فهرست مطالب

  • پیاپی 75 (زمستان 1398)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1399/04/25
  • تعداد عناوین: 9
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  • هدی رضایی روشن، علی رحمانی فیروزجاه*، امیرمنصور طهرانچیان، رضاعلی محسنی صفحات 9-55
    مقدمه

    هدف توسعه دستیابی به انواع آزادی‌ها است. هرگونه محرومیت و محدودیت، به‌نوعی سلب آزادی می‌کند که در نتیجه آن زمینه تولید به‌عنوان فاعل توسعه و پیشرفت از بین خواهد رفت. درواقع، دستیابی به آزادی اقتصادی و به دنبال آن پیشرفت اجتماعی در هر کشوری می‌تواند از اهمیت زیادی برخوردار بوده و بر تولید ناخالص داخلی کشورها تاثیرگذار باشد.

    روش

    آمارهای مربوط به پیشرفت اجتماعی، آزادی اقتصادی و همچنین تولید ناخالص داخلی سرانه در 144 کشور به ترتیب برگرفته از شاخص پیشرفت اجتماعی، بنیاد هریتیج و بانک جهانی در سال‌های 2014 تا 2018 است. جهت مقایسه تاثیر شاخص‌های پیشرفت اجتماعی و آزادی اقتصادی بر تولید ناخالص داخلی سرانه از روش داده‌های تابلویی با استفاده از نرم‌افزار Eviews10 مورد تجزیه‌وتحلیل قرار گرفته است.

    یافته‌ها

    نتایج برآورد داده‌های تابلویی در سال‌های موردبررسی نشان داد که شاخص پیشرفت اجتماعی تاثیر افزایشی و معنادار بر تولید ناخالص داخلی سرانه در کشورهای با درآمد پایین، کشورهای با درآمد پایین‌تر از حد متوسط، کشورهای با درآمد بالاتر از حد متوسط و کشورهای با درآمد بالا دارد. شاخص آزادی اقتصادی نیز بر تولید ناخالص داخلی سرانه در کشورهای با درآمد پایین، اثر افزایشی و معنادار؛ در کشورهای با درآمد متوسط به پایین، اثر بی‌معنا؛ در کشورهای با درآمد متوسط به بالا اثر بی‌معنا؛ و در کشورهای با درآمد بالا اثر افزایشی و معنادار داشته است.

    بحث

    پیشرفت اقتصادی و اجتماعی در کشورها دو خط موازی هستند که باید با هم و در یک مسیر حرکت می‌کنند. بدین‌ترتیب می‌توان گفت با موثر بودن این شاخص‌ها، جامعه به سمت رفاه اقتصادی و اجتماعی رفته و این جامعه یک جامعه ایده‌آل خواهد بود.

    کلیدواژگان: آزادی اقتصادی، توسعه، پیشرفت اجتماعی، تولید ناخالص داخلی سرانه، داده های تابلویی
  • هانیه صداقت کالمرزی، شهرام فتاحی*، کیومرث سهیلی صفحات 57-85
    مقدمه

    دستیابی به سطوح بالاتر شادی یکی از اهداف مهم اقتصاددانان در کشورهای درحال‌توسعه و توسعه‌یافته دنیای امروز است. در کنار دستیابی به سطوح بالای شادی، کاهش نابرابری شادی نیز از اهمیت فراوانی برخوردار است. در این میان ارتباط درآمدهای نفت و نابرابری شادی در کشورهای صادرکننده نفت موضوع مهمی است که کمتر موردتوجه بوده است.

    روش

    هدف این مقاله بررسی نحوه اثرگذاری رانت حاصل از درآمدهای نفت بر نابرابری شادی و آزمودن فرضیه نفرین منابع و تاثیر آستانه‌ای رانت نفت بر نابرابری شادی در کشورهای منتخب اوپک در بازه زمانی 2012-2005 است. بدین منظور با استفاده از ادبیات نظری و به‌کارگیری روش پانل آستانه‌ای، عوامل موثر بر نابرابری شادی مدل‌سازی شده است.

    یافته‌ها

    نتایج برآورد مدل نشان داده است که تاثیر رانت نفت بر نابرابری شادی غیرخطی و آستانه‌ای است؛ بدین معنا که تا قبل از حد آستانه 7/17 درصد از نسبت رانت نفت به تولید ناخالص داخلی، این متغیر تاثیری منفی و معنی‌دار بر نابرابری شادی داشته است اما پس از عبور از این حد آستانه، نسبت رانت نفت به تولید ناخالص داخلی تاثیر معنی‌داری بر نابرابری شادی در کشورهای اوپک نداشته است.

    بحث

    برگرفته از نتایج پژوهش پیشنهاد می‌شود که سیاست‌گذاران، منابع نفت را در جهت کاهش نابرابری‌ها ازجمله کاهش نابرابری شادی هزینه کنند و با ایجاد فرصت‌های شادی‌آفرین برای تمامی آحاد جامعه موجبات کاهش نابرابری شادی در جامعه را فراهم کنند.

    کلیدواژگان: رانت نفت، فرضیه نفرین منابع، کشورهای اوپک، مدل پانل پویای آستانه ای، نابرابری شادی
  • نسرین طباطبائی حصاری*، هاجر آذری، فاطمه زهرا نادری افوشته صفحات 87-121
    مقدمه

    اسناد بین‌المللی متعددی به برابری میان زنان و مردان در برخورداری از مزایای تامین اجتماعی اشاره کرده‌اند. در حقوق ایران نیز با وجود تاکید قانون اساسی و با تمام تلاشهای صورت گرفته، همچنان شاهد نابرابریهایی میان زنان و مردان در برخورداری از مزایای مذکور به دو صورت آشکار و پنهان هستیم که ضرورت بررسی جایگاه اصل برابری در برخورداری زنان از مزایای بیمه‌های اجتماعی در نظام حقوقی ایران و شناسایی دلایلی که سبب ظهور این نابرابری ها شده را مطرح می‌کند.

    روش

    این تحقیق با روش مطالعه اسنادی و کتابخانه‌ای و با نگاهی تطبیقی و تحلیلی به اسناد بین‌المللی و مقاوله‌نامه‌های سازمان بین‌المللی کار و قوانین داخلی در بخش بیمه‌های اجتماعی پرداخته است.

    یافته‌ها

    یافته‌ها حاکی از آن است که عدم انعکاس مناسب تغییرات اجتماعی در خصوص تفاوت نقشهای اجتماعی و اقتصادی زنان و مردان در قوانین این حوزه به ظهور نابرابری هایی انجامیده که ناشی از عدم توجه به تفاوت «مفهوم کفالت در حقوق تامین اجتماعی» با «تکلیف انفاق در حقوق خانواده» از یک‌سو و نفوذ دیدگاه های سنتی مبتنی بر الگوی مرد نان‌آور از سوی دیگر است.

    بحث

    درحالی‌که با توجه به فلسفه نظام تامین اجتماعی، تبعیت از رویکرد قانون مدنی در تعریف نقش اقتصادی زنان و مردان در خانواده الزامی نبوده، اما توجه به تغییرات نقشهای اجتماعی و اقتصادی زنان و مردان در جامعه کنونی در این خصوص ضروری به نظر می‌رسد.

    کلیدواژگان: برابری جنسیتی، بیمه شده اصلی، بیمه شده تبعی، حقوق تامین اجتماعی
  • زهره ذبیحی مداح، حسین آقاجانی مرساء* صفحات 123-181
    مقدمه

    در دهه‌های اخیر در حوزه علوم روانشناسی و پزشکی و علوم اجتماعی...مطالعات گسترده‌ای پیرامون کیفیت زندگی سالمندان صورت گرفته است؛ اما ازآن‌جهت که کیفیت زندگی و شاخصهای آن یک مفهوم پیچیده و چند سویه و مبهم است -زیرا که برای افراد مختلف اهمیت و ارزش هر یک از ابعاد مختلف زندگی متفاوت است- مشاهده تناقضها و تفاوتها و همچنین نقاط مشترک در میان پژوهشها ضرورت انجام فراتحلیل، بازنگری و ترکیب یافته‌ها، دستیابی به تحلیلی مشترک درزمینه کیفیت زندگی سالمندان و ابعاد مختلف آن را موجب شده است.

    روش

    این مطالعه با روش فراتحلیل در سه سطح نظریه شناختی، روش‌شناختی و نتیجه‌شناسی به کشف و آشکار کردن ارتباط منطقی عوامل تاثیرگذار و شاخصهای اصلی از طریق مطالعه تطبیقی بیست مقاله (علمی-پژوهشی) با روش سنجش اندازه اثر عوامل و متغیرهای مستقل در جهت دستیابی به نتایج جدید و جامع‌تر و رفع چالشها در آینده و بهبود کیفیت زندگی سالمندان بوده است.

