فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:30 Issue: 4, 2020
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1399/05/27
  • تعداد عناوین: 14
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  • Sultan Muhsin Ghanim, Ameer Isam AlAasam, Ahmed Athab Alzubaidi, Reza Shojaeian * Page 1

    Context:

    COVID 19 vertical transmission is a great concern in different aspects of mother, child, healthcare staff and community safety and protection. There is lack of definitive evidence confirming or declining mother to child COVID 19 transmission. This article is an update on this challenging issue.

    Evidence Acquisition:

    This article is a comprehensive search in scientific major database from 1 January 2020 up to 25 April 2020 with the key words of “COVID 19” and “vertical transmission” or “neonatal”. Two researchers reviewed all selected articles to extract data about neonatal COVID 19 and vertical transmission. Those reports that provided the results of PCR on fetus or neonate blood, amniotic fluid or pharyngeal secretion samples or elevated COVID 19 specific IgM were included. Those reports based on clinical COVID 19 characteristics or radiological findings were not included in data extraction. Thirty six articles have been reviewed and evidence supporting or against COVID 19 Vertical transmission have been extracted and discussed.

    Results

     Most previous studies on vertical COVID 19 transmission have been tested placenta, amniotic fluid, cord blood and newborn blood or pharyngeal swab sample using quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) that may show false negative results due to suboptimal sampling or inefficient viral load. Increased COVID 19 specific IgG/IgM antibodies have been reported in newborns from COVID 19 mothers; however, data is limited and longitudinal follow up is needed. Evidence supporting COVID 19 vertical transmission: Recent reports indicated that pharyngeal PCR test turned positive in first few hours of life in several neonates. Also increased level of COVID 19 specific IgM and IgG antibodies in newborns to COVID 19 positive mothers were observed. Rate of perinatal complications were higher among newborns of COVID 19 mothers. Evidence against COVID 19 vertical transmission: All tissue or blood specimens and pharyngeal swab qRT-PCR tests among neonates born from COVID 19 mothers were negative. Rate of cross reactivity and false positive results are high in serologic studies.

    Conclusions

     COVID 19 vertical transmission is a growing health care concern that needs further investigation; however, it is suggested to be equipped with PPE on contacts with both COVID 19 pregnant woman and her newborn baby and apply early separation, isolation, testing and close follow up for both mother and child.

    Keywords: Neonate, Pregnancy, Newborn, Fetus, Vertical Transmission, COVID 19
  • Samuel Nkachukwu Uwaezuoke*, Ann Ebele Aronu Page 2

    Context:

     Children and adolescents with cerebral palsy may present with lower urinary tract dysfunction which increases their risk for urinary tract infection (UTI). Whereas few studies reported low prevalence rates of UTI in these patients, several studies documented high prevalence rates. Thus, it appears there is no unanimity about the burden of UTI in affected children and adolescents to justify routine screening and treatment of the infection. This systematic review aims to determine the risk and pooled prevalence rate of UTI in children and adolescents with cerebral palsy.

    Evidence Acquisition: 

    Using appropriate descriptors, we searched the PubMed and Google Scholar databases. Eligible papers were primary studies published in English language: reporting an association between cerebral palsy and UTI or UTI prevalence in children and adolescents with cerebral palsy and healthy comparators, with a clear definition of UTI and cerebral palsy. We assessed the quality of included studies with the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS) and resolved inter-rater discrepancies by consensus. We independently retrieved relevant data from these studies using a preconceived data-extraction form. We analyzed the aggregate data on UTI prevalence in these pediatric patients, using the log odds ratio (OR) at 95% confidence interval as the summary estimate.

    Results

     Of the seven included studies, only two (28.6%) were case-control studies, while five (71.4%) were cross-sectional studies. There was no uniform definition of UTI in these studies. Prevalence rates varied widely from as low as 2.2% to as high as 56.7%. The mean UTI prevalence rate estimated for six of the included studies was 31.8%. The log OR at 95% CI computed for the case-control studies was 10.9 (95% CI: 9.0, 12.9).

