فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:5 Issue: 3, 2020
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1399/05/14
  • تعداد عناوین: 12
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  • Seyedeh Mahdieh Namayandeh* Pages 187-191

    Vitamin D is a fat soluble vitamin with a well-known general metabolism and actions in bone structure and immune system regulation. Vitamin D exhibits direct antimicrobial activities against a spectrum of microbes, including Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, enveloped and non-enveloped viruses, as well as fungi. An observational study showed that concentrations of 38 ng/ml or more were associated with a significant more than twofold reduction in the risk of developing acute respiratory syndrome (17% vs. 45%). Some clinical trials on vitamin D showed a decrease in incidence and severity of the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). To achieve the optimum vitamin D3 levels, approximately half of the population should take at least 2000–5000 iu/d of vitamin D3. Various loading doses were proposed for achieving a 25(OH)D concentration of 30 ng/ml. A study reported that to achieve the concentration of 40–60 ng/ml a weekly or fort nightly dose totaling 100,000–200,000 iu over 8 weeks (1800 or 3600 iu/d) as loading should be prescribed. Approximately about half the people, using 5000 iu/d of vitamin D3 or 30,000–35,000 iu/wk would increase 25(OH)D concentration to 40 ng/ml and 6235–7248 iu/d can ensure that 97.5% of the people have concentrations > 20 ng/ml. Well-designed human clinical studies over the dosage and combination of micronutrients such as vitamin C and D and Zinc in different populations are required to substantiate the benefits of micronutrient supplementation against infection.

    Keywords: Vitamin D, Supplementation, COVID-19
  • Ameneh Marzban, Azadeh Nadjarzadeh, Masoumeh Abbasi Shavazi, MohammadReza Rezaei, Sara Jambarsang, MohammadHassan Ehrampoush* Pages 192-200
    Background

    Obesity is considered as the greatest cause of chronic diseases worldwide. The prevalence rate of obesity and overweight should be recognized in the community for planning and prioritizing health problems. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of obesity and overweight and its related factors among residents of Yazd city, Iran.

    Methods

    This cross-sectional study was conducted among 790 participants aged 20-70 years. Participants were selected through multi-stage systematic sampling in 2018. The individuals' demographic data, and anthropometric measurements such as height and weight were measured. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistics, chi-square, and correlation coefficients.

    Results

    The mean age of participants was 45.10 ± 14.56 years. According to the results, 170 (21.51%) and 280 (35.44%) participants were obese and overweight, respectively. Overweight was also associated with demographic variables of mobility, age, and income. Furthermore, a significant relationship was found between weight status and demographic variables of mobility, age, and income. Based on the results, a significant and positive correlation was observed between body mass index and age (R = 0.75, P = 0.03).

    Conclusion

    Obesity and overweight is a major public health problem in Yazd, especially among women, older age, and low-income groups in Yazd. Therefore, appropriate plans should be designed to reduce this health problem.

    Keywords: Prevalence, Obesity, Overweight, Yazd
  • Narjes Khalili, Fateme Akrami Mohajeri, Fereshteh Ramroudi, Fatemeh Mojaver, Fatemeh Hakimi, Maryam Sardari, Mahboubeh Khebri, Elham Khalili Sadrabad* Pages 201-208
    Background

    Oils and fats are among the important constituents of foods. Lipid oxidation can cause changes in taste, flavor, smell, color, texture, and nutritional value of the foods. Deep-fat frying (temperatures of 150 to 200 °C) leads to a series of chemical and physical reactions, so that the oil is oxidized, polymerized, and hydrolyzed.

    Methods

    In a current descriptive cross-sectional study, 100 oil samples were obtained from fast food shops in Yazd city during the spring and summer of 2018. A checklist was prepared including the oil type (oil or fat), odor, color, smoke, and duration of use. The peroxide value (PV), p-anisidine value (p-AV), free fatty acid (FFA) levels, and total polar compound (TPC) of the samples were examined.

    Results

    We found that 93% of the oil samples were in form of liquid. In term of color, 45% of the samples had a dark color and about 57% had an undesirable odor during cooking. In 23% of the fast food shops in Yazd, oil is used more than two days. The measurement of peroxide value showed that 73 samples had peroxide values higher than the allowable limits. The allowable average peroxide value was estimated as 2.33 meq/kg. Results showed that 56 samples had allowable FFA level (less than one), while the others were classified as oxidized oils. The p-AV in 55% of the oil samples were higher than 4. According to the results, 46% of the frying oil samples had TPC of higher than 25%, which showed that they should be discarded.