    یافته‌ها

    در پاسخ به پرسش اصلی مطالعه حاضر سه شاخص اجتماعی، فرهنگی و متغیرهای جمعیتی مرتبط با متغیرهای مستقل، آموزش مثبت‌نگری و امید به زندگی (83 درصد) مشارکت اجتماعی غیرنهادی (77 درصد) سلامت جسمی و روانی (75 درصد) و نگرشهای مذهبی و دینداری (76 درصد) مشخص شد که شدت تاثیر در حد بالایی است. حمایت اجتماعی، همبستگی اجتماعی و رضایت از زندگی و عوامل زمینه‌ای (دموگرافیگ) به‌طور خاص سن و تحصیلات در حد متوسط تاثیرگذار بوده است.

    بحث

    به‌طورکلی توجه به ابعاد عینی کیفیت زندگی در بیشتر پژوهشها مورد غفلت قرار گرفته است و در صورت توجه و تمایز بین شاخصهای عینی و ذهنی کیفیت زندگی سالمندان در نتیجه‌گیریها به طور مجزا شاخصهای عینی و ذهنی بررسی نشده است.

    کلیدواژگان: کیفیت زندگی، سالمندی، فراتحلیل، ابعاد ذهنی و عینی، اندازه اثر
  • مهشید موقر*، حسن میرزاحسنی، مجید ضرغام حاجبی صفحات 183-202
    مقدمه

    یکی از اختلالات شایع دوران کودکی افسردگی است که پژوهشگران بر شناسایی عوامل مرتبط با آن در دوره کودکی تاکید کرده اند. هدف پژوهش حاضر بررسی پیش‌بینی‌پذیری افسردگی بر اساس حمایت اجتماعی و عوامل شناختی در کودکان بی سرپرست و بدسرپرست بود.

    روش

    پژوهش حاضر توصیفی از نوع همبستگی بود. جامعه آماری این پژوهش را کلیه کودکان مراکز بهزیستی تهران به تعداد 1120 کودک 7 تا 12 سال در 79 مرکز در سال 1396 تشکیل داده که 545 نفر به شیوه نمونه گیری در دسترس انتخاب شدند. ابزارهای پژوهش شامل پرسشنامه افسردگی کودکان کواکس (1992)، پرسشنامه سبک اسنادی کودکان  پترسون و سلیگمن (1984)، پرسشنامه نگرش ناکارآمد-کودکان (دوالساندرو و بورتون، 2006)، پرسشنامه مثلت شناختی کودکان (کاسلو  و همکاران، 1992) و پرسشنامه حمایت اجتماعی پروسیدانو و هلر (1983) بودند که با رعایت اصول اخلاقی پژوهش به اعضای نمونه ارایه شدند.

    یافته‌ها

    نتایج نشان‌دهنده این بود که از بین عوامل شناختی، سبک های اسنادی، نگرش ناکارآمد و مثلث شناختی پیش‌بین‌های معناداری برای افسردگی کودکان بودند. همچنین مشخص شد که حمایت اجتماعی نیز پیش بین معناداری برای افسردگی کودکان می باشد.

    بحث

    این یافته ها به معنای آن است که در تبیین ریشه های آسیب شناختی افسردگی در کودکان، به ویژه کودکانی که دارای ساختار منسجم خانوادگی نیستند، بایستی به نقش حمایت اجتماعی در کنار عوامل شناختی توجه ویژه ای داشت..

    کلیدواژگان: افسردگی، حمایت اجتماعی، عوامل شناختی، کودکان بی سرپرست و بدسرپرست
  • سبحان رضایی، محمود شهابی*، حسام الدین آشنا، مریم محمد تقی نسب صفحات 203-251
    مقدمه

      این پژوهش به بررسی موقعیت هم‌گرایی ملی / واگرایی در میان دانشجویان کرد و بلوچ می‌پردازد.

    روش

    جستجوی پایان‌نامه‌ها و طرحهای پژوهش انجام‌شده از طریق پایگاه های اطلاعاتی شامل، کتابخانه ملی و کتابخانه‌های دانشگاه تهران، شورای عالی انقلاب فرهنگی و همچنین مقالات نیز از طریق پایگاه های داده پرتال جامع علوم انسانی، Noormags, Irandoc، Magiran، SID، Civilica، Google Scholar، Scopus, Web of Science و با استفاده از کلیدواژه‌های «هم‌گرایی یا واگرایی ملی، هویت ملی یا هویت جمعی» و «دانشجو یا دانشگاهی» و «کرد یا بلوچ یا بلوچستان یا کردستان یا سیستان‌وبلوچستان یا زاهدان یا ایلام» و معادل انگلیسی آنها در مراکز بین‌المللی انجام شد. درنهایت، هشت مطالعه ملاک ورود به فراتحلیل را دارا بودند. سپس داده‌ها با استفاده از چک‌لیست محقق‌ساخته جمع‌آوری و به روش فراتحلیل و نرم‌افزار CMA-2 تحلیل شد.

    یافته‌ها

    آزمون همگنی نیز نشان داد که متغیرهای مستقل نقش تعدیل‌کننده ایفا می‌کنند اما متغیر قومیت نقش تعدیل‌کننده نداشت. در این میان، بیشترین اندازه اثر مربوط به متغیرهای انسجام اجتماعی، سرمایه اجتماعی، رضایت از زندگی، ویژگیهای شخصیتی، هویت دینی، مشارکت سیاسی و تعامل و هم‌گرایی در خانواده بود. میانگین اندازه اثر مطالعات در قوم کرد برابر 245/0 و در قوم بلوچ برابر 145/0 به دست آمد. بر مبنای کل داده‌های تحلیل‌شده می‌توان اظهار داشت که مهم‌ترین عوامل مثبت موثر بر هم‌گرایی ملی مربوط به متغیر انسجام اجتماعی (505/0)، سرمایه اجتماعی (337/0)، رضایت از زندگی (332/0) و همچنین عوامل منفی موثر مشتمل بر احساس محرومیت (0.184) و میزان مصرف رسانه‌ای از شبکه‌های ماهواره‌ای (0.16-)، است.

    بحث

    درواقع در سیاست‌گذاری برای ارتقای همگرایی ملی باید به بهبود انسجام اجتماعی، ارتقای سرمایه اجتماعی، کاهش احساس محرومیت و اصلاح مصرف رسانه‌ای جمعی اقدام کرد. از طرف دیگر، با افزایش احساس محرومیت، تعلق به هویت قومی به‌مثابه یک سپر محافظتی افزایش یافته و در مقابل، احساس هویت ملی کاهش می‌یابد، امری که می‌تواند با سیاست‌گذاری صحیح و رفع احساس محرومیت و برطرف کردن موانع محلی و ملی برای کسب امتیازات اجتماعی، مرتفع شود.

    کلیدواژگان: احساس محرومیت، انسجام اجتماعی، سرمایه اجتماعی، هم گرایی ملی، هویت قومی، هویت ملی
  • محمدعلی محمدی قره قانی، هادی موسوی* صفحات 251-280
    مقدمه

    در رویکردی به آسیبهای اجتماعی، ایده‌ای شکل گرفته که انگ‌زنی را مانع تکرار ارتکاب جرم و بزه از طریق مشروعیت‌زدایی از شخص می‌داند و معتقد است که می‌تواند عامل پیشگیری جرایم باشد. این ایده در ایران و آمریکا آزموده شد اما چون نتیجه موردنظر را نداشت، به آن پایان داده شد.

    روش

    روش این مقاله مروری بوده و از نوع مرور روایتی استفاده شد و آنچه از منابع که مرتبط با موضوع و هدف مطالعه تلقی می‌شد، با رویکردی نقادانه مورد تحلیل قرار گرفت.

    بحث

    تاتو، داغ‌زدن، بریدن و سوزاندن بخشی از پوست بردگان، مجرمان یا خاینان به کشور در دنیای باستان روشی جهت معرفی آنان به‌عنوان افراد مملوک و یا مفسدان اخلاقی بود که بعدها در دوره مدرن این داغ و ننگها به سوزاندن شخصیت و هویت افراد به‌منظور منزوی و از میدان بیرون‌کردن آنان انجامید که مباحث مربوط به بحران هویت و الیناسیون و مسخ در ادبیات کلاسیک دوران جدید به‌منظور تحلیل و تفسیر این فرایند بازتاب داده شد که ادغام این فرایند با ویژگیهای فضای مجازی بخصوص در ایران، تحلیلها و سیاست‌گذاریهای جدیدی را می‌طلبید.

