فهرست مطالب

فنون ادبی - سال دوازدهم شماره 1 (پیاپی 30، بهار 1399)
  • سال دوازدهم شماره 1 (پیاپی 30، بهار 1399)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1399/01/01
  • تعداد عناوین: 9
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  • نرگس گنجی*، فاطمه اشراقی صفحات 1-16

    یکی از زمینه ها در پژوهش های ادبیبررسی پیوند هنر و ادبیات و دادوستدهایی است که از دیرباز میان این دو در جریان بوده است. از جلوه های آمیختگی ادبیات و هنر که به درستی توجه پژوهش های پیشین را جلب نکرده آن است که عارفان ایرانی و عرب، در تالیفات منظوم و منثور خود، توسلات شگفت انگیزی به هنر های نمایشی عروسکی داشته اند. این پژوهش با دقت نظر در رویکرد هنرمندانه عارفان به نمایش عروسکی، به ویژه نمایش سایه، و با تکیه بر روش اسنادی تحلیلی این نکته را تببین می کند که چگونه متون عرفانی عربی و فارسی، تصویر رمزی نمایش عروسکی را به مثابه ابزاری برای بیان دریافت های شهودی به کار بسته اند. سپس با بررسی کهن ترین یافته های پژوهش در زمینه کاربرد تصویر رمزی نمایش عروسکی، به ترتیب تاریخی، به بیان اسناد و آثار کاربست این هنر در متون عربی و فارسی می پردازد تا روشن شود از چه زمانی و چگونه اندیشمندان و ادیبان عارف برای بیان اندیشه های هستی شناسانه و عارفانه خود به این هنر نمایشی تمسک جسته اند. یافته های پژوهش بیانگر آن است که بهره جستن ابن حزم اندلسی (384 456ه.ق) از نمایش عروسکی، در تبیین اوضاع ناپایدار دنیا، از دیرینه ترین توسلات هستی شناسانه به این هنر است. پس از وی، ابن عربی (560 640ق) و گروهی از ادیبان صوفیه در تبیین اندیشه های خود به ویژه مباحث «وحدت وجود» و «توحید افعالی» با تمسک به این هنر سنتی توانسته اند پیچیده ترین مفاهیم هستی شناسانه را به مخاطبان منتقل سازند.

    کلیدواژگان: ادبیات عرفانی، نمایش عروسکی، رمز، تصویر رمزی
  • اسماعیل علی پور* صفحات 17-36

    تالیف تذکره های تخصصی نخستین گام جدی در سنت تاریخ ادبیات نگاری است. دوره صفویه و عثمانی را باید به راستی «عصر تذکره نویسی» در تاریخ ادبیات فارسی و عربی نامید؛ هم به اعتبار اقبال گسترده به این نوع نوشتار و شمار بالای آن و هم ازنظر کاربرد رویکردها و روش های نوین تالیف و تدوین. باتوجه به اینکه اساسا این گونه نثر از عربی به فارسی راه یافته است و تذکره های فارسی غالبا الگوبرداری از نمونه های مشابه عربی است، در پژوهش حاضر با استناد به منابع کتابخانه ای و با شیوه توصیفی و تطبیقی، تذکره های فارسی و عربی، در فاصله سال های 900-1200 قمری، رده بندی و گونه شناسی شده است. نتایج تحقیق بیانگر این است که دلایلی همچون افزایش شمار شاعران و نویسندگان و گستردگی کانون های ادبی عصر، گرایش تذکره نویسان را به کاربرد رویکردهای نو در تالیف و تدوین این گونه نوشتار سبب شده است.

    کلیدواژگان: تذکره نویسی، تاریخ ادبیات، ادبیات تطبیقی، عصر صفویه و عثمانی
  • اعظم حسین زاده صلاتی، سید مهدی نوریان*، سید مرتضی هاشمی صفحات 37-50

    در عرصه داستان نویسی معاصر، تحلیل آثار برمبنای عناصر داستان به منظور تعیین نوع ادبی اثر، شناخت و نقد متن و سنجش قدرت و هدف داستان پرداز بسیار رواج یافته است. اگر یکی از رموز جاودانه شدن شاهنامه، قدرت فردوسی در داستان پردازی قلمداد شود، بررسی عناصر داستان در داستان های این منظومه، به منظور شناخت بیشتر ویژگی های نوع ادبی حماسی ضروری به نظر می رسد. در این پژوهش براساس داستان «هفت خان رستم» شاهنامه، تاثیر یکی از مهم ترین عناصر سازنده داستان یعنی عنصر «فضاسازی» در انتقال فضای حاکم بر اثر و خلق محتوای حماسی و القای روح حماسی به مخاطب تبیین می شود. فردوسی در ماجرای «هفت خان رستم»، با بهره گیری از بن مایه تکرار شونده گذر پهلوان از هفت / چند خان در حماسه و اسطوره و با تکیه بر عنصر «خرق عادت» در قالب عوامل انسانی، عناصر طبیعی و امور جادویی، دلاوری های جهان پهلوان حماسه ملی ایران را در مواجهه با بلایا به نمایش گذاشته و فضا و محتوایی متناسب با روح حماسی داستان خلق کرده است. وی در این داستان، به تاثیر عنصر بلاغی «تشبیه» در «فضاسازی» داستان و «اغراق» - جزء جدایی ناپذیر حماسه - در ایجاد محتوای حماسی نیز توجه داشته و از این عناصر در راستای رسیدن به هدفش به خوبی بهره برده است.