    Conclusion

    The results showed that majority of the fast food shops in Yazd used highly oxidized oils to prepare their food. The absorption of such oils by food can endanger the public health. Therefore, continuous monitoring of fast foods and restaurants as well as training the staff seem necessary.

    Keywords: Oil, Peroxide value, Free fatty acid, P-anisidine value, Total polar compound, Yazd
  • Sayed Farzad Talakesh, Alireza Bahonar, Siamak Mashayekhi, Vahid Rahmanian* Pages 209-217
    Background

    Eggs are of the few naturally occurring foods that meet the needs of human body in a balanced manner. The present study was conducted to determine the rate of egg per capita consumption in Tehran city in 2018.

    Methods

    The present cross-sectional study was conducted on 4.213 heads of families living in 22 regions of Tehran. Selected randomly using multistage cluster sampling method. The research data were collected through a researcher-made questionnaire completed by interviews.

    Results

    Mean egg consumption per person was 2.58 per week and 134 per capita (95%CI; 134-137). Moreover, 39.59% of the participants believed that brown-shelled eggs had a higher nutritional value and 61.99% were unaware about the presence of omega 3-enriched eggs. Concerning the participants' attitudes towards egg consumption effective factors, the 'recommendations of physicians and nutritionists to use eggs' and knowing about harmlessness of cholesterol found in eggs' received the mean highest scores of 3.47 and 3.31, respectively.

    Conclusion

    Per capita consumption of eggs among families in Tehran was much lower than the recommended standards. Physicians and nutritionists are recommended to try to raise the community awareness about the nutritional value and correct the misconceptions about egg cholesterol

    Keywords: Egg, Per capita, Cholesterol, Attitude, Tehran
  • Freshteh Momeni, Maryam Javadi, Isa Mohammadi Zeidi, Behnaz Abiri, Parvin Sarbakhsh, Mohammadreza Vafa* Pages 218-226
    Background

    Insufficient sleep duration and unhealthy diet are associated with weight gain. However, little is known about the association of sleep quality with dietary intake and obesity. The aim of the present study was to compare dietary intake and anthropometric indices between good and poor sleepers.

    Methods

    In this cross-sectional study, a total of 260 femles youth aged 18-30 years were recruited among the students of Qazvin University of Medical Sciences. The evaluated variables consisted of sleep quality, dietary intake, and anthropometric indices. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS version 21.0.

    Results

    Participants in the poor quality sleep group had higher intakes of calorie (P < 0.001) and carbohydrate (P < 0.001), and lower protein intake
    (P < 0.01) in comparison with good sleepers. Regarding food groups, poor sleepers had higher intake of bread-grains (P = 0.02) group, but lower intake of meat-alternatives (P < 0.001), vegetables (P < 0.001), and fruits (P < 0.001) in comparison with the good sleepers. Participants in the poor quality sleep group had higher weight (P < 0.001), body mass index (P < 0.001), waist circumference (P < 0.001), and fat mass (P < 0.001) in comparison with good sleepers.

    Conclusion

    Our findings emphasize the relationship of poor quality sleep with unhealthy dietary intake and obesity in young female women

    Keywords: Sleep quality, Dietary intake, Body weight, Central obesity, Young female
  • Mahbooubeh Mirhosseini*, Roghayeh Dehestani Pages 227-235
    Background

    The spread of pathogenic microorganisms in food and beverage and their resistance to antibiotics have raised major concerns for public health. The aim of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial activity of various metal oxide nanoparticles (NPs) including zinc oxide (ZnO), magnesium oxide (MgO), and iron oxide (Fe2O3) NPs against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Escherichia coli (E. coli). Furthermore, the antimicrobial activity of these NPs in milk was studied along with mild heat.

    Methods

    In this experimental study, the antibacterial activity of ZnO, MgO, and Fe2O3 NPs were initially evaluated by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) methods. Later, the antimicrobial effect of these NPs was investigated in milk along with mild heating. To determine the morphological changes in S. aureus and E. coli, electron microscopy scanning was applied before and after the antimicrobial treatments.

    Results

    The MBC and MIC values presented by Fe2O3, ZnO, and MgO NPs against pathogenic bacteria showed that MgO NPs were the most potent substances for inhibiting the growth of S. aureus and E. coli. The results also indicated that use of these NPs had synergistic effects in combination with the heating treatment. Electron microscopy scanning also revealed that treatment with MgO NPs could distort and impair the cell wall of the pathogenic bacteria, leading to the leakage of intracellular components and bacterial death.