    نتیجه

    از چند جنبه پیامدی بخصوص ظهور فضای مجازی، رویکرد استفاده از کارکرد مثبت انگ و استیگما برای مقابله با گسترش آسیبهای اجتماعی و تلاش برای کنترل و پیشگیری آن ناکارآمد تلقی شد.

    کلیدواژگان: انگ، فضای مجازی و آسیب های اجتماعی، مسخ و الیناسیون، هویت
  • حسین برزگر ولیک چالی*، اصغر محمدی، رضا اسماعیلی صفحات 281-317
    مقدمه

    مسئله حاشیه‌نشینی نه‌تنها منجر به سیاه‌نمایی چهره بیرونی شهر می‌شود بلکه دارای عواقبی نامطلوب و جبران‌ناپذیرتر است. شناسایی آسیبهای اجتماعی ناشی از حاشیه‌نشینی، از مهم‌ترین مسایل شهری است که باید آن را موردتوجه قرار داد. لذا هدف پژوهش حاضر بررسی رابطه میان میزان حاشیه‌نشینی با آسیبهای اجتماعی شرق استان مازندران است.

    روش

    روش پژوهش از نوع کمی، پیمایشی بود. جامعه آماری شامل افراد ساکن مناطق حاشیه‌نشین شرق استان مازندران بود که با استفاده از فرمول کوکران تعداد 384 نفر به‌عنوان حجم نمونه تعیین و با استفاده از شیوه نمونه‌گیری خوشه‌ای و سپس تصادفی ساده انتخاب شدند. ابزار تحقیق پرسشنامه محقق‌ساخته بوده که تحلیل آن با مدل معادلات ساختاری و نرم‌افزار Amos صورت گرفت.

    یافته‌ها

    حاشیه‌نشینی بر شکل‌گیری آسیبهای اجتماعیگرایش به خشونت، مصرف مشروبات الکلی، قانون‌گریزی، احساس ناامنی، اختلالات روانی، اختلال در سلامت اجتماعی، گرایش به اعتیاد، بی‌اعتمادی، انزوای اجتماعی، ازخودبیگانگی اجتماعی، فقر اقتصادی و احساس محرومیت تاثیر مثبت دارد. همچنین نتایج معادلات ساختاری نشان‌گر برازش و قابل‌قبول بودن مدل نظری پژوهش بود.

    بحث

    پدیده حاشیه‌نشینی در مازندران حاصل و برونداد مشکلات اجتماعی و ساختاری درهم تنیده است و مسایل اجتماعی فراوانی را در پی دارد. لذا سیاست‌گذاران و مسیولان، باید در برنامه‌ریزی‌ها، توجه جدی‌تر و هماهنگ‌تری در جهت رفع نواقص و کاستیهای مناطق حاشیه‌نشین اعمال کنند.

    کلیدواژگان: آسیبهای اجتماعی، اختلال در سلامت اجتماعی، حاشیه نشینی، خشونت
  • زهرا اصفهانی، رکسانا میرکاظمی*، فرید براتی سده، محسن روشن پژوه، ابوالفضل وطن پرست، کمال الدین مودب، محبوبه شجاع الدین، شیدرخ قائمی مود، حسن رفیعی صفحات 319-343
    مقدمه

    طرح پیشگیری اجتماع‌محور از اعتیاد، یکی از مهم‌ترین اقدامات سازمان بهزیستی کشور است که بیش از یک دهه از شروع آن می‌گذرد. نتایج نظارتهای انجام‌شده در سالهای اخیر، نیاز به ارتقاء کیفیت دانش و عملکرد تسهیلگران تیمهای اجتماع‌محور را نشان می‌داد؛ به همین دلیل مداخله‌ای به‌منظور ارتقای کیفیت برنامه‌های اجتماع‌محور پیشگیری از اعتیاد از طریق روش سر تسهیلگری در هفت استان کشور صورت گرفت. هدف از این مطالعه ارزیابی اجرای آزمایشی این طرح است.

    روش

    این مطالعه از نوع مداخله‌ای آینده‌نگر بود. درمجموع 113 تیم به‌عنوان مداخله و 75 تیم به‌عنوان شاهد از 7 استان انتخاب شدند. مداخله شامل انتخاب تسهیلگران باتجربه به‌عنوان سرتسهیلگر و حضور آنان در کارگاه آموزشی سرتسهیلگران و سپس حضور در کنار تسهیلگر کم‌تجربه‌تر با هدف انجام فعالیتهای آموزشی، ایجاد انگیزه، رفع مشکلات برنامه حین اجرا و فعالیت تیمهای اجتماع‌محور در مدت شش ماه بود. به‌منظور ارزیابی مراحل انجام مداخله اجتماع‌محور یک فرم جمع‌آوری اطلاعات تهیه و از طریق مصاحبه اطلاعات موردنیاز ثبت شد. داده‌ها در ابتدا و پایان مداخله جمع‌آوری و برای تجزیه‌وتحلیل و مقایسه آنها در ابتدا و پایان مداخله بین گروه های مورد و شاهد، از آزمون t زوجی، آزمون t و آزمون مربع خی استفاده شد.

    یافته‌ها

    نتایج مطالعه بیانگر تغییر معنی‌دار در تعداد جلسات برگزارشده تیمها در هر ماه، ارزیابی داراییهای جامعه، استفاده از جامعه به جای متخصصان به‌عنوان منبع اطلاعات برای ارزیابی نیاز، سهم بیشتر جامعه محلی در تامین بودجه، تدوین پیشنهادنامه مداخله اجتماع‌محور و پایش و ارزشیابی مداخله‌های اجتماع‌محور بود.

    بحث

    نتایج این مطالعه نشان داد که مداخله به روش سرتسهیلگری در ارتقا برنامه اجتماع‌محور پیشگیری از اعتیاد در ایران موثر است.

    کلیدواژگان: ارزیابی، برنامه اجتماع محور، پیشگیری از اعتیاد، سرتسهیلگری
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  • Hoda Rezaei Roshan, Ali Rahmani Firoozjah*, Amir Mansoor Tehranchian, Reza Ali Mohseni Pages 9-55
    Introduction

    The goal of development is accessing the different types of freedom. Any deprivation and constraint somehow disturbs freedom, so the field of production as the acting of development and progress will be lost. Actually, achieving the economic freedom and consequently, social progress can be so important and they can also affect GDP in every country. The relationship between freedom and achievement to social progress is beyond a structural relationship, and it has a high level of importance. What is positively gained by people is affected by economic freedom and opportunities, social powers, healthcare, primary education, and encouragement of innovations. Institutional orders for such opportunities are affected by freedoms that result from their free participation in social selection and free decision making for improving the opportunities.

    Method

    In this research, data of 144 countries of the world has been used. According to the classification of the World Bank, countries are divided into four groups including countries with low income, countries with lower than average income, countries with higher than average income, and countries with high income. Regarding the theoretical and experimental foundations, three variables have been used in this research: GDP per capita (purchasing power parity) as a dependent variable of research, and independent variables were economic freedom index and social progress indicator. The Economic Freedom Index (EFI) combines the factors of the rule of law (property rights, judicial effectiveness, and government integrity), government size (tax burden, government spending, and fiscal health), legal efficiency (business freedom, labor freedom, and monetary freedom), market openness (trade freedom, investment freedom, and financial freedom); the social progress indicator is a combination of the factors of the basic human needs (nutrition and basic medical care, water and sanitation, shelter, and personal safety), foundations of wellbeing (access to basic knowledge, access to information and communication, health and well-being, and environmental quality) and opportunity (personal rights, personal freedom and choice, tolerance and inclusion, and access to advanced education). Economic Freedom Index is derived from the data banks of Heritage Institution and social progress is derived from Social Progress Index website, and the data of GDP per capita is derived from the World Bank. Data collection required for the test was extracted and analyzed based on the maximum available information over the years 2014-2018. Eviews10 software package was used for data processing and model estimation. In order to estimate the effect of social progress index and economic freedom index on GDP per capita in the four groups of countries, an equation was estimated for each of the groups. In this equation, the effect of social progress and economic freedom on GDP per capita is estimated. By estimating this equation one can say that how many percentage of GDP per capita of each group is explained by social progress and economic freedom.