    Conclusions

     The prevalence and risk of UTI in children and adolescents with cerebral palsy are significantly high. Routine screening and treatment for UTI may be justified in these pediatric patients. We however recommend more prospective case-control studies to strengthen the current evidence of the high UTI burden in these patients.

    Keywords: Children, Urinary Tract Infection, Risk Factor, Adolescents, Cerebral Palsy
  • Selcuk Gurel *, Ozcan Erel Page 3
    Background

     Oxidative stress is a pathogenic stress factor in preterm infants. Dynamic thiol/disulphide balance has a critical role in antioxidant defense, detoxification, apoptosis, transcription and cellular signal transport mechanisms. Oxidant/antioxidant balance state is a process beginning before birth and premature infants are especially vulnerable to oxidative stress.

    Objectives

     In this study, we aimed to evaluate dynamic thiol/disulphide homeostasis by umbilical blood gas analysis, compare term and preterm infants, evaluate its relation with Apgar score, perinatal risks with mother and occurrence of NEC (necrotizing enterocolitis), sepsis and ROP (Retinopathy of Prematurity).

    Methods

     A total of 108 (51 female and 57 male) newborn infants were included in this prospective cohort study. Of them, 31 were term and 77 were preterm. Demographic variables, Apgar score, NEC, sepsis and ROP intervention data were collected. Disulfide, native thiol, total thiol, index 1 (disulphide/native thiol × 100), index 2 (disulphide/total thiol × 100) and index 3 (native thiol/total thiol × 100) were calculated. Serum total ischemic modified albumin (IMA) and albumin were measured. Bloodgas analysis was performed within 2 minutes following birth.

    Results

     Preterm infants had lower disulphide levels and index 1 and 2 ratios, but higher index 3 ratios. Acidotic infants, index 1 and 2 and disulphide levels were higher and index 3 was lower than patients with normal pH. Disulphide, index 1 and 2 were lower in patients taken to NICU (Neonatal Intensive Care Unit) compared to ones who were not, whereas index 3 values were higher, twenty one patients (19.4%) with scores < 7 had higher index 3 values at 5th minute. Disulphide levels, index 1 and 2 levels were lower in patients with NEC and index 3 levels were higher. Index 3 ratios were higher in septic infants. Index 3 was higher in patients born from preeclamptic mothers compared to ones without preeclampsia. Albumin levels were higher in patients with maternal placental anomalies.

    Conclusions

     We believe that evaluation of thiol-disulphide homeostasis in preterm and term infants may be demonstrative for oxidant capacity of the newborn, hence the oxidative stress.

    Keywords: Oxidative Stress, Neonatal, Necrotizing Enterocolitis, Thiol, Cord Blood Gas
  • Fatemeh Roudi, Gholamreza Khademi*, Golnaz Ranjbar, Houshang Rafatpanah, Habibollah Esmaily, Mohsen Nematy Page 4
    Background

     Pediatric observational studies have indicated that most critically ill children have low serum selenium level, which is associated with the increased incidence of multiple organ failure and deteriorated clinical outcomes. Selenium plays a key role in the endogenous antioxidant defense mechanism and inflammatory pathways.

    Objectives

     The present study aimed to assess the effects of high-dose selenium supplementation on the improvement of inflammatory and oxidative stress indices, as well as clinical outcomes, in pediatric patients with severe oxidative stress and inflammation following major gastrointestinal surgeries.

    Methods

     This prospective, single-blind, randomized, parallel group superiority trial was conducted at the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) of Akbar Pediatric Hospital in Mashhad, Iran in 2019. Patients were assigned to the supplementation (high-dose selenium: 20 µg/kg/d) and control groups (placebo with the recommended dietary allowance doses of selenium) using stratified blocks. Among 72 eligible critically ill children after gastrointestinal surgery, 66 patients completed the study. Inflammatory markers were measured and compared between the groups, including high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β), prooxidant-antioxidant balance (PAB) assay, and clinical outcomes. Data analysis was performed in SPSS version 20 using the intention-to-treat approach.