    کلیدواژگان: کلیدواژه ها: داستان پردازی، فضاسازی، محتوای حماسی، هفت خان رستم، شاهنامه
  • زهرا اسدی مافی، عبدالحسین فرزاد*، رقیه صدرایی، امیر اسماعیل آذر صفحات 51-65

    نمودهای پایداری از مهم ترین بن مایه های رمان های ادبیات جنگ و دفاع مقدس شمرده می شود. در رمان های شطرنج با ماشین قیامت، زمین سوخته، سوران سرد، سفر به گرای 270 درجه و کتاب دا، از مهم ترین آثار ادبی درزمینه پایداری و جنگ، این بن مایه ها نمودی چشمگیری دارد. در این آثار به درون مایه های مربوط به موضوع پایداری توجه شده است که در این پژوهش به مهم ترین این مباحث در آثار مذکور پرداخته می شود. مهم ترین درون مایه های پایداری در رمان های منتخب عبارت اند از: هویت دینی رزمندگان و مبارزان، انگیزه دفاع و پایداری در برابر دشمن، الگوگیری از اسوه های مذهبی و قیام عاشورا، وطن دوستی و میهن پرستی. پس از تحلیل آثار منتخب پژوهش و مطالعه منابع گوناگون تخصصی در حوزه پایداری، یافته های پژوهش حاکی از آن است که به دلیل فضای جنگ و برهم خوردن تعادل اجتماعی، فرهنگی و اقتصادی زندگی شخصیت های آثار منتخب، تحول درون مایه ها دیده می شود. درون مایه های پایداری در هر پنج اثر مشهود است و در رمان زمین سوخته و کتاب دا، موضوع قیام عاشورا، تقدس شهید و وطن پرستی، در سوران سرد، مسیله وطن دوستی و در رمان های شطرنج با ماشین قیامت، سفر به گرای 270درجه بر هویت دینی رزمندگان و بحث شهادت تاکید بیشتری شده است.

    کلیدواژگان: ادبیات پایداری، رمان های دفاع مقدس، درون مایه، درون مایه های پایداری
  • مصطفی برزگر ولیک چالی، ایوب مرادی*، فاطمه کوپا صفحات 67-82

    شعر اعتراض، نشان پویایی اندیشه جامعه است و شاعر با دیدن ناهنجاری ها، اصلاح گرانه لب به اعتراض می گشاید. او برای به تصویر کشیدن اندیشه و احساس خود از تخییل و تصویر بهره می جوید. تصویر اساس شعر است و بررسی تصویرپردازی ها و کارکردهای آن، مقدمه شناخت اندیشه شاعر است. قیصر امین پور شاعر انقلابی و آرمان گرا، از آن دسته هنرمندانی است که از تمامی ظرفیت های بلاغی برای تعالی بخشی به اندیشه های اعتراضی خود بهره جسته است. برای شناخت اندیشه های امین پور، بررسی جنبه های گوناگون اشعار او ضروری است و یکی از اساسی ترین رویکردها در مسیر نقد اندیشه وی، تحلیل تصاویر اشعار اعتراضی اوست. در این مقاله با روش توصیفی- تحلیلی و با رویکرد کمی، تعدادی از اشعار اعتراضی قیصر از مجموعه کامل اشعار وی به شیوه نقد بلاغی و با تمرکز بر تحلیل «تصاویر در اشعار اعتراضی شاعر»، بررسی و مشخص شد که عناصر نماد، کنایه، تشبیه، تشخیص، استعاره و مجاز به ترتیب پرکاربردترین شگردهای بیانی قیصر در مسیر ابلاغ پیام اعتراضی شعرهای او هستند.

    کلیدواژگان: ادبیات انقلاب اسلامی، شعر اعتراض، قیصر امین پور، عناصر بلاغی
  • جبار نصیری* صفحات 83-92

    منظومه خسرو و شیرین نظامی یکی از منظومه های برجسته ادب فارسی در قرن ششم هجری قمری است. بررسی و مقایسه تطبیقی هویت شخصیت های داستانی این منظومه با سایر منابع تاریخی و ادبی، نشان دهنده اختلاف روایت نظامی با روایت منقول دیگر مورخان و نویسندگان از این داستان است. برای نمونه شیرین و فرهاد در برخی از متون، برخلاف روایت نظامی، کنیز و سپهبد معرفی شده اند. محققان برای این اختلاف عللی چون اختلاف منابع روایی و همسان پنداری شیرین با آفاق (همسر نظامی) و... ذکر کرده اند. جدای از چنین فرضیه هایی، به نظر می رسد سبب این تفاوت، فراموشی طرح و زیرساخت اولیه داستان در نگاه ناقلان منبع روایی نظامی باشد؛ زیرا با استناد به نشانه های درون متنی منظومه، شیرین و فرهاد همانند روایت مورخان و سایر شاعران، کنیز و سپهبد هستند که در اثر نظامی هویت آنها تغییر یافته است. سند ما برای این فرضیه اشاره به دو پدیده شیر و انار در ارتباط با این دو شخصیت در منظومه خسرو و شیرین است؛ دو ماده ای که بر اساس متن زراتشت نامه و گفته موله، ایرانشناس لهستانی، در ایران باستان مواد مخصوص به دو طبقه کشاورز - دامدار و جنگاور محسوب می شدند.