    Findings

    Having the GDP per capita as the dependant variable and social progress index and economic freedom as independent variables, for estimating the model, first reliability of the research variables was checked by Hardi Unit Root Test. The results of these indicators in the mentioned test and comparison with the critical value at the level of 5%, the null hypothesis considering the existence of a unit root for all the variables is reliable and it was observed that static variables were of zero degree I(0), and there was no need for differentiation. Also, the results of likelihood ratio test, F Limer and Hausman test showed that in likelihood ratio test, the likelihood value is less than 0.05 in all the four groups. So, ordinary least squares cannot be used for estimating the model. As a result, estimators of weighted least squares or generalized least squares were used for assessing the model in order to prevent bias of estimation. The results of F Limer in all the four groups indicated that the value of this statistics was more than the critical point. Therefore, the null hypothesis suggesting using Pool was rejected. Therefore, panel data was used for estimating the model. The results of Hausman test were also observed in all groups. As regards the test statistics is more than the critical point and p-value was obtained less than 0.05, as result, the null hypothesis based on being identical of intercepts was rejected. Accordingly, constant effect method was used for estimating the model. Finally, the results of constant effect of variables for the four income groups of the studied countries showed that social progress index has an increasing and significant effect on GDP per capita in the countries with low income, countries with lower than average income, countries with higher than average income, and countries with high income. The effect of economic freedom index on GDP per capita is increasing and significant in low income countries; insignificant in countries with lower than average income; insignificant in countries with higher than average income; increasing and significant in countries with high income. At last, the share of social progress increases by income enhances in the countries, but the share of economic freedom does not increase.

    Discussion

    The important point to be taken into account is that the share of social progress increases with the income boost in countries. Based on the coefficients obtained from the estimation, it should be considered that the effect of social progress index on GDP per capita has a direct relationship with the income increase in countries, and this effect is stronger in high income counties than that of the other three groups of countries. Thus, it can be claimed that a part of the income gap between and among the four groups of countries can be explained by the gap between their social progress levels. Also, the share of economic freedom decreases by income increase in low income and below average income countries. It can be due to environmental and political challenges that are created by increased income of countries and will not lead to economic freedom of countries. Therefore, according to North’s theory of institutions, existence of a stable institutional structure that is the requisite of human interactions provides the opportunity of social progress. However, this condition requires an environment in which free economic management is realized, and it will be achieved through economic freedom. In this regard, paying attention to the effect of institutions on GDP is necessary. Also, acording to the Solow, Lucas, and Barro models, the reason for the differences in countries’ GDP per capita is that wealthy countries have invested more in raising social and economic freedom, creating human and physical capital, and developing education and research and technology.Ethical ConsiderationsAuthors’ contributionsAll authors contributed in producing of the research.FundingIn the present study, all expenses were borne by the author and he did not have any sponsors.Conflicts of interestThe authors declared no conflict of interest.AcknowledgmentsIn this article, all rights relating to references are cited and resources are carefully listed.

    Keywords: Development, Economic freedom, GDP per capita, Panel data, Social progress
  • Haniyeh Sedaghat Kalmarzi, Shahram Fattahi*, Kiomars Sohaili Pages 57-85
    Introduction

    Achieving higher levels of happiness is one of the major goals of economists in both developed and developing countries. In addition to achieving higher levels of happiness, reducing the inequality of happiness is also important. Reducing inequalities including inequality of happiness, is one of the important goals of economic policy makers in today’s world. Happiness and inequality of happiness are equal to income and inequality of income, and since the income inequality has great importance in economics, in recent years, the happiness inequality has also attracted the attention of researchers and policymakers. The happiness inequality is much more important than level of happiness because the income inequality is much more important than income. happiness Inequality is the difference of happiness between different deciles in a society. In the happiness inequality studies, the link between oil revenues and happiness inequality in oil-exporting countries is a major issue that has been little addressed. In other words, the effect of oil revenues on the happiness inequality from the perspective of the resource curse hypothesis can be a new and interesting topic in completing the theory of resource curse hypothesis. Therefore, this study first examines the relationship between oil rent and happiness inequality in selected oil exporting countries.

    Method

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate how the rent of oil revenues affect happiness inequality as well as testing the hypothesis of resource curse and the threshold effect of oil rent on the happiness inequality in the OPEC countries during the period of 2005-2012. For this purpose, using theoretical literature and applying the threshold panel method, the factors influencing happiness inequality have been modeled. Since the hypothesis of this research is to test the effects of nonlinear oil rents on the happiness inequality, therefore, based on the hypothesis of this research, the experimental model will be specified as a threshold model which the threshold variable is the ratio of oil rents to gross domestic product. The threshold value is obtained by the Hansen’s (1999) method based on the estimation of the model for different values of the threshold variable, and minimizing the total squared error. In other words, the amount of the threshold variable, which involves the minimum sum of the squared error, is the selected threshold value which should be tested by the Hansen’s bootstrapping method to decide the significance or insignificance of the threshold value.

    Findings

    The results of model estimation have shown that the effect of oil rents on happiness inequality is nonlinear which means before the threshold of 17.7% of the ratio of oil rents to GDP, this variable has a significant negative effect on happiness inequality, but after crossing this threshold, the ratio of oil rents to GDP has not had a significant effect on the happiness inequality in the OPEC countries.Unemployment has had a significant positive impact on the happiness inequality in the OPEC countries. In other words, by increasing unemployment in societies and the loss of income and job opportunities for part of the community, the splitting of happiness between different income groups or happiness inequality will be increased.Inflation has also had a significant positive impact on the happiness inequality in these countries. Inflation will reduce the real income of low-income and middle-income earners, mainly workers and other fixed-income groups. In contrast, it increases the value of wealth and assets for the rich, so it is expanding the internal gap between low-income groups and high-income groups, so the happiness inequality will be increased.The rule of law index has a significant negative impact on happiness inequality. If laws are implemented in the same way for all people in the community and there is no difference among social classes in the issuance of judiciary, the sensitivity of the satisfaction of the implementation of justice in society is created. Then this sense of justice will increase the level of satisfaction and happiness of the poor classes and can reduce the gap of happiness between the different deciles.Corruption has had a significant positive impact on happiness inequality. Corruption means the abuse of power by government officials to earn personal profits. In fact, corruption can be recognized as a privilege and instrumentality in the hands of a group of people who can easily access various privileges which is obtained through the different types of rent. As a result of the lack of equitable distribution of resources and rents, the division of the class will deepen and increase the happiness inequality in society. The social capital index has had a negative but insignificant impact on happiness inequality. The social capital, through increasing the components of trust, participation and cooperation, can lead to a reduction in class distance and the promotion of happiness levels and the reduction of happiness inequality, but the meaninglessness of this effect could be arisen by the time constraints of the data.

    Discussion

    Based on the results of this study, it is suggested that policy makers in the OPEC countries should reduce the happiness inequality and create opportunities for happiness for all segments of the society by expending oil revenues. Also, by institutional reforms, monetary and financial discipline of governments can reduce the happiness inequality as a result of reducing unemployment and inflation. Justice in enforcing laws, reducing corruption and improving social capital is also very effective in reducing the happiness inequality.Ethical ConsiderationsAuthors’ contributionsAll authors contributed in producing of the research.FundingIn the present study, all expenses were borne by the author and he did not have any sponsors.Conflicts of interestThe authors declared no conflict of interest.AcknowledgmentsIn this article, all rights relating to references are cited and resources are carefully listed.

    Keywords: Dynamic Threshold Panel Model, Happiness Inequality, Oil Rent, OPEC Countries, Resource Curse Hypothesis
  • Nasrin Tabatabai Hesari*, Hajar Azari, Fatemehzahra Naderiafoshteh Pages 87-121
    Introduction

    International organizations and institutions related to the field of labor and social security, inspired by the basic principles outlined in international public documents, have addressed the “principle of equality” in numerous documents.The principle of equality is one of the underlying principles of social security rights alongside the principles of universality, comprehensiveness and competence, which emphasize the equal entitlement of all citizens of society to the benefits of social security, irrespective of one’s ethnicity, citizenship, race, religion or gender. In the meantime, the effect of gender on the benefits of social security is considerable. The major challenge in this area is mainly due to two different views on the “legal bases” of enjoying (un) equal social security benefits. The formal equality-based approach that emerges in unionist ideas emphasizes the need for equal laws and equality between men and women to enjoy these benefits, but only because of the absolute equality between men and women. Considering their needs and situations will lead to the intensification of existing discrimination because of the unequal position of men and women in society, legal systems with respect to differences and justice-centered agendas sometimes provide only some support for one of the two sexes and for equality of opportunity and opportunity and effort. It is about justice.