    Results

     Only 14 patients had optimal serum selenium concentrations before the surgery and PICU admission. At the end of the study, 90.6% of the patients (n = 29) in the intervention group and 100% (n = 34) of those in the placebo group had suboptimal serum selenium levels (< 50 ng/mL). Although supplementation with high-dose selenium decreased the inflammatory markers in the post-surgical critically ill children (-18 mg/mL and -37.5 pg/mL for hsCRP and IL-1β, respectively), the administered dose could not improve the serum glutathione peroxidase (GPx) concentrations as the selenium functional marker, as well as the PAB assay as the single test to assess the balance/imbalance of the oxidants and antioxidants simultaneously. Additionally, clinical outcomes such as infections, length of ICU stay, and 28-day mortality did not improve after the intervention.

    Conclusions

     According to the results, high-dose selenium supplementation (20 µg/kg/d) in the post-surgical critically ill children could improve the serum inflammatory markers. However, the changes were suboptimal with no significant effects of the serum GPx concentrations, antioxidant defense system, and clinical outcomes.

    Keywords: Children, Inflammation, Intensive Care Unit, Oxidative Stress, Selenium, Major Gastrointestinal Surgery
  • Ana Dragoljub Mandras *, Maja Sujica, Nikola Stankovic, Sladjana Vasiljevic, Vesna Milojkovic, Dusica Simic Page 5
    Background

     Intraoperative application of positive end-end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) is recommended in mechanically ventilated children since it improves lung mechanics. However, inadequate level of applied pressure can increase risk of barotrauma.

    Objectives

     To assess the impact of titrated PEEP on lung mechanics in mechanically ventilated children under general anaesthesia.

    Methods

     This was an open label, single Tertiary Centre randomized controlled clinical trial. The study population included 70 preschool children, ASA I and II, scheduled for orthopaedic, reconstructive, abdominal or urological surgery. Children with upper respiratory tract infection, allergic to chosen anaesthetics, cardiorespiratory comorbidities were excluded. Patients were randomly assigned either to receive intraoperative PEEP titration form 5 - 11 cmH2O 20 minutes before the end of anaesthesia (intervention group) or to be ventilated until the end of anaesthesia conventionally with a positive end-expiratory pressure of 3 cmH2O (control group). Main outcomes: changes in dynamic lung compliance (Cdyn), peak airway pressure (PIP), mean airway pressure (Paw) between groups at the end of surgery; changes in PIP and Paw during PEEP titration and desaturation in interventional group during PEEP titration.

    Results

     Seventy preschool children were recruited and analysed. Intraoperative positive end-expiratory pressure titration improved Cdyn in the intervention group comparing to control (ΔCdy -3.2 vs. 0.63; P < 0.001). PIP and Paw were higher in interventional group (ΔPIP -0.57vs. 0.11; P < 0.001, and ΔPaw -0.63 vs. 0.0; P < 0.001) and desaturation was not observed in interventional group.

    Conclusions

     Stepwise titration of PEEP up to 11 cmH2O improves subsequent lung mechanics without causing of barotrauma.

    Keywords: Positive End-Expiratory Pressure, Pediatric Patients, Barotrauma
  • Hamid Amoozgar, Saeed Abtahi, MohammadReza Edraki *, Hamid Mohammadi, Gholam Hossein Ajami, Nima Mehdizadegan, Kambiz Keshavarz, Pouria Moradi, Sajad Shabanpuor Haghighi, Tahmineh Zafari Page 6
    Background

     Ordinary pressure dressing for hemostasis after cardiac catheterization is time consuming and might cause some problems, such as pain or loss of blood, which has to be controlled, particularly in pediatric patient. Using Celox® (chitosan) powder dressing might cause quicker initial hemostasis.

    Methods

     In this prospective study, we assessed Celox® powder among patients in hospitals affiliated with Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, from November 2017 to February 2018. The patients were stratified in two groups. The case group included patients for whom Celox® powder was used along with sterile gauze pressure at the puncture site to achieve hemostasis, and the control group those in whom hemostasis was achieved by standard sterile gauze pressure method.