    کلیدواژگان: نماد، شیر، انار، فرهاد، شیرین، نظامی
  • مرتضی محسنی*، شهره شیرین کام، احمد غنی پور ملکشاه، غلامرضا پیروز صفحات 93-106

    آشنایی زدایی که با هنجارگریزی انجام می شود، یکی از مهم ترین مولفه های مکتب فرمالیسم است. در این مکتب به جای هرگونه توجه به علل زیبایی متن در بیرون از آن، بر خود متن تاکید می شود. توهم اجتماعی این است که مصادیق هنجارگریزی در متون شنیداری بسیار اندک است؛ ازاین رو هدف این مقاله نشان دادن انواع هنجارگریزی آوایی، واژگانی، زمانی، سبکی، گویشی، معنایی، نحوی و نوشتاری در 50 سرود انقلاب اسلامی و دفاع مقدس، برمبنای فرمالیسم و الگوی هنجارگریزی لیچ است. دستاورد پژوهش این است که از میان هشت نوع هنجارگریزی در سرودهای انقلاب اسلامی و دفاع مقدس، هنجارگریزی معنایی به منظور آفرینش اثر شعری و پس از آن هنجارگریزی زمانی یا باستان گرایی از بیشترین بسامد نسبت به سایر مولفه ها برخوردار است. مهم ترین نتیجه درباره عوامل فرم ساز سرودها این است که این مولفه ها موجب تعقید در زبان سرود نشده اند و باتوجه به مخاطبان سرود که از همه طبقات و قشرهای جامعه اند، برای ایجاد شور و آگاهی بخشی، رویکردی ابلاغی و کارکردگرا دارند.

    کلیدواژگان: فرمالیسم، قاعده کاهی، لیچ، سرود، انقلاب اسلامی، دفاع مقدس
  • یحیی کاردگر * صفحات 107-118

    این پژوهش پس از نشان دادن تصویری جامع از بحث استعاره در کتب بلاغی فارسی و برشمردن نقاط قوت و ضعف آن، در روشی توصیفی-تحلیلی راهی برای اصلاح این بحث و برون رفت از تنگناهای آن گشوده است. استعاره در گذر زمان سه مرحله پیدایش، گسترش و ویرایش را پشت سر گذاشته و در طی این مراحل سه گانه، از ایجازی مخل به اطنابی ممل و سرانجام به نقدی سازنده متمایل شده است. جامع و مانع نبودن تعریف استعاره ، بی توجهی به ماهیت زبان فارسی، تدوین نشدن فرهنگ استعاری زبان فارسی، اصطلاح سازی های بی مورد و بهره گیری های مقلدانه و غیرانتقادی از پژوهش های عربی و غربی، عامل اصلی ناکارآمدی و ضعف بحث استعاره به شمار می آید؛ ازاین رو بایسته است در بازنگری بحث استعاره در کتب بلاغی زبان فارسی، از دوره های اوج بلاغت عربی به ویژه پژوهش های عبدالقاهر جرجانی بهره گرفت و با بهره گیری منتقدانه از نگاه تحلیلی و محتوایی پژوهش های غربی، به چرایی کاربرد استعاره، فایده آن و تعیین معیارهایی برای ارزش گذاری و نقد استعاره پرداخت و ضمن پای بندی به ماهیت زبان فارسی و توجه به سیر تحول استعاره در متون ادب فارسی، بر کارآمدی و آموزش آسان این بحث مهم بلاغی توجه کرد.

    کلیدواژگان: بلاغت فارسی، نقد بلاغی، صورخیال، استعاره، نقد استعاره
  • محمدعلی نوری خوش رودباری *، سمانه جعفری صفحات 119-130

    سراج‌الدین قمری آملی شاعر قصیده‌سرای نیمه دوم قرن ششم و اوایل هفتم هجری قمری است. دیوان شعر او را یدالله شکری تصحیح کرده است. مصحح دیوان بر آن است که قمری چون ناصرخسرو و سنایی، دو دوره زندگی داشته است؛ در آغاز کار شاعری تا میان‌سالی، بی‌بندوبار و می‌گسار و بدزبان بوده است؛ اما پس از آن توبه کرده و به زهد و پارسایی روی آورده است؛ اما بنابر اشعار دیوان وی این ادعا درست نیست. این مقاله در پی آن است که به روش کتابخانه‌ای و با استناد به ابیات قمری روشن کند داوری یدالله شکری نادرست است و قمری تا پایان زندگی خود، شاعری مداح بوده است. او حتی در کهن‌سالی نیز با پادشاهان، وزیران و بزرگان در ارتباط بود و در شعر خود به ستایش آنها می‌پرداخت و صله‌هایی چون می، پوستین، برنج، گاو و... درخواست می‌کرد.

    کلیدواژگان: سراج الدین قمری آملی، دو دوره زندگی، یدالله شکری
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  • Narges Ganji *, Fatima Ishraqi Pages 1-16
    Introduction

    One of the important research fields in literary research, which helps us better and more deeply understand the literary works is to investigate the links between art and literature and the exchanges that have existed between these two big branches of human sciences since ancient times, particularly the effect that art and its subcategories have had on literary evolution throughout history. One of such fields on which little research has been done is investigating the inspiring and enriching effect of performing arts in literature. One type of performing art that has a long history in the culture of Iran and Arab countries is the puppet show which has a dominant presence in Persian and Arabic literature, especially mystical literature, and mystics have benefited from it as a vehicle to explain their mystic thoughts. The current research has made an effort to fulfill the purpose of classic research on the relationship between art and literature and investigate one of the unique aspects in the mystical literature, that is the creative and artistic approach of Sufi masters to the art of puppet show and benefiting from that as a way to express the unspeakable and enigmatic perceptions of mysticism. Also, the present research has tried to clarify the historical roots of the use of the symbolic image of the puppet show in explaining ontological issues and disclose the evolution of this cryptic image in mystical literature. However, the period of this research is restricted from the 4th/10th to the 9th /15th century. The reason behind selecting this historical period is that this epoch is the period of the doom of the mystic thoughts and appearance of eminent mystics and the creation of mystical masterpieces in Arabic and Persian literature. But in later centuries, there is a little sign of previous mystics' Revelations and creation of past thinkers has descended to repeated and formulaic images. This raised this question in the authors' minds that why some mystics have taken hold of this performing art. Trying to find the answer to that question raised other questions in the authors' mind: why has the puppet show, especially the shadow play, become an opportunity for mystics to display their creative imagination? To explain which of their mystic thoughts did mystics use this performing art? What is the historical background of the symbolic image of the puppet show in ontological issues? Making an effort to reach a suitable response to such questions persuaded us to investigate the position of the symbolic image of the puppet show, especially the shadow play, in mystic thoughts in independent research and to figure out the reason for this intelligent selection by mystics.