    Method

    The present study, by analyzing international documents and protocols and reviewing domestic regulations, seeks to answer the question of how far Iranian social security regulations have been able to achieve gender equality in the benefits of social insurance in line with the inter-system Internationalization.To this end, it first deals with the legal position of this principle in the international system and then seeks to identify the legal gaps in the field by examining domestic law.

    Findings

    The analysis of the principle of equality in many international documents and conventions shows that “equality in the enjoyment of social security benefits” is considered as one of the prominent examples of “equality between men and women” in working conditions in these documents and the organization between the International Labor Organization (ILO), as the largest international body in this field, has given special attention to this issue in a number of its Conventions and Recommendations.A review of the benefits sought in the social insurance sector shows that, despite all the efforts made to achieve the principle of equality in the Iranian social security system and the frequent reform of existing laws, there are numerous instances of gender inequality in the benefits of social insurance. It sometimes appears to be explicitly stated by the legislature in legal texts, and sometimes in a context of social inequality that arises out of a lack of attention to the distinction between the concept of ‘social security rights’ and ‘charitable giving’. Family “on the one hand and influence” traditional views on women’s economic roles and civil rights “to” social security rights “by others.According to this interpretation, a woman’s economic dependence on her husband is by default considered a principle, and the legislator accordingly has advocated for the benefits of the dependent. Therefore, in most cases the family members did not consider the insured woman under her care.While the inadequacy of family law rules as one of the instruments of private law in the establishment of economic justice has prompted the attention of legal systems to the instruments of public law, one of these is the use of social security systems based on the concepts, such as vesting. The territory and its meaning are quite different from the charitable duty of family law.

    Discussion

    Nowadays, with the increasing growth of employed women, the generalization of being subordinate to all women in the family is incorrect, and it is not possible to document the above interpretations of the deprivation of family members of a working woman who paid equally while working for a premium.  In line with this same conceptual distinction between public law and private law charitable giving, which despite the wife’s non-charitable obligation to marry completely under the private law, the insured spouse is entitled to a survivor’s pension. His wife is based on the concept of custody in the context of public law.Therefore, since social security rights are designed primarily to address the functional deficiencies of civil rights and to protect today’s nuclear family members who have previously enjoyed broad family protection, and with a view to social security rights, Humanity and Human Dignity, Human beings, regardless of their gender, can exploit the wide range of public law capabilities to reduce the inequalities resulting from the outdated social-economic system.Finally, given the present status of women in society and the labor market, the transformation of the family structure and the evolution of women’s role in the institution, and also with regard to the interpretation of Article 26 of the Covenant on Civil and Political Rights and Article 9 of the Social and Cultural Economic Covenant, as well as the Protocol 111 Regarding non-discrimination in the employment, employment and accession of Iran to these conventions and the necessity of harmonizing domestic laws and regulations in the field with the aforementioned documents, revision and amendment of relevant laws containing gender inequalities appear to be necessary and recommended. In cases where the difference between men and women in the benefits to women is related to their gender (Physical and physiology of women (such as the benefits of pregnancy), positive discrimination should be considered, and in cases where discrimination based on women’s gender and lack of consideration for the existential philosophy benefits from the benefits of social security and its separation of concepts from concepts. It is the rights of the family (such as not having a spouse who is receiving benefits as a major insured member) to achieve full equality.Ethical considerationsContribution of authorsAll authors have contributed to the paper.Financial ResourcesThere is no direct financial support from any entity or organization for the publication of this article.Conflict of interestThis article does not overlap with other published works by the authors.Following the principles of research ethicsIn this article all rights related to research ethics are respected..

    Keywords: Gender equality, Original insured, Social security rights, Subordinate insure
  • Zohre Zabihi Maddah, Hosein Aghajani Mersa* Pages 123-181
    Introduction

    A dramatic increase in the number of the elderly is a fact which is referred as aging tsunami or elderly overpopulation in the future years. In the view of World Health Organization, as the elderly population grows, we will have to face the crisis of aging population and fundamental challenge in 21st century.In recent decades in the field of Psychology, Medicine, and Social Sciences, extensive research has been conducted on the life quality of the elderly. The life quality of the group as a social issue the core of which is formed by health, is investigated by mental/objective and individual/collective and physical/social dimensions. But since the life quality and its indicators can be regaeded as a complex, multidimensional and vogue concept, because for different people the importance and value of each of life dimension varies, seeing contradictions and differences as well as common points among studies necessitates a meta-analysis, revision and combination of findings in order to achieve a common analysis over the life quality of the elderly and its various dimensions.

    Method

    Exploring and revealing the logical connection of influential factors and key indicators through comparative study of twenty (scientific & research) articles by measuring the effect size of factors and independent variables toward achieving new and more comprehensive results and removing future impediments and improving the life quality of the elderly.

    Findings

    In response to the main question of the present study, by measuring the effect size of factors and variables having greatest impact on the life quality of the elderly, three social, cultural indicators and population variables related to independent variables, optimism training and life expectancy (83%), non-institutional social participation (77%), physical and mental health (75%), religious attitudes and religiosity (76%) were were found to have a great influence. Social support, social solidarity, life satisfaction, and underlying factors (demographics), in particular age and qualification have been moderately effective.

    Discussion

    According to World Health Organization, life quality is quite subjective which is not observable by the others and will be based on an understanding of the various aspects of the life and should be studied by qualitative and quantitative methods to examine the influential factors. Among studied researches, only one qualitative research study (from phenomenological point of view) has studied the life quality of the elderly, and most of studies has been done quantitatively. In previous studies, most influential mental factors (mental dimension) were the life quality, and as most of the investigated studies have addressed the mental dimension of the life quality with different indicators affected on the life style of the elderly, consequently the objective dimensions of life quality have been neglected in most of studies, in case of any distinction between objective and subjective indicators in the life quality of the elderly, the objective and subjective indictors have not been investigated separately in conclusions.
    The elderly and aging threshold in 70-75 years old or more is completely conventional and depends on individual differences and changes throughout social life. For the purpose of studying the life quality of the elderly to achieve more accurate results and analysis, it is necessary to consider them in special age groups, e.g., younger elderlies whose age range is 60-74 years old and elderlies with the age range of 75-90 years old.

    Keywords: Effect size, Elderly, Life quality, Mental, objective dimensions, Meta-analysis
  • Mahshid Movaghar*, Hasan Mirzahasani, Majid Zargham Hajabi Pages 183-202
    Introduction

    Family is the most important factor among many factors that can facilitate or prevent the development of a child’s personality. Optimal growth in children depends on supportive environmental stimuli and a strong relationship with the primary caregivers, such as parents. Abortive and deprived children are deprived of the educational, psychological, effective support of the parents, as well as the benefits of living in the family. Mental disorders are the fourth most important issue in the world and the biggest disability in the world is related to depression. Depression is associated with reduced energy and passion, feeling guilty, lack of concentration, low appetite, and thoughts related to death and suicide, along with changes in levels of an activity, cognitive abilities, speaking, sleeping, and other biological balances. At present, childhood depression is a well-known field. Social support reduces the negative effects of the many stresses that emerge from the environment and society and consequently have a direct and positive impact on quality of life. This issue illustrates the need for a model design that examines the pathway for predicting depression based on demographic factors and social support. It is approved that cognitive styles have a direct relationship with depression syndrome. Depressed people are often unaware of their mental patterns and their effects on mental health as well. Since irrational thoughts often play a key role in psychiatric disorders, these thoughts create emotions, such as depression and behavioral disorders that often require medical intervention. Therefore, considering that it was determined each of the components of the research is related to depression and whether the effect is prioritized or delayed, taking account of the aforementioned factors, the purpose of this research is to develop an appropriate fit model for explaining depression based on the demographic and social factors with the intermediate role of cognitive factors.

    Method

    The present study was a fundamental and descriptive research of correlation type. The statistical population of this study consisted of all the children in Tehran’s welfare centers, which included 1120 children aged 7 to 12 years in 79 centers in 1396. The sample of this study was estimated to be 550 people according to the Kriegsi and Morgan tables. Also, using the Cochran formula, the sample size was estimated to be 534. The instruments used in the research include: Children Depression scale, attribution style of children’s questionnaire, Dysfunctional Attitude-Children Questionnaire, Children’s Cognitive Trivia Questionnaire, and Social Support Questionnaire. The questionnaires were used in accordance with ethical principles including the observance of the anonymity of the participants and the right to leave the research at each stage. Data were analyzed using regression coefficient and at the significance level of 0.05, using statistical software SPSS.

