cells, Lactobacillus, Antioxidant
  • Tabti Leila *, Mohammed El Amine Dib, Boufeldja Tabti, Costa Jean, Alain Muselli Pages 111-115
    Introduction
    Since ancient times, the therapeutic virtues of plants have been a part of the traditional pharmacopoeia of several Mediterranean countries, with various uses depending on the country. Among the plants with a great therapeutic potential, Pistacia lentiscus L. and P. atlantica Desf. (Anacardiaceae), are found in the Mediterranean circum-country. The present study was conducted in order to identify and compare the chemical compositions of the essential oils of P. atlantica and P. lentiscus as well as to determine their efficiency as a fumigant toxicity for the control of pest insect Tribolium confusum.
    Materials and Methods
    In this study, the aerial parts of the plants were hydrodistilled in a Clevenger-type apparatus. The isolated essential oil was analyzed using gas chromatography (GC) and mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The fumigation toxicity of essential oils was evaluated against the adults of T. confusum.
    Results
    The essential oils of both plants showed qualitative differences in their chemical compositions. The major compounds identified from P. lentiscus were (E)-β-caryophyllene (16.3%) and γ-cadinene (15.6%), while from P. atlantica was terpinen-4-ol (35.6%). Results of the fumigant tests of the essential oils revealed that the essential oil of P. lentiscus was the most toxic. The estimated concentration to kill 50 % of the treated insects (LC50) was 7.5 μL/L air.
    Conclusions
    The results showed that P. lentiscus essential oil presented an interesting fumigant property and that could be proposed as new potential sources of natural bioinsecticides.
    Keywords: Bioinsecticides, Essential oils, Pistacia, beetles, mills
  • Doaa Khalil, Soad A. El-Zayat, Magdi El-Sayed * Pages 116-124
    Introduction
    Fungal endophytes are friendly microbes colonizing in plants and play an effective role in plant-environment interactions. They produce valuable secondary metabolites that both plants and human beings can benefit from such products. Diverse compounds are biosynthesized by endophytes to promote plant growth and prevent pathogen attacks. Some of these compounds can be used for human drugs as antibiotics.
    Materials and Methods
    Thirteen endophytic fungal species were isolated from root, stem and leaves of Hibiscus sabdariffa. The assessment of the antioxidants activity, total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoids content and total antioxidant capacity (TAC), hydrogen peroxide scavenging and reducing power assays of 26 ethyl acetate and 13 methanol crude fungal extracts has been carried out. Qualitative assay of bioactive compounds for 39 endophytic fungal extracts have been checked by standard procedures. Quantitative estimation of TPC and flavonoids content was done. The DPPH free radical scavenging was estimated using DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl), and hydrogen peroxide scavenging and reducing power assays were used to evaluate the antioxidants activity.
    Results
    Qualitative detection of secondary metabolites revealed that endophytic fungal extracts from Aspergillus terreus isolated from the leaves of Hibiscus sabdariffa was found to be able to produce all the tested functional metabolites with the highest total phenolic contents (204.5±0.4 mg GAE/g) and antioxidant activity for DPPH radical scavenging assay (91.88 ± 0.17 μg/mL).
    Conclusions
    The present study revealed that metabolites produced by some endophytic fungi isolated from the medicinal plant, Hibiscus sabdariffa could be a potential source of novel natural antioxidant compounds.
    Keywords: Fungal Endophytes, Antioxidant, Secondary metabolites
  • Ali Daryabeigi Zand * Pages 125-134
    Introduction
    Migration and mobilization of recalcitrant organic contaminants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in contaminated sites may endanger groundwater resources if considerable amounts of these compounds are mobilized and leached from solid phase into aqueous phase. The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of biochar in two forms i.e. crushed and pulverized on immobilization and leaching behavior of high molecular weight (HMW) PAHs from contaminated soil into water as well as evaluation of contribution of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in mobilization and release of HMW PAHs in crushed and pulverized biochar-amended soil, which was addressed for the first time in this study.
    Materials and Methods
    Column leaching test was used to evaluate the leaching behavior of selected HMW PAHs from soil. Concentrations of PAHs in column leachates were determined using a GC/MS.
    Results
    Findings showed strong sorption of the studied HMW PAHs to solid phase in both unamended and amended columns. Dibenz[a,h]anthracenewas not mobilized by water flow in any of the examined treatments and showed the greatest affinity to solid matrix. Mobility and leaching of most HMW PAHs were enhanced in the presence of crushed biochar. Direct correlation between detected concentrations of HMW PAHs in column percolates and DOC was found in biochar-amended soil.
    Conclusions
    Biochar can be used as a promising cost-effective alternative to activated carbon in immobilization of PAHs in contaminated sites. However, contribution of DOC in mobilization of HMW PAHs from contaminated soils towards groundwater resources cannot be neglected.
    Keywords: Immobilization, High Molecular Weight Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, Crushed Biochar, Pulverized Biochar, Soil