    Discussion and analysis 

    The puppet show, which was more folkloric by almost fourth century AH, gradually entered the literary and mystic language and was suddenly welcomed by mystics due to their “aesthetic and artistic view of religion”. They found everything associated with spiritual experiences, and because of their spiritual needs and similarity between materialistic things and their supreme mystic experiences, they would make an effort to depict a part of the spiritual world in the form of the materialistic world. Therefore, they did not consider this performing art a means of entertainment. They had an artistic and mystic view of that and had made it an opportunity to display their imaginations by their artistic view and intelligent selection. In Conclusion, the main reason behind the selection of the puppet show by mystics was that such a show could be considered an appropriate tool that has depicted the thought system of Ibn Arabi and other mystics, whose thoughts were in line with him, in the form of an interwoven set of signs using a symbolic language. Because they sought a mystic purpose behind the puppet's movements and their relationship with the puppeteer who was hidden behind the screen and moved them with invisible strings or cast their shadows on the screen with light. They also considered that simple show with a symbolic image to be the best tool to explain their complicated mystic perceptions and thoughts from the world of mystic journey and tried to make hard-to-grasp mystic concepts as simple as possible for their audience and followers of mysticism by taking advantage of symbols and imagery. So, it is not surprising that despite its simplicity and informality, the puppet show entered mysticism, became known as one of the areas in which mystics could depict their creative thoughts, and was welcomed by mystics who sought supreme truths of the spiritual world through the simplest materialistic things and used everything to interpret their revelations. In General, based on mystics' quotes, we concluded that pantheism, the unity of divine acts, and explaining the position of heavenly spheres in controlling the world's affairs formed three functions of the symbolic image of the puppet show, especially the shadow play. Apparently, the statement of Ibn Hazm is the earliest in using the performing arts to express the impermanence of the world. Although the creation of past thinkers such as Ibn Hazm and Ghazali have benefited from this symbolic image, the boom in the usage of this symbolic image in Islamic mysticism dates back to Ibn Arabi who has most probably promoted the usage of this performing art among mystics. After him, many mystics have taken advantage of this image among which the symbolic image of Rumi in Persian literature and Ibn Fariz in Arabic literature seem to be the most imaginative and effective.

    Keywords: Mystic literature, the puppet show, symbol, symbolic image
  • Esmaeil Alipoor * Pages 17-36
    Introduction

    The Safavid Period (1148-1906 AH.) and the Ottoman Period (923- 1213 AH.) can be called the "Biography Era" in the history of Persian and Arabic literature because of the variety of approaches to biography writing and high number of biographies written in the era. This tendency to biography writing has led authors to have even more than one biographic work during this period. The increasing development of this type of writing over the mentioned periods has resulted in the development of works with different writing styles, which is, in fact, the drafting stage of modern histories of literature.

    Theoretical Framework

    In the present study, we have attempted to classify this type of writing systematically by comparing the common features of Persian and Arabic biographies compiled during this period. In this segmentation we have tried to name the works in a way that Persian and Arabic biographies could be classified and introduced into distinct classes based on the following criteria: author motivations, collecting and editing approaches, including the time, place, and social origins of poets and writers, as well as the inner form (type of prose).

    Results and Discussion

    Persian and Arabic biographies of the period under study can be examined in three respects in terms of frequency, characteristics, causes and motivations of compilation. The remarkable increase in the number of Persian and Arabic biographies of this period is a result of the factors most importantly the increasing growth of poets and writers of every social class.

    3-1- General biographies

    Contain a variety of classes, including literati, scholars, Sufis, Shiites, political figures and etc. and often do not include a limited time frame. These Biographies can also be named "general" as they contain information about personality and works of the authors who existed before the biographer.

    3-2- Dedicated biographies

    They have specifically collected translations and works of one of the social classes of poets and writers, such as the biographies of scholars and grammarians; a description of the Iranian poets who have gone to India; a description of the works of the female poets and different classes of artists.

    3- 3- Periodic Biographies

    There are works that cover a specific time period, such as a century, the authors lifetime and the monarchy's history of one or more kings; Such as: Al-Nour al-Safer fi Tarajem al-Qarn al-asher by Abd al-Qadir Eidroos and the Tazkere-ye Nasrabadi, which mention the four classes of political figures, scholars, wise men, Sadat and noblemen and poets of the Safavid era.

    3- 4- Personal (individual) Biographies

    Biographies that only mention one person's life story, such as: The Tarikh-e Fakhr al-Din bin Ma'n of al-Khaledi and Ma'aser-e Rahimi by Mir Abd al-Baqi Nahavandi (d. 1042 AH), a detailed biography of Mirza Abd al-Rahim Khan Khanan.

    3- 5- Focal biographies

    Some Persian and Arabic biographies have been compiled based on the order of literary centers, so the latter can be called territorial and regional biographies. The first issue in identifying the literary centers is the criterion of being "focal". This criterion is a combination of three components of language, time and place; namely the prevalence of a language's literature in a specific geographical area and time range. Thus, there are three types of literary centers: national (territorial), regional, and urban. Biography of Nafhat al-Rayhana consists of eight chapters, each introducing poets and writers to one of the centers of Arabic literature. These centers include Damascus and its regions, Aleppo, Rome, Iraq and Bahrain, Yemen, Hejaz, Egypt and the Maghreb. Persian Examples: Jam’a al-Kheyir Mir Monshi Qomi is composed by the poets and writers of Azerbaijan, Saudi Arabia, Iraq and Khuzestan.