    Findings

    table 1. description the age indicatorGender    Frequency    Per.ferquency    Skewness    KurtosisBoy    9.10    1.70    0.47    0.95Girl    8.91    1.71    0.88    0.47Total    9.01    1.70    0.47    0.105First, a descriptive report was presented to examine the data. Based on table 1, it was found that in the research sample, the mean age of boys was 9.1 years and the mean age of girls was 8.91 years.Table 2. Summary of a simple linear regression model for prediction of DepressionVariable    Depression    R    R Square    Adjusted R square    F    Sig    β    t    Sig    VIF    Durbin -wasonSocial support    0.770    0.592    0.589    196.254    0.000    1.021    14.107    0.000    1.047    2.095Attribution styles  0.447    10.246    0.000    1.052    Dysfunctional Attitude  0.962    12.304    0.000    1.098    Cognitive triad   0.279    3.186    0.002    1.160    After using regression coefficient, according to Table 3, regression equation for prediction of depression based on cognitive factors and social support is significant at the level of 0.001, and the combination of social support and cognitive factors predict 77% of variance of depression. Also we found that social support (sig = 1/021/02) has been able to predict a meaningful depression. Thus, documentary styles (0.47 = 0.47, sig = 0/000), inefficient attitude (sig = 0.096, sig = 0/000) and cognitive triangle (= 0.279, β = 0.002 = sig) are also significant predictors of depression.

    Discussion

    Since childhood is considered one of the most sensitive periods, family support and supporters are more important in reducing psychological harm, such as depression. In support of this explanation, Zanzonggi et al. (2001) study showed that children need more support than adults. On the other hand, the attribution of depressed people has a person’s face; that is, when something bad happens, they blame themselves; and when something good happens, they usually attribute it to a good accident (Beck, 1987; quoted by Cortina and Colleagues, 2016). Depressed people have a negative opinion about themselves, the world and the future. Accordingly, these negative cognitive definitions are the cause of depression (Prochaska and Norkras, 1999, translated by Seyyed Mohammadi, 1395). Therefore, his depressed person sees himself as a “loser”, “inappropriate”, and always imagines that he has earned the least amount and does not have a better suit than that. In fact, in this case, the depressed person treats or treats loss, or misunderstandings, or overestimates overly generalized meanings. In fact, these findings point to the fact that the cognitive system in children, though immature and although evolving, has the same overall effect on mental health as an adult. Therefore, we need to consider plans and protocols for raising the mental health of children and preventing the development of mood-related disorders, in which the cognitive system of children is specially addressed. Limitations of this research include the lack of causal explanation for correlations, the availability of a sampling method, which causes a disruption to the generalizability of the results. Also, this research was conducted exclusively on the children of the untroubled and careless children of Tehran, and therefore the results due to ethnic and cultural limitations, can hardly be generalized to the research community in other cities.Ethical considerationsWe would like to thank and sincerely thank all those who helped us in this research. This research project does not have any dependence on government and non-governmental organizations and organizations for funding. There is no conflict of interest between the authors of this article. All members of the study sample were present with complete consent and each member had complete freedom and impetus to exit the study at any stage. The principle of anonymity has also been observed for all members of the sample.

    Keywords: Depression, social support, cognitive factors, demographic factors
  • Sobhan Rezaee, Mahmood Shahabi, Hesamoddin Ashna*, Maryam Mohammadtaghinasab Pages 203-251
    Introduction

    Iranian students come from a diverse ethnicity and different cultural backgrounds. In the meantime, national solidarity is one of the major challenges of development policy in such a cultural and geographical context. This study investigates the national solidarity state of Kurdish and Baluchi students in Iranian universities, and aimed to answer this question: how is the feeling of national solidarity among Kurdish and Baluchi students? In fact, the problem arises from the time a student (Kurdish or Baluchi) enters the university, and in its environment, s/he finds the opportunity for intercultural communication with other students, professors, and university staff members that are ethnically different from them. If such a link can increase interethnic and inter-religious social capital, it can turn the university atmosphere into an area of intervention to enhance the bond between Iranians and improve national solidarity and cohesion, but if it provokes greater ethnic and religious conflict, it can significantly reduce the feeling of national solidarity.

    Methods

    A systematic review and meta-analysis was used in this study. The materials consisted of all studies conducted in the field of national solidarity and identity of Kurdish and Baluchi university students published during 1991-2018. Sampling was conducted using a census method and all the available studies were included in the study. Theses and research projects were searched through national databases including the Iran National Library, the Library of University of Tehran, and the Library of Supreme Council of the Cultural Revolution. Articles were also accessed through online academic databases including Iran Comprehensive Portal of Humanity Sciences (Ensani.ir), Noormags, IranDoc, Magiran, SID, Civilica as well as Google Scholar, Scopus, and Web of Science. All articles were searched by following keywords in Persian: national solidarity, cohesion, divergence, national identity, ethnic identity, university students and faculty members, Kurdish or Baluchi ethnicities, and Kurdistan, or Sistan and Baluchistan Province and/or their English equivalents. The inclusion criteria of meta-analysis were: 1. selected study should be about national solidarity and identity; 2. the study should be on Iranian Kurdish and Baluchi ethnicities; 3. the study should be on the academic community (students, professors, etc.) and related to Kurdish and Balochi ethnic  communities; 5. The study should be published during 1991-2018, 6. if it is a thesis, it should be an MA or PhD thesis; and 7. the study should report statistical data (e.g. mean, standard deviation, regression, coefficient, sample size, etc.). To collect the data, a researcher-made checklist designed in Excel and analyzed in Comprehensive Meta-analysis (CMA 2) software was used.

    Results

    Th final sample size of the research included eight studies. Overall, 2144 individuals were studied in all the studies, with an average of 268 individuals for each study. Out of eight studies, seven were articles and one was a thesis. The method of sampling in 75% of the studies was relative-stratified random sampling and in 25%, it was multi-stage cluster random sampling. Two studies were related to Baluchi people and six studies to Kurdish people. Regarding the location, five studies were conducted in Kurdistan province, two studies in Sistan and Baluchestan province and one study in Ilam province. All the studies included in this metaanalysis were conducted between the years 2002 and 2013; two studies in 20022006, three in 2008-2010, and three in 2011-2013. All studies were conducted in both male and female groups. The dependent variable in one study was national solidarity, in five studies, national identity; and in two studies, collective identity. Combined effect size was used to evaluate variables with national solidarity and national identity of Kurdish and Baluchi students. In the eight studies, 50 hypotheses were investigated. Table 1 shows the number of hypotheses for each study and their effect sizes, and Table 2 presents the combined effect size of the random model of the eight studies. As can be seen, the average combined effect size in the random model was 0.217 which was significant at P=0.001. According to Cohen’s criteria (1992, 1998), the effect size is medium. The value of Q statistics was obtained 648.828 (0.001) which indicates the heterogeneity of the effect sizes of the studies.

    Keywords: Deprivation, Ethnic identity, National identity, National solidarity, Social capital, Social solidarity
  • Mohammad Ali Mohammadi Gharehghani, Hadi Moosavi* Pages 251-280
    Introduction

    In some approaches in dealing with social deviances and in particular addiction, an idea has been formed that believed stigmatization prevents repeating the crime by a deviant through delegitimizing him or her. Not so long ago, in dealing with thugs, the policy of shaving the heads and humiliating them to delegitimize was tested in Iran, but it did not end up with the planned strategy and then abandoned. In the United States also the approach of using positive stigma to control or prevent crimes was implemented, and the federal government tested policies to restrict public service provision including housing rents for offenders, addicts, and drug traffickers, but the policy did not work and in it was in 2012, the National Narcotics Institution of America called for the end of such plans, and it was the end of stigmatization strategy to control and reduce the number of crimes and injuries in the country. The issue of stigmatization in Iran, in particular, with contribution of cyberspace and new emerging digital space with its potentiality to produces deviances have had an additional damage to the society that has been analyzed in this overview.

    Method

    The method of this article was review with narrative or descriptive type of it in which an issue has been raised and attempted to select and summarize the scientific literature and combine results along with categorizing, describing, and analyzing the characteristics of it, which may or may not include comprehensive searching. Here the reviews and what was considered related from the sources to the subject and purpose of the study was overviewed. The proprietary approach which exists in systematic review was not necessary in this type of method and the choice of the texts examined was more or less dependent on the writer’s experience and attitude. Therefore, the subject was analyzed with a critical approach towards about 30 scientific articles, and the criteria for choosing texts were also guided by theoretical data of the subject.