    Results

     Sixty patients under 16 years of age with congenital heart diseases were evaluated and underwent cardiac catheterization. We stratified the patients in two groups called case (30 patients) and control group (30 patients). Considering both arterial and venous initial hemostasis, in the case group, the minimum and maximum, median and mean coagulation time were less than those in the control group; however, the initial hemostasis was statistically significant only in venipuncture site. Also, the venous coagulation time was shorter among the patients weighing less than 10 kilograms in comparison to those with higher weight. In the case group, using Celox® stirred hemostasis toward the lower percentiles, but based on 50th percentile, the distribution in each group was identical.

    Conclusions

     Celox® powder dressing in children led to reduced coagulation time in venipuncture site, and we might recommend utilizing this type of dressing for venous hemostasis in children after venipuncture.

    Keywords: Pediatrics, Chitosan, Cardiac Catheterization, Hemostasis, Celox
  • Jalil Moradi *, Shamsi Jalali, Maria Pia Bucci Page 7
    Background

    Children with attention-deficit,hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have shown deficiencies in many physical activities in comparison with normally developing children. One of the problems of these children is the balance,postural control.

    Objectives

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of balance training on postural control of children with ADHD.

    Methods

    Thirty children with ADHD participated in this study,were divided randomly into experimental,control groups. The experimental group performed balance training three times per week for seven weeks. During this period,the control group did not experience any exercises but continued their normal activities. The Biodex balance system (BBS) was used to evaluate static,dynamic balance.

    Results

    The balance training significantly increased static,dynamic balance in the experimental group (P < 0.001),while the balance scores of children with ADHD in the control group did not change. Participants in the experimental group also performed static,dynamic balance tests significantly better than members of the control group (P < 0.001).

    Conclusions

    The results showed that specific balance training improves postural control of children with ADHD. These balance trainings probably lead to an adaptive mechanism in the sensory process,cerebellar integration of children with ADHD.

    Keywords: ADHD, Static, Dynamic Balance Balance, Training, Sensory Process
  • Kemi Wu, Yanfei Tang, Qiong Zhou, Chaochun Zou * Page 8
    Introduction

     Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is an epigenetic disease. Cerebellar ataxia, mental retardation, and disequilibrium syndrome type 4 (CAMRQ4) is a genetic disorder caused by ATP8A2 gene mutation. AKAP10 gene is related to autosomal dominant cardiac conduction defect and cardiac susceptibility. Here, we report a PWS infant with ATP8A2 and AKAP10 mutations, who presented multiple dysmorphic features and review correlative literature.

    Case Presentation

     A 3-month-old boy presented to our unit because of developmental delay after birth. He had a poor response, feeble cry, hypotonia of extremities, empty scrotum, and characteristic facial features. The whole-exome sequencing showed c.187C>G (p.P63A) in exon 2 originated from his father and c.2138T>C (p.I713T) in exon 23 originated from his mother, which were compound heterozygous variants of the ATP8A2 gene. A c.43delC heterozygous variant in exon 1 of the AKAP10 gene was also detected. Genetic analysis revealed normal copy numbers but abnormal methylation in the 15q11-13 region, which implied nondeletion type PWS.

    Conclusions

     In patients with dysmorphic facial features, hypotonia and developmental delay, PWS should be considered in the differential diagnosis. Moreover, other complicated hereditary diseases should be considered in patients with PWS.

    Keywords: Prader-Willi Syndrome, ATP8A2 Gene
  • Mina Ekrami Noghabi, Amir Baniasad, Elaheh Heidari, Najmeh Davoudian *, Fatemeh Malekzadeh Page 9

    In late 2019, a novel coronavirus named COVID-19 led to a large outbreak in China and many other countries. A few cases of pneumonia in newborns and infants with COVID-19 infection have been reported. The neonates and infants described as the cases of COVID-19 had been asymptomatic or have had mild symptoms. The target of the current report is a 35-day-old male infant with respiratory distress and cyanosis. The chest x-ray CT images revealed manifestation of lung infection. The upper respiratory sampling was done by pharyngeal swab and the results confirmed the COVID-19 infection. Considering the positive test results and the severity of the respiratory distress, a complex medication treatment was administered. As a result, the symptoms alleviated, and the patient was discharged after complete remission on the 11th day. Although rare cases of COVID-19 infection in infants have been reported, the transmission of disease from affected persons to infants can happen. Therefore, further studies for early diagnosis and management of the COVID-19 in newborns and infants are necessary.