    3- 6- Biography-History

    This type is a subset of implicit biographies; that is to say, in addition to historiography, the author has also referred to biography. But there are other types of biographies whose biographic aspect overcomes historical records, that is, biographies that, in addition to translation, have also authored the expression of historical events of the period under study. Hence, it is more appropriate to name them "biography-history". In the history of Persian biographies, about seventy titles of such works date back from the 10th to the late 12th century AH. beginning with the Asar-e Ajam and ending with the Vaqeat-e Kashmir ,some of them being "history-biography" and others "biography-history".

    3- 7- Summary Biographies

    These works are excerpts provided by some authors from their own or others' works. In Arabic, Shahab al-Din Khafaji provided a summary of the khabya al-Zawaya and named it Rayhanat al-Alebba and Nazhat al-Hayat al-Donya, which is compiled for the poets. Ohadi Balyani provided an excerpt from Arafat al-Asheqin and named it Ka'be-ye Erfan, then Abd al-Wahhab al-Alamgiri in 1155 AH. has provided excerpt from the Ka'be-ye Erfan and named it Goldaste.

    3- 8- Supplementary Biographies

    Such biographies are in fact compiled as a complement or as a follow-up to a previous author's work and have attempted to complete the work. Among Arabic examples, Mohebbi, in the Kholasat al-asar biography, has mentioned the complementing and extending the works of earlier historians and biographers such as Bourini, Khafaji, Eidroos, and Ibn Ma'soom, as his intentions of the compilation of the biography.

    3- 9- Rhymed Biographies

    The Rhymed prose, which is found in the introduction and the text of some of the biographies, is one of the other common Persian and Arabic biographies of this period. Examples of these biographies in Arabic and Persian include: Tarajem al- a'yan and Tazkere-ye Bazmaray.

    Conclusion

    The results show that the remarkable increase of poets and writers and the wide range of literary centers of the era have led to the tendency of authors to use new approaches in the compilation and edition of this kind of writing.

    Keywords: biography, literature history, Comparative Literature, Safavid, Ottoman Period
  • Azam Hoseinzadeh Salati, Sayed Mahdi Noriyan *, Sayeed Mortaza Hashemi Pages 37-50

    In Pahlavi narratives based on the theme of Haft / Multi Khan (seven crossings), events and difficulties occur independently and with a specific purpose in the form of a special story for the hero. Haft Khan Rostam is also an adventurous voyage that the Iranian warrior sets out to rescue King Keykavus.One of the frequent narrative techniques in storytelling, especially in epic stories, is the use of the "atmosphere" element. The storyteller through creating atmosphere, through descriptions and detailing makes the work more effective and encourages the audience to know the continuation of the story and indirectly induces the dominant spirit of the work.One of the effective factors in creating an atmosphere appropriate to epic stories is the use of the epic poet's element of unlike habits and the elements of imagination in the creation of his work. The “unlike habit” is one of the most important elements of the epic and represents the course of events which is incompatible with logic and scientific experience and the existence of events and characters.

    Keywords: Fiction, Creating atmosphere, Epic content, Haft Khan (seven crossings) Rostam
  • Zahra Asadi Mafi, Abdolhossein Farzad *, Roqayeh Sadraie, Amir Esmaeel Azar Pages 51-65
    Introduction

    The themes in war novels are predominantly variant and realistic. For the most part, this idea rises from the unrests brought forth as a result of the war context. The procedures and processes of creating war novels principally abide by the dominant and ruling ideology, religious and belief systems, economic and political conditions of the society, and writers. Following this track, the narrative works representing the beginning phase of the Iran-Iraq war are mainly influenced by the ideology driven from the Islamic Revolution along with public and social inclinations towards the war. At the end of the war, however, a group of the new generation writers, who were acquainted with the world narrative literature, tended to take on realistic approaches in composing novels and creating characters in light of the realities of the war. In the works opted for the present study, there are some elements including religious identities of fighters, resistance against the enemy, and patriotism that are predominant and governing features of the themes of works such as Burnt Ground, Cold Suran, Chess with Resurrection Machine and Journey to Heading 270 Degrees, and the book Da. This is because these features are molded in the particular context of war. This research is aimed at investigating the themes of resistance in the selected works considered for the existing research concerning the elements of resistance and its various representations.

     Data Analysis and Discussion

    The most important themes of resistance in the works considered for the present research are as follow:2.1. The religious identities of the fighters No war is void of religious motivations. The element of religion is principally used to instigate the fighters amidst the war since the fighters fighting for the country and religion are largely appreciated in religions and their positions are defined to be in heaven. We can also see that the element of religion is significant during the 8-year sacred defense. The sacred defense has been constructed based on the religious ideology. This can be realized in opting for the title for sacred defense literature and Islamic Revolution. In the novels Burnt Ground and Cold Suran, the elements of country and its maintenance are in vogue much more than the element of religion although the elements of religion and religious motivations such as martyrdom have found remarkable representations in these two novels. In the novel Journey to Heading 270 Degrees, the element of religion has found greater emphasis than the other studied novels in this research. However, in novels Chess with Resurrection Machine and the book, Da both of the elements are equally taken into account although paying particular heed to the element of religion has a significant place in the underlying strata of this novel. 2.2. The Motivation of Defence and Resistance against the Enemy (Jihad in the Cause of Allah) The issue of resistance against the enemy and Jihad in the cause of Allah are one of the most important features of war and sacred defense novels in sustainability literature in Iran. This is an important element because the works about the sacred defense take defending the country and martyrdom a divine matter. This explains why the characters of the story have a great desire for sacrifice. The novels Burnt Ground, Chess with Resurrection Machine and Journey to Heading 270 Degrees, and the book Da have placed much more emphasis upon resistance against the enemy. This is also construed as a holy affair. 2.3. Exemplifying the Ashura uprising and the culture of martyrdom The characteristics and personality traits of prophets and Imams in Islam are exemplars and ideals of those Jihadists who have always been on the front for the sake of their beliefs and have remained firm to the end. So, they bestow the other people's self-confidence and assure them to step into the battlefield. Guided by this belief, the writers of sustainability literature, aimed at fighting with the enemy, have endeavored to picture the prophets and Imams in accord with the religious ideals and social changes as the principal element and the ideals of fighters and people's uprising. This issue makes people much more motivated to be inclined to these exemplars.  This very issue is represented in all the literary works chosen for this study, except for the novel Cold Suran. 2.4. Patriotism One of the most significant themes of sustainability in the selected novels of this research and also the sustainability literature in Iran is dedicated to patriotism and nation-loving. In the novel Burnt Ground, the people refuse to submit to the enemy; they unite altogether to fight with the enemy. Patriotism is also emphasized in the novel Cold Suran. In the book Da, the author puts more emphasis on the idea of defending the nation and concerns the separatism in the country that the fighters render it futile by recourse to resistance and sustainability.  In the novels Chess with Resurrection Machine and Journey to Heading 270 Degrees, patriotism and nation-loving themes are represented in terms of defending the country against the Ba'si enemy of Iraq.