    Findings

    The tattoo or the burning of a part of the skin of slaves, criminals or traitors to a country in the ancient world was to introduce them as moral corruptors, that these people usually did not have the right to enter public places and often felt different and worthless than ordinary people. Later in the modern era, burning the personality and identity of the citizens by rulers to isolate them from the power field of rivalry was an effective tactic, that the topic of identity crisis and alienation as well as metamorphosis were reflected in the modern classical literature to interpret this process. The concept that Irwin Gaffman created as a theoretical framework for studying stigmatization, introduces it as an attribute that creates a profound discredit within a particular social interaction. In Franz Fanon’s work ‘The Wretched of the Earth’ the debate also reflected and argued that by internalizing stigmatization the stigmatized lost her/his identity and believes that he or she really bears a stigma. Franz Kafka’s “Metamorphosis” also makes the same sense and believes that, under the pressure of machinery, urbanism, living for others, absolute daily routine would alienate man of himself and others that, according to Gaffman, spoils his/her identity. Stigmatization, alienation, and metamorphosis have numerous social damage and deviances such as suicide that reflected in sociology and social psychology and were discussed by Durkheim, Marx, Weber and others. In this article also the association between stigma and social deviances has been investigated.General theoretical and historical formulation of the stigma issue can also be valid in Iran and has many social signs for analysis. The process of globalization, the expansion of urbanization and the flood of migration from rural areas to  the big cities and socio- economic rejection of them and pushing back to the  boarder lines, which paves the way to marginalization, along with the rapid and spectacular growth of technology, especially media and formation technology  along with a virtual network and its magnificent role in the realm of everyday life, values, norms and culture, has made a  different face from the world in general and consequently from Iran. This transformation has severely affected the social space of Iran with fundamental changes and possibly the various kinds of social harm and deviances that introduce new life styles such as white marriage or cohabitation by the youths. The scope of cyberspace impact on Iran’s society and social relations are much broader than mentioning a few examples. In fact, we are on the verge of a paradigmatic shift from our lifestyle to obtain new identities. The new or emerging issue is that, with the drift of minorities from the context of society to its margins, they will not become isolated and passive, like the old age. But in the new era, through social networks, they can create their own social capital (negative social capital) and organize anti-social crimes and behaviors. Social capital, by integrating the theory of “differential association” that Sutherland has put forward, can create the trust between the pervert and the perpetrators and make them interconnected and integrated within the network of relationships that is a component of the social capital which can be named here as the social capital of criminals. The range of negative social capital effect on strengthening criminal and offender groups includes from smoking and drinking to being attracted and reinforced by gangs and smugglers. Although few studies have been carried out on the evaluation of social capital in criminals’ communities, but even from these limited number of studies one can come to conclusion that social capital has a negative effect on broken communities. Deviant companion encourages divergent behaviors with their desirable definitions and opportunities which have been provided by their network norms.The advent of media and virtual social networks helped the process of democratization and social justice through bringing up the marginal discourses and putting them in the context and personal stories and unheard voices, without any old barriers that stigmatization was on the top, has opened its way to the public sphere. Virtual mass media have the ability to provide a dynamic process of training, calling and protesting. The key point is that now and in the new media and virtual space, marginalized groups can produce content and collective action by individuals will find this capacity so that without hindrances and trouble of forming a protest organization, the “Wretched of the Earth” according to Fanon, can influence the mainstream of media and politics.This process will affect attitudes and no more major social organizations and intellectual communities and cultural institutions necessarily can determine the values, but values could be “tweeted” by any individual from any margin of this world.

    Discussion

    According to the consequences, the social policy of using positive aspect of stigma to control and prevent social deviances has not been effective. Firstly, stigma and exclusion that would cause some carriers of contagious diseases such as AIDS, do not attend the clinics to cure or control their disease so that it can be spread and put the community at risk. Secondly, in fact the main solution is to stigmatize the type of deviant behavior rather than punishing the person. Thirdly, conspicuous especially for women, restricts their life after being released from prison, in the sense of employment, housing, education, maternal role, and so on, causing a moral decline and the destruction of their normal lives. Fourthly, in this new cyberspace world order, no more marginalized and stigmatized individuals and groups would act passively and their deviant activities could harm the societies.  In such a condition that socio-economic and cultural factors with creating inequalities in the flow of the elimination of minority groups from the context of society and driving them to the margins and strengthening the criminal groups, adding a political factor and social policy by stigmatizing the political rivals in order to isolate and marginalize them from the spectrum of power and authority , firstly, provides a basis for the growth of further social damages and reinforces the danger of the collapse of society. Second, in the new world with a virtual entity, marginalized people, with access to the content production tools and skills and the formation of virtual alliances in the new media environment against the society and its norms, could provide a narrative and design a discourse that if is not criminal but definitely could be an anti-social discourse.  Ethical ConsiderationsPublication ethics: the authors confirm that the article is in accordance with ethical laws and is an original work with no plagiarism, duplication and no fabrication and falsification. There is no conflict of interest and no funding from any resources.

    Keywords: Alienation, Cyberspace, Deviance, Social Damage, Stigma
  • Hossein Barzegar Valikchali*, Asghar Mohammadi, Reza Esmaeili Pages 281-317
    Introduction

    Marginalization is not a temporary problem and includes various social, cultural, and economic dimensions and consequences. This social phenomenon is just a matter of external characteristics, with a certain lifestyle, the most important of which is the rule and institutionalization of poverty culture in these areas.The choice of eastern Mazandaran is mainly due to the migration of some of the population of other deprived provinces, like Sistan and Baluchestan, etc. Also, a group of war-torn people in the south of the country (Khuzestan province), Azeri-speaking people as well as the existing internal migration. While the west of Mazandaran has often accommodated “wealthy” migrants, the cities in the central regions of Mazandaran do not face much marginalization due to their sufficient sources of income and cultural and demographic integration.

    Method

    The statistical population of this study is all marginalized people in the eastern area of Mazandaran province (Sari, Ghaemshahr, Neka) whose population according to the statistics of the east of Mazandaran province is equal to 78326 people.The sampling method in the present study is a quota based on the population of each of the cities with suburbs and clusters based on neighborhoods and suburbs in these cities, and then a simple or available coincidence.The sample size was calculated to be 384 people using the Cochran’s formula. The research data were collected by sampling multi-stage clusters from the suburbs of the mentioned cities of Sari (neighborhoods of Turk Mahalla, Rah-e-Band region), Neka (neighborhoods of Kuh-e-Khel, Surki Mahalleh, Ghanbarabad, Joki Mahalla, Abbas-e-Rah-e-Mahal-e-Kanal-e-Mahabad) and Ghaemshahr Suburban areas and the neighborhoods.Theoretical Framework :The hypotheses of this research are in accordance with the theories of Agnio, Park, Durkheim, Sutherland, Robert Gerg, Shaw and McKee, Cassard Wolandsey. Agnio introduces the theory of public pressure to non-criminal coping strategies like cognitive, emotional, and behavioral coping strategies (Bijark , 2010; Jalili, 2010). According to Durkheim’s anomic theory, the tendency of marginalized people to engage in deviant behaviors can be explained by the fact that society, on the one hand, promotes desirable goals and values in various ways (Endowment, 2014). Sutherland argues that individuals are exposed to criminal factors that have interests and beliefs in mind to share in the same culture (2010). According to Robert, the feeling of relative deprivation among urban poor groups increases and creates a sense of social dissatisfaction among them. Gradually, the reference group within this group changes and begins moving towards more specific goals, which are easier to achieve. According to a study conducted on 100 major American cities, Cassard and Lindsay believe that unsettled neighborhoods are areas where official statistics simultaneously reflect unbroken levels of high poverty, unemployment, social inflexibility, female-headed households, and welfare recipients. (Endowment, 2014; Babirgan & Hook,  2011)