    Keywords: Infant, Pneumonia, COVID-19
  • Mohammad Reza Moradi, Sharareh R. Niakan Kalhori, Marian Ghazi Saeedi, Mohammad RezaZarkesh*, Abbas Habibelahi, Amir Hossein Panahi Page 10
    Background

    Different automated systems have been developed to improve the maintenance of target range of arterial oxygen saturation (SPO2) in premature infants with respiratory distress.

    Objectives

    This study aimed to develop a remote closed-loop automatic oxygen control (RCLAC) as an efficient monitoring device. Then the means of the fraction of inspired oxygen (FIO2) and SPO2 by routine manual control (RMC) and RCLAC were compared.

    Methods

    A developmental-descriptive study was carried out in an Iranian hospital (Tehran, Iran; 2015 - 2017). Twenty-two preterm infants with gestational age 24 - 28 weeks entered the study. A database was prepared based on pulse oximeter parameters. A Wi-Fi module was implemented to receive data from a pulse oximeter and send inputs to the user’s mobile. Vibrate alarm was implemented for high or low FIO2. After receiving notifications associated with an increase or decrease of FIO2 levels and user’s confirmation; the alterations were applied on the ventilator.

    Results

    The mean FIO2 in the RMC system was significantly higher than the RCLAC system (98.1 ± 2.67 vs 79.5 ± 16.03; P = 0.0001). According to the results, when the SPO2 reached close to target SPO2 range and consequently FIO2 changed (decreased or increased based on target SPO2), heart rate showed a regular beating with a decrease in the numbers.

    Conclusions

    Remote closed-loop automatic oxygen control system as a simple device could prevent preterm neonates from sustained hypo-hyperoxemic and arrhythmia episodes. Moreover, by using RCLAC, there was no need for continuous monitoring that may reduce the workload of NICU medical staff. Collecting reliable data and recording information in digital forms were also other benefits. Further studies with larger sample size are strongly suggested.

    Keywords: Remote Closed-Loop Automatic Oxygen Control, Infant, Premature, Arterial Oxygen Saturation, Fraction of InspiredOxygen
  • Negar Yazdani, Gholamreza Badfar, Shahnaz Pourarian* Page 11
    Background

    Umbilical vein catheterization is usually conducted for preterm neonates in neonatal intensive care units to administer medication, fluid and nutrition, and blood transfusion. However, catheter tip malposition can cause complications.

    Objectives

    There are different methods to detect the accuracy of catheter’s position; hence, this study aimed to compare the diagnostic accuracy of radiography vs echocardiography to determine the accurate tip position of umbilical vein catheter.

    Methods

    This cross-sectional study was performed on all 104 neonates admitted to the neonatal intensive care units of hospitals affiliated to Shiraz University of Medical Sciences from March 2017 to January 2018. At first, the length of the catheter was estimated based on Dunn method. After catheterization, thoraco-abdominal radiography and echocardiography were performed by a pediatric radiologist who was blinded to the study objectives, and the data were recorded in two forms. Finally, data were analyzed by McNemar’s test, using SPSS 17 software.

    Results

    The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value by radiography and echocardiography for the catheter tip position in the inferior vena cava-right atrium junction was calculated 100%. Moreover, catheters were located in the ductus venous, inferior vena cava, inferior vena cava-right atrium junction, right and left atrium in echocardiography were in the radiograph equal to thoracic vertebrae of T9-T11, T9, T6-T10, T5-T8, and T4-T6, respectively.