    Conclusion

    Having analyzed the selected works using qualitative content analysis, the findings of the study indicate that fighting and defending the country against the enemy, martyrs, and the culture of martyrdom as well as defending the nation are more predominantly articulated than any other representation of resistance theme.  The themes in the novel Burnt Ground are investigated in light of the resistance theme that includes people's bare-hand fighting against the Iraqi forces, guarding and feeling responsible for the martyrs' bloodshed and defending the nation, idealizing and exemplifying the martyrs of Ashura uprising, participating in the funerals of martyrs and the likes. These are amongst the elements that Ahmad Mahmud serves to articulate them in his novel. In the novel Cold Suran, Afhami exceeds ordinary limits and depicts the space and events to which less attention has been paid. These events included soldiers' defending the nation, defending the defenseless and innocent people, and standing against the spies and oppositional political parties in the western part of the country. The novels, Chess with Resurrection Machine and Journey to Heading 270 Degrees put much more emphasis upon the religious identities of fighters and martyrdom, defending the nation, being killed for maintaining the religious and national values in light of sustainability theme. The analysis of the representation of the resistance theme in these novels indicates that the war is construed as a cardinal destructive factor leading the country towards drawbacks. This is whilst resistance shown to increase self-esteem and the resistance motivations in people. The book Da largely addresses all the elements of resistance such as the sanctification of martyrdom, defending the nation and insulating it from being separated, jihad in the cause of Allah, and fighters' religious identities.

    Keywords: Resistance literature, sacred defense novels, Themes, themes of resistance
  • Mostafa Barzegar Valik Chali, Ayoob Moradi *, Fateme Koupa Pages 67-82

    The poem of protest is a sign of the intellectual dynamism of the society, during which, the poet, seeing the social anomalies, begins to protest as a reformist action. He uses imagination and imagery to portray his thoughts and feelings. Image is the basis of poetry, and the revolutionary and idealistic poet Qaisar Aminpour has used all the rhetorical capacities to elevate his protest ideas. One of the most basic approaches in recognizing and criticizing Aminpour's ideas is to analyze the images of his protest poems. In this research, with a descriptive-analytical method and quantitative approach, 61 poems of Qaisar's protest poems from the complete collection of his poems in rhetorical critique style as one of the practical branches of "reader-centered critique" and focusing on the analysis of "images in poems" were selected. The poet's protest was examined, and in the end, it was determined that the elements of symbolism, irony, simile, discernment, metaphor, and authorization are the most widely used expressions of Qaisar's expression to convey the protest message of his poems. Protest poetry, as a branch of resistance literature, according to its type of expression and content, requires the use of rhetorical elements that are both explicit and transparent and interpretable to carry the poet's thoughts. While loyal to the revolution, Aminpour has made good use of language capacities and elements of expression to express his protest ideas. The imaginary forms of Qaisar's protest poems reflect the kind of attitude and interpreter of his mind. Excessive use of images such as symbols, allusions, similes, diagnoses, metaphors, and permissions adds to his semantic range and poetic interpretability:Symbol: In his protest poems, Qaisar used the symbol the most among the rhetorical elements, and the symbols of his protest poems fall into two categories: traditional symbols and personal symbols. This rhetorical element has a high frequency in the poet's protest poems, so that this element, with a frequency of 212 times and with 24.85%, is in the first place of the poet's widely used elements. Allusion: the allusion is in second place in Aminpour's protest poems with a frequency of 193 times and 22.63%. The allusions of Qaisar's protest poems are threefold: traditional and repetitive allusions, new and personal allusions, and allusions that are proverbial. Simile: In the study of the image of Qaisar's protest poems, simile with a frequency of 141 times and 16.53% has the third rank and this shows the importance of the role of simile in depicting the poet'sthoughts. The Similes that the poet used to represent his ideas are more of a felicity and sensory Similes. One of the eminent tricks of the emperor in expressing concepts is his innovation in Simile: mentioning a new pseudo-face by creating a new simile; mentioning attributes for one of the elements of simile; without any sign; continuous New simile. Detection: Detection allows the artist to use the language of objects and other beings allegorically, in addition to encrypting the speech, to increase its beauty and make a greater impact. In Qaisar's protest poems, the detection element ranks fourth with a frequency of 123 times and 14.42 percent. The poet has used this important rhetorical element in various forms: dhikr adjective; additional compound; dhikr masdar (active state); dhikr masdar (passive state); And its elements (a detailed and extensive aspect of the type of diagnosis). Metaphor: Metaphor is one of the most important and main elements of imagination, which has an effective role in measuring the level of artistry and the poet's ability. In his studied protest poems, metaphor is used with 109 times and is ranked fifth with 12.78 percent. The constituent elements of Caesar's metaphorical protest poems are objects, nature, animals, humans, and abstractions, respectively. Types of Caesar's Poetic Protestant Metaphors: Perpetual Metaphors; Makniye's Metaphors and Metaphors Approaching Symbols Authorized use: The purpose of authorized use is to create an aura of various meanings in the mind of the reader, and with the definition provided by Dr. Shamisa of authorized, only authorized to be interested in artistic and literary similes and can be proposed in the science of expression. In his protest poems, Qaisar Aminpour has repeatedly used the authoritative imaginative element. Permitted using 75 times and with 8.79%, it is ranked sixth among the most widely used images and arrays. Here, what is meant by what is permissible is what is permissible. "The Complete Collection of Qaisar Aminpour's Poems" includes seven books and 345 poems, 61 of which have a philosophical, political, social, and personal color and smell of protest, and according to the study, comparison and analysis of protest poems. The poet's non-objectivity in terms of the use of poetic images in expressing his thoughts, there is a clear difference between the images used in these two types of poetry. (In total, he has used six rhetorical elements 853 times). The results of this study show that the type of speech and the appropriate expression method play an effective role in how to use poetic images so that in Qaisar's protest poems, the most widely used images are: symbol, irony, simile, diagnosis, metaphor and permission And in his non-objectionable poems, it is: recognition, simile, irony, symbol, metaphor, and permission, respectively, and the poet, with the necessary knowledge of the function of literary tricks and establishing the necessary connection between it and the type of speech, from all kinds of appropriate and appropriate images. It has benefited, where speech needs some kind of ambiguity, from symbolism and irony, and where it needs explicit and explicit language.

