فهرست مطالب

Biological and Biomedical Journal - Volume:5 Issue: 2, Spring 2019
  • Volume:5 Issue: 2, Spring 2019
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1398/05/10
  • تعداد عناوین: 4
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  • Yousef Jafari Abarghan, Arash Salmaninejad, Atieh Eslahi, Farzaneh Alizadeh, Majid Mojarrad* Page 1

    Chimeric antigen receptor engineered-T (CAR-T) cells also named as living drugs, have been recently known as a breakthrough technology and were applied as an adoptive immunotherapy against different types of cancer. They also attracted widespread interest because of the success of B-cell malignancy therapy achieved by anti-CD19 CAR-T cells. Current genetic toolbox enabled the synthesis of CARs receptors which are targeted against tumor-specific antigens, and enabled to arbitrarily T-cells function reprogramming. Approximately all of CAR-T cell based studies apply autologous CAR-T cells in which, modified T-cells are engineered using patient’s own T cells. Currently, four different generation of CAR-T cells have been developed, and the evolution of this kind of therapy illustrates an excellent example of the application of basic research into the clinical trial stage. However, development of allogenic CAR-T cells can be a turning point for CAR-T cells therapy. Appearance of the reliable gene editing approach, CRISPR/Cas9 system, provided a new hope for designing universal CAR-T cells which are off-the-shelf, and enable to use for treatment of any patient with any kind of tumor. This review outlined four different generations of CAR-T cells. Also, we discussed different types of genome editing systems especially CRISPR/Cas9 system, and their capabilities for generating engineered T-cells. Additionally, we tried to explain challenges faced in improving universally generated T-cells.

    Keywords: CAR-T cells, cancer, therapy, CRISPR, Cas9 system
  • Suzan Cangul, Ozkan Adiguzel, Server Unal, Mustafa Orkun Ertugrul, Simge Gumus, Samican Unal, Begüm Erpaçal* Page 2

    When all the bacteria in cavity walls cannot be eliminated during the cleaning of dental caries, the use of cavity disinfectants is neccessary. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different disinfectants on the bonding strength of adhesive materials polymerised without light. A total of 60 3rd molar teeth, extracted for various reasons, were used in the study. The dentin surfaces were exposed by first raising the enamel tissue with a carbon separator. All the teeth were then embedded in acrylic. After preparation, the total 60 samples were separated into 4 groups of 15 for the use of different disinfectant solutions. Group 1 was defined as the control group and no cavity disinfectant was applied. In the first stage of the restoration, Tokuyama Universal Bond was applied. After application of the adhesive, the samples were placed in prepared cylindrical tubes, 2.3mm in diameter and 3mm in height so that the dentin surface was completely central, Estelite posterior quick composite was applied and then polymerisation. In Group 2, the dentin surfaces were first disinfected for 6 secs with ozone gas produced from a Prozone device. In Group 3, the dentin surfaces were cleaned for 60 secs with 2% chlorhexidine gluconate solution, then dried foor 10 secs with light pressure air. In Group 4, 2.5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) was applied to the dentin surfaces as cavity disinfectant. The restoration stages of all the cavities were completed in the same way as for Group 1. The samples with completed restorations were then placed in a instron universal test device to evaluate the bonding strength resistance to shear stress. Statistical evaluation of the results was made using the Kruskal Wallis and the Mann Whitney U-tests. It was seen that ozone (9,04) and chlorhexidine gluconate (6,59) increased the bonding strength of adhesive resins whereas sodium hypochlorite (2,82) reduced it (p<0.05). From the results of this study, it was concluded that chlorhexidine gluconate and especially ozone, can be safely used as cavity disinfectants.

    Keywords: Ozone, non-light curing bond, cavity disinfectant
  • Said Said Elshama* Page 3

    Recently, there is a growing interest to use the alternative medicine and natural therapies in the treatment of toxicity. Flavonoids are one of these natural therapies that were used by researchers in the treatment of some intoxication cases. Naringenin is the most influential flavonoids wherein it is found in citrus fruits such as orange, grapefruit, and mandarin. Naringenin is considered a potent natural antioxidant in vitro and in vivo. It can be hepatoprotective, renoprotective, cardioprotective, neuroprotective, and cytoprotective in many cases of toxicity besides its ability in amelioration the testicular and developmental toxicity. Its efficacy depends on the capability to scavenge strongly the free radicals such as superoxide and hydroxyl radicals preventing the oxidative stress toxicity and lipid peroxidation.

    Keywords: Naringenin, intoxication, antioxidant, protection
  • Edris Ardeshirlarijani, Nazli Namazi, Reza B Jalili, Mina Saeedi, Somaye Imanparast, Hamid-Reza Adhami, Mohammad Ali Faramarzi, Mohammad Hossein Ayati, Mohammad Mahdavi, Bagher Larijani* Page 4

    In this study, in vitro inhibitory activity of methanolic and chloroform extracts of some medicinal plants including C. wightii, T. ammi, N. sativa, C. arabica, L. usitatissimum, C. cyminum, and R. Graveolens was evaluated toward α-glucosidase, α-amylase, and lipase comparing with acarbose and orlistat as the standard inhibitors. Our results revealed that both methanolic and chloroform extracts of C.wightii depicted high activity toward α-glucosidase (IC50s = 100.2 and 110.3 µg/mL, respectively) while methanolic and chloroform extracts of R.graveolens as well as chloroform extract of C.arabica showed good to moderate inhibitory activity (IC50s = 281.0, 460.5, and 280.0 µg/mL, respectively). Among the evaluated extracts, methanolic extract of R.graveolens and chloroform extract of C.arabica were found to be potent inhibitors toward α-amylase (IC50s = 215.0 and 180.0 µg/mL, respectively). However, moderate activity was obtained by methanolic and chloroform extracts of C. wightii and chloroform extract of R.graveolens (IC50 = 273.5, 358.5, and 479.0 µg/mL). It should be noted that all extracts demonstrated no significant inhibitory activity against lipase.

    Keywords: α-amylase, obesity, α-glucosidase, lipase, medicinal plants