    Conclusions

    Our study suggests that even though echocardiography is as reliable as radiography for early detection of the catheter tip position, it can also avoid complications of catheter malposition quicker than radiography

    Keywords: Catheterization, Echocardiography, Catheter Position, Radiography, Umbilical Vein
  • Yuan Li *, Xiaoyu Zhu, Dongchuan Feng, Jinchao Gong, Tao Han, Guangyao Sun, Xilun Zhang, Dianhe Hu, Suoyou Sha Page 12
    Background

    Concealed penis is an anomaly in infants and adolescents, accurate diagnosis of different types of which requires extensive experience. In general, an experienced physician can diagnose the type of abnormal penis by careful observation and then provide the corresponding treatment. The appearance of trapped penis and webbed penis is easier to distinguish than that of other abnormal penises. However, congenital concealed penis is easily confused with phimosis and obesity concealed penis, and it is not easy to distinguish clinically, especially for inexperienced physician.

    Objectives

    This study aims to provide an auxiliary measurement method to assist diagnosis of concealed penis types.

    Methods

    This study enrolled 105 children diagnosed as phimosis, 88 as congenital concealed penis, and 78 as obesity concealed penis. Multifunctional protractor was used to measure the foreskin angle and penis-scrotum angle. The foreskin angle was defined as the angle between the ventral and dorsal sides of the penis body and the line extending to the foreskin, which was the sagittal position of the natural state of the penis when the child lies down. The penis-scrotum angle was defined as the angle between the ventral side of penis and the scrotum. All measured data were recorded by professional physicians, and the differences between different groups were compared using t-test.

    Results

    The average foreskin angle in the phimosis, congenital concealed penis, and obesity concealed penis groups were 10.05°, 74.34°, and 8.86°, respectively. The average penis-scrotum angle in the three groups were 6.98°, 118.65°, and 85.59°, respectively. Annular wrinkle numbers in the three groups were 0.26, 0.32, and 2.68, respectively. The difference of the groups was statistically significant (P < 0.05). These results indicated that congenital concealed penis had greater foreskin and penis-scrotum angle. Obesity concealed penis had moderately large penis-scrotum angle and higher number of annular wrinkles. On contrary, the three indicators in phimosis were the lowest.

    Conclusions

    This evaluation system can provide an auxiliary way to help the diagnosis of different types of concealed penis in children and provide a basis for subsequent treatment. In addition, Experienced physicians teaching new physicians/students, can also use this as an auxiliary explanation.

    Keywords: Congenital Concealed Penis, Phimosis, Obesity Concealed Penis, Differential Diagnosis, Buried Penis
  • Fatemeh Dastmalchi, Mehri Najafi, Parisa Rahmani, Kambiz Eftekhari, Pejman Rohani, Hosein Alimadadi Page 13
    Background

    Celiac disease is an immune-mediated systemic disease, in which gluten ingestion causes different symptoms. HLADQ2 is positive in 90% - 95% of celiac patients. HLA has been considered to inhibit antibody production against the hepatitis B virus vaccine. Considering that celiac disease affects about 1% of the population, this phenomenon could be a significant factor in immunization programs. On the other hand, HLA-DQ2 positive patients not only are at the risk of HBV infection themselves but also have the potential to be an important source of HBV dissemination in the world.

    Objectives

    This study was carried out to evaluate the responsiveness of celiac-affected children to HBV vaccination in Iran.

    Methods

    This case-control prospective study was performed on 62 Iranian children (31 children with confirmed celiac disease before introducing a gluten-free diet and 31 healthy children). HBS Ab (antibody against hepatitis B virus surface antigen) titer was checked in the patients and compared between the two groups.

    Results

    It was shown that 67.7% of cases and 64.5% of controls had HBS Ab titer above 10 mIU/mL, but the difference was not significant statistically. After matching for the time interval from the last HBV vaccination, it was observed that although non-significantly, celiac disease can decrease the chance for anti-HBS production up to 30%.

    Conclusions

    This study did not confirm non-responsiveness against the HBV vaccine in celiac disease in children. This may be due to genetic factors or type of vaccine. Moreover, in our study, responsiveness was assessed qualitatively in the two groups (HBS Ab > 10 mIU/mL was considered as a responder).

    Keywords: Children, Celiac Disease, HBV Vaccine
  • Mahdieh Sadat Mousavi *, Mohsen Jafari Page 14