    Keywords: Islamic Revolution literature, protest poetry, Qaisar Aminpoor, Rhetorical elements
  • Jabbar Nasiri * Pages 83-92

    Khosrow and Shirin is one of the great romances of the twelfth-century Persian literature. The evaluation and comparison of the identity of this romance's characters with other historical and literary resources show the differences in narratives of Nezami and that of other historians and writers of this romance. For instance, in some texts, Shirin and Farhad are introduced as bondwomen and general. Researchers argue that the reasons behind such differences are known as variations in the narrative sources and the identification of Shirin with Afagh (Nezami's wife). Moreover, it seems that the reason for such differences could be the neglect of the primary theme and plot of the story by Nezami's narrators since based on the internal symbols of the romance, as historians and other poets narrate, Shirin and Farhad are bondwomen and general roles which have changed in Nezami's work. Our evidence for this assumption is a reference to the symbols of milk and pomegranate about the eponymous characters which according to the Slovenian Iranist Marijan Molé, and the text of Zarathushtra-Nama are matters used in ancient Iran by the two classes of farmers and soldiers. In the romance of Khosrow and Shirin, this relationship is shown in Shirin and other maids' love for milk, and the growing of pomegranate tree from Farhad's ax. In the original version of the story, Farhad and Shirin are considered the representatives of the warrior and farmer classes because of their affiliation with the symbols of milk and pomegranate. However, with the decline of the former class in time, and the sinking of its related into oblivion, the original reason for the existance of these two symbols in the story has remained unknown for narrators and readers. By looking at the story from this perspective, Shirin, Farhad, and Khosrow are respectively the representatives of the working (farmers), warrior, and royal classes. Therefore, we could guess that in the early versions of the story, like some historical and literary sources, Farhad belonged to the warrior class, and Shirin was a woman from the lower class of the society (farmer) who due to the decline of the warrior class, gradually their character changed in the later versions including the one Nizami worked on. Hence, the presence of Farhad as a warrior in some pastiches of Khorow and Shirin could be due to the adherence of the poet to the sources and is not related to his poetic license or manipulation of the text.

    Keywords: Milk, pomegranate, Farhad, Shirin, Nezami
  • Morteza Mohseni *, Shohreh Shirinkam, Ahmad Ghaneipour Malekshah, Gholamreza Pirouz Pages 93-106
     Introduction

    During the Islamic revolution and the holy defense, poetry and hymns, the representation of dynamic literature, together with the people created an important part of the Iranian history. The combination of the anthem with music, fluent language, simple and ideal concepts are the characteristics that make the anthem communicate with the audience. Research in the language of hymns reveals ideological and cultural values in society by which we can achieve a rooted history and prevent its destruction.

    Theoretical Framework

    The study of literary texts with a variety of theories and criticisms has attracted literary scholars in the twentieth century. The purpose of analyzing texts with new theories and criticisms is to show the delicacies of literary texts. Formalist literary criticism is one of the theories for text analysis regardless of external factors. The focus of formalist analysis is on the literary text as a creature that is far from the role of producer (poet/writer) and consumer (audience) in shaping it. In this paper, according to Leech's classification, the cases of deviation are studied to show the beauty of the lyrics of the hymns.

    Methodology

     This paper is based on the theory of formalism and Leech's classification, the frequency of types of deviation was studied in the hymns of the Islamic Revolution, and the Holy defense. 

    Discussion

    a) Semantic deviation: In the hymns, this type of deviation has the highest frequency with 47.79%. Poets have combined elements of poetry with rhythmic language to express deep and meaningful concepts to make the text full of emotion and more effect. Most semantic deviations in the literary context of hymns belong to irony, metaphor, symbolism, and simile. b) Archaism: The poets in the hymn use words and structures that are either not used or less commonly used in today's language; they use this method for foregrounding. c) Syntactic deviation: Ignoring the rules of language syntax, disruption, and displacement of its components and structure to achieve foregrounding indicates that the poet has done it consciously to create beauty. d) Phonetic deviation: The poet ignores the phonetic rules of language and uses phonetic forms which are not common in the standard language. He uses this technique more to maintain the rhythm of the poem. Hymns are audio elements so they have no visual function. Therefore, the written deviation frequency in them is zero. Also, since the audience is not involved in verbal complexity, the lexical deviation and creation of new vocabulary are very few. The use of dialect deviation, local and regional dialects in the hymn is zero due to the importance of conveying the message to the audience. The poets have used less of the spoken language in the anthem because it reduces the grandeur of the anthem.