    Findings

    The relationship between the two variables of marginalization and the tendency to do violence in eastern Mazandaran and the intensity of correlation obtained, which is equal to 0.36, so the higher the rate of residence in marginalized areas and communication with marginalized people, the higher the tendency to do violence.There is a significant positive correlation between the two variables of marginalization and the tendency to use alcohol in eastern Mazandaran. Due to the strong correlation obtained, which is equal to 0.21, the higher the rate of living in marginalized areas and communication with marginalized people, the greater the tendency to use alcohol is likely to be.Due to the significant relationship between the two variables of marginalization and the tendency to use lawlessness in eastern Mazandaran and the intensity of correlation obtained, which is equal to 0.34; therefore as the rate of living in marginalized areas and communication with marginalized people increases, the lawlessness among individuals increases aswell. Since there is a significant relationship between the two variables of marginalization and insecurity in East Mazandaran, the intensity of the correlation obtained is equal to 0.30.The existence of a significant relationship between the two variables of marginalization and mental disorders in eastern Mazandaran and the intensity of correlation obtained equal to 0.33 shows that as the rate of residence in marginalized areas and communication with marginalized people goes up, the rate of mental disorders also increases. There is also a significant relationship between the two variables of marginalization and social health disorder in eastern Mazandaran. The intensity of the correlation obtained is equal to 0.25. The existence of a significant relationship between the two variables of marginalization and addiction tendency in eastern Mazandaran and the intensity of correlation obtained is equal to 0.38, so the higher the rate of living in marginalized areas and communication with marginalized people, the higher the tendency to addiction is likely to be. Considering the significant value calculated between the two domains, which is equal to 0.933, and since this number is greater than 0.05, there is no significant relationship between the two variables of marginalization and unreliability. Therefore, the finding is in accordance with the hypothesis.According to the findings, there is no significant relationship between the two variables of marginalization and social isolation, considering the significant value calculated between the two domains, which is equal to 0.774, and since this number is greater than 0.05,  So, this hypothesis is rejected. There is a significant relationship between the two variables of marginalization and social alienation. The correlation obtained is 0.43, so it can be said that there is a significant relationship between the two variables of marginalization and economic poverty. The intensity of the correlation obtained is 0.45, thus as the population in the marginalized areas increases and as it becomes more connected with the marginalized people, the rate of the economic poverty goes up.Due to the significant relationship between the two variables of marginalization and feeling of deprivation, the intensity of correlation was obtained, which is equal to 0.39, accordingly as the rate of living in marginalized areas and communication with marginalized people rises, the feeling of deprivation becomes greater.

    Discussion

    Marginalization data and its effects on society show the growth of social harms in the eastern part of Mazandaran province. This is based on the documentation of the marginalization phenomenon. Living conditions in suburban areas are such that they create special cultural conditions for them, so that on the one hand, cultural poverty and financial problems, and on the other hand, observing the lives of urban dwellers who benefit from today’s facilities, cause dissatisfaction and expansion of deprivation, and it becomes relative among these sections of society.Ethics of publishingAuthors ContributionAll authors have had efficent contribution on this article.Financial ResourcesFor publishing of this article, it hasn’t received any direct financial support of any organizations.Conflict of BenefitsThis article has no conceptional contradiction with other publications of the authors. Although it is along the author studies and research interests, it has no overlap with them.Following Principles of Research EthicsAll rights related to research ethics are followed in this article.

    Keywords: Marginalization, Social health disorder, Social pathologies, Violence
  • Zahra Esfahani, Roksana Mirkazemi*, Farid Barati Sedeh, Mohsen Roshan Pajouh, Abolfazl Vatanparast, Kamaloddin Moaddeb, Mahboobeh Shojaoddin, Shidrokh Ghaemi Mood, Hassan Rafiey Pages 319-343
    Introduction

    Community based participatory interventions (CBPIs) have shown evidences of effectiveness in many studies conducted around the world. Also, it could result in reducing health inequity and empowering people at the local level. CBPI for drug abuse prevention was one of the prominent initiatives of the State Welfare Organization in Iran, which was established more than one decade ago. However, there have been concerns as regards optimal function of CBPIs in Iran. Therefore, a new intervention was developed to promote the quality of CBPIs activities in Iran through mentorship method. In this method a group of experienced facilitators who were able to pass the application requirements including a knowledge-skilled based exam of a guideline prepared for the training purposal, were invited to participate in a two-day workshop and training course. These facilitators were considered as mentors who were responsible to transfer their acquired knowledge and skills to other facilitators in an applied and accompaniment method during six months by two visits to each team under their supervision for at least twice a month. This project was piloted in seven provinces of Iran. The objective of the present study was to evaluate this pilot project in different provinces in Iran.

    Method

    the research design of the study was prospective interventional trial. The study was conducted from July 2017 to May 2018 in seven different provinces of Iran namely Tehran, West Azerbaijan, Booshehr, Kerman, Sistan and Balouchestan, Hormozgan and Ilam provinces, from different parts of the country.Fifteen CBPIs teams were selected from each province (105 teams) as intervention groups and equal numbers of teams were selected as control groups (105 teams).  The facilitator educational level, neighborhood socioeconomic status, and the work experience of the control and intervention groups were similar between the intervention and control group.The intervention group included self-study of a community base participatory intervention guideline, participating in a test from the content of the self-study book, and for those who passed the test, a three-day training of trainers (mentors) workshop. Then each mentor transferred this knowledge to three intervention CBPI teams at the providence of residence of the mentor thorough accompaniment and applied training during six months.Data collection tool was designed based on the seven stages of a community based participatory intervention, as described in the self-study CBPI guideline namely assessment of the community before entering the community, communicating with the key individuals in the community, forming the team, participatory need assessment and prioritizing the needs, participatory project planning, implementation, and evaluation of the planned project. Process of entering a community, establishing relationship with the stakeholders in the community, forming team, participatory need assessment, setting priority, planning a project, implementation of the project, monitoring and evaluation of the project, and documentation of the whole process were the main variables enlisted in the data collection form. The data collection tools were data collection forms having been combined with qualitative questions, closed questions, observing the teams’ documents, and evaluating and grading them by an expert throughout the study before and after the intervention.The data were collected at the baseline and end of intervention. Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software version 19 was used to analyze the data. Paired t test, t test and chi square test were used to compare variables at the baseline and end of the intervention between and within case and control groups.

    Findings

    Totally 113 teams as intervention group and 75 teams as control group participated in the study. 178 teams were from urban areas, and 47 teams were from rural areas. The reason for not having equal intervention and control team was that in some provinces, CBPIs was initiated for the first time and there was no control group to compare. The result of the study showed that there was no significant difference in any of the baseline data related to CBPIs work experience, number of training courses passed by the facilitator, facilitator being resident of the local community, and the time span from formation of team between the case and the control groups (P>0.05). There was significant improvement (p<0.05) in the mean number of meetings of the teams per month (1.42 meetings per month vs. 2.05 meetings per month), number of teams that assessed the assets of community (79 teams, vs. 85 teams), using experts view as the source of information for need assessment (18 vs. 4) and using community gathering as a method for need assessment (27community gathering vs. 53community gathering), developing community-based project proposal (35 proposal vs. 70 proposal), not using experts for planning and implementing the project (10 projects vs. 4 projects), having a checklist for monitoring and evaluation of the community-based projects (22projects vs. 48 projects) and documentation of evaluation (7 documentations vs. 22 documentations) in the intervention group comparing after intervention with the  preintervention situation.

    Discussion

    CBPI program has been stablished more than a decade in Iran; however, the performance of this program was not satisfactory, and mostly was directed towards educational and training events at the community level. Therefore, a project (mentorship program) was developed to improve the quality of the CBPI program, as described in the intervention section of the methodology of this study. This study describes the evaluation result of this pilot project. The results of this study showed that the mentorship program was effective in promoting the quality of CBPI activities in Iran. CBPI are among one of the proposed interventions that could result in community progress and social harm reduction, and it is supported by strong evidences from international organizations and national organizations. Many studies have shown that community based participatory interventions could have a positive impact on reducing high risk behaviors among the local communities. Besides, CBPI can increase social capital, social support, social cohesion, trust, awareness, and participation of the local community that even are not a member of CBPI teams. The level of the empowerment of the local communities with CBPI programs is also higher, and it can sensitize the local community regarding their problems and challenges.Ethical ConsiderationsAuthors’ Contributions: Zahra Esfahani contributed in designing the methodology, supervising the research and data collection.Roksana Mirkazemi, Conducted the evaluation and wrote the manuscriptDr. Farideh Barati, contributed in designing the methodology, supervising the research and data collection.Dr. Mohsen Roshan-Pajoh, contributed in designing the methodology, supervising the research and data collection.Dr. Hasan Rafiee, contributed in designing the methodology, reviewing the report and the manuscriptDr. Abolfazl Vatanparast, contributed in designing the methodologyDr. Kamalledin-Moaddab, contributed in designing the methodologyMahbobe Shoja_Eddin, contributed in designing the methodologyShidrokh Ghaemi, contributed in data collection, report and manuscript wrtingFunding: State Welfare Organization funded this studyConflict of Interest: Except for Roksana Mirkazemi and Shidrokh Ghaemi that were the external evaluators, other authors were affiliated with Welfare Organization, although did not interfere in evaluation.Ethic Approval: NA

    Keywords: Community based intervention, drug use prevention, evaluation, mentorship