    Conclusion and Suggestion

    The results of the study show proper use of linguistic capacities and a variety of deviations has made the hymn text fresh and prominent. Using this method does not cause speech failure, but it adds to the beauty and strength of the hymn. Among deviations, the highest frequencies belong to semantic deviation. Irony followed by metaphor, symbol, and simile are the most important ways to influence and attract audiences in the hymn. After semantic deviation, temporal deviation, or archaism, with 33.52% of the total, was used more than any other deviation. In the hymn, the proper choice of the classic word and its connection with the common language has not caused any interruption in communication with the audience it also highlights the vocabulary of the text, and it creates greatness and strength in the language. The syntactic deviation frequency is 5.63% of the total deviations. Syntactically, most of the sentences in the hymns are simple and orderly. Syntactic deviation often occurs due to ignorance of the rules of the order of the components of a sentence which is a prominent and influential factor in poetry creation. Components of phonetic deviation are used to create harmony, enhance the musical aspect, and increase the influence.

    Keywords: formalism, Deviation, Leech, hymn, Islamic Revolution, Sacred Defense
  • Yahya Kardgar* Pages 107-118
    Introduction

    During the Islamic revolution and the holy defense, poetry and hymns, the representation of dynamic literature, together with the people created an important part of the Iranian history. The combination of the anthem with music, fluent language, simple and ideal concepts are the characteristics that make the anthem communicate with the audience. Research in the language of hymns reveals ideological and cultural values in society by which we can achieve a rooted history and prevent its destruction.

    Theoretical Framework

    The study of literary texts with a variety of theories and criticisms has attracted literary scholars in the twentieth century. The purpose of analyzing texts with new theories and criticisms is to show the delicacies of literary texts. Formalist literary criticism is one of the theories for text analysis regardless of external factors. The focus of formalist analysis is on the literary text as a creature that is far from the role of producer (poet/writer) and consumer (audience) in shaping it. In this paper, according to Leech's classification, the cases of deviation are studied to show the beauty of the lyrics of the hymns.

    Methodology

    This paper is based on the theory of formalism and Leech's classification, the frequency of types of deviation was studied in the hymns of the Islamic Revolution, and the Holy defense.

    Discussion

    a) Semantic deviation: In the hymns, this type of deviation has the highest frequency with 47.79%. Poets have combined elements of poetry with rhythmic language to express deep and meaningful concepts to make the text full of emotion and more effect. Most semantic deviations in the literary context of hymns belong to irony, metaphor, symbolism, and simile. b) Archaism: The poets in the hymn use words and structures that are either not used or less commonly used in today's language; they use this method for foregrounding. c) Syntactic deviation: Ignoring the rules of language syntax, disruption, and displacement of its components and structure to achieve foregrounding indicates that the poet has done it consciously to create beauty. d) Phonetic deviation: The poet ignores the phonetic rules of language and uses phonetic forms which are not common in the standard language. He uses this technique more to maintain the rhythm of the poem. Hymns are audio elements so they have no visual function. Therefore, the written deviation frequency in them is zero. Also, since the audience is not involved in verbal complexity, the lexical deviation and creation of new vocabulary are very few. The use of dialect deviation, local and regional dialects in the hymn is zero due to the importance of conveying the message to the audience. The poets have used less of the spoken language in the anthem because it reduces the grandeur of the anthem.

    Conclusion and Suggestion

    The results of the study show proper use of linguistic capacities and a variety of deviations has made the hymn text fresh and prominent. Using this method does not cause speech failure, but it adds to the beauty and strength of the hymn. Among deviations, the highest frequencies belong to semantic deviation. Irony followed by metaphor, symbol, and simile are the most important ways to influence and attract audiences in the hymn. After semantic deviation, temporal deviation, or archaism, with 33.52% of the total, was used more than any other deviation. In the hymn, the proper choice of the classic word and its connection with the common language has not caused any interruption in communication with the audience it also highlights the vocabulary of the text, and it creates greatness and strength in the language. The syntactic deviation frequency is 5.63% of the total deviations. Syntactically, most of the sentences in the hymns are simple and orderly. Syntactic deviation often occurs due to ignorance of the rules of the order of the components of a sentence which is a prominent and influential factor in poetry creation. Components of phonetic deviation are used to create harmony, enhance the musical aspect, and increase the influence.

    Keywords: Persian rhetoric, rhetorical criticism, Figures of speech, Metaphor, metaphoric criticism
  • Mohammad Ali Noori Khosh Roodbari *, Samaneh Jafari Pages 119-130

    Serajoddin Qomri Amoli is a powerful poet of the 6th and 7th centuries. He has a collection of poems emendated by Yadollah Shokri. His Divan's emendator believes that Qomri, like Naser Khosro and Sanaei, had two stages in his life. During his first years of poetry, he was footloose and luxurious up to his middle age, but then he repent and becomes a devout. However, this view does not seem justified considering his poems. This article using the library method and Qomri's poems aims to show that Shokri's claim is not right and Qomri was a Panegyrist poet up to the end of his life. In his old age, he also communicated with the kings and ministers and praised them asking wine, clothes, rice, cows, and so on.

    Keywords: Serajoddin Qomri Amoli, two stages in life, Yadollah Shokri