    Conclusion

    The results suggest that MgO, ZnO, and Fe2O3 NPs can be applied for industrial food processing as effective antimicrobial compounds to decrease the temperature required for pasteurizing milk

    Keywords: Antimicrobial activity, Nanoparticles, Zinc oxide, Magnesium oxide, Iron oxide, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli
  • Zio Souleymane, Somda Roland Siourimè, Hama Ba Fatouma, Sawadogo Adama, Tapsoba François, Traoré Yves, Savadogo Aly* Pages 236-247
    Background

    This study evaluated production technologies of the refined cottonseed oils and crude peanut oils and investigated the edible oils' sales condition in markets of Ouagadougou and Bobo Dioulasso, Africa.

    Methods

    The study was carried out by administering a questionnaire to 316 edible oil sellers in markets, 25 cottonseed oil producers, and 18 crude peanut oil producers. The production technologies and sale conditions such as brands, origins, storage, and packaging were evaluated on the basis of observations and surveys. The edible oils' sale conditions, production conditions of the peanut and cottonseed oils, as well as the means used for production of the aforesaid oils were investigated.

    Results

    The results showed that the crude peanut oils were produced in two ways by only women (100%) using rudimentary means. However, cottonseed oils' production was of three types and mostly dominated by men (96%). The sodium hydroxide (100%), phosphoric acid (36.4%), citric acid (63.6%), filters (100%), and tonsil (80%) were used during refining cottonseed oils. In markets and other places, imported edible oils (94%) were mainly sold and 34.2% of the sellers exposed oils to the sun. Imported edible oils generally came from Ivory Coast, Malaysia, and Indonesia. So, local edible oils were faced with a great competition against the imported oils. These imported oils are from various origins and are mainly consumed with deplorable sale conditions.

    Conclusion

    This study highlighted the production technologies and edible oils' sale conditions. The results of this study can provide the necessary information for the authorities to take measures to ensure the quality of edible oils.

    Keywords: Edible oil, Crude oil, Peanut oil, Cottonseed oil
  • Sina Fallah Tafty, Shahram Lak, Mani Mojaddam*, Ahmad Naderi, Mohammad Abdollahian Noghabi Pages 248-258

    Herbicide plays the main role in guaranteeing the quantity and quality of food. Soybean reactive oxygen species scavenging system eliminates the herbicides’ side effects on the plant by activating antioxidant enzymes, which affects the yield. So, we investigated this procedure to reveal the effect of herbicides on food production.

    Methods

    Experiments were carried out in two locations of Alborz province in 2014 during the growing seasons. Seven different tank-mixed herbicides were produced by mixing one triple mixture of imazethapyr+bentazon+sethoxydim active ingredient, three double mixture of imazethapyr+bentazon, imazethapyr+sethoxydim, and bentazon+sethoxydim, as well as single usage of imazethapyr, bentazon, and sethoxydim. Reduced herbicide rates were 100, 60, and 30% of the recommended dosage inducing soybean plots through leaf expanding phase.

    Results

    Both herbicides and their reduced rates changed soybean yields through antioxidant enzymes’ activity. Maximum soybean yield was registered at tank-mixed imazethapyr+bentazom+ sethoxydim which were induced at 33, 320, and 125 g active ingredient/hectare, respectively. The minimum activity of enzymes (superoxide dismutase 3.9 international unit) was also demonstrated in this research. Our data showed that when the herbicide rate was reduced from 100% to 30%, as a result, the label recommended soybean yield was reduced by just 17%, while superoxide dismutase activity was reduced too. The minimum yield was 1.2 ton/hectare of sethoxydim with 225 g active ingredient/hectare.

    Conclusion

    Antioxidant enzymes were promoted to maximum activity by increasing the herbicide rate for scavenging the herbicide side effects. Tank-mixed herbicides, with reduced herbicide rates can eliminate poison residue in the environment and food chain while increasing weed control.

    Keywords: Reduced Rates, Herbicide, Tank-Mixed, Soybean, Enzyme
  • Morteza Alighadri, Vali Musazadeh, Banafshe Gholinia, Seyed Yaser Hashemi, Farnaz Attarmadraki, Aysan Shojapour, Solmaz Gholami* Pages 259-265
    Background

    Among various food products, milk is among the most basic nutrient foods. Studies demonstrated that consumption of milk and its products are low in Iranian   families. This study was conducted to investigate the type and amount of milk consumption in Ardabil city in 2015-2016.

    Methods

    This descriptive study was conducted among 300 people (199 female and 101 male), who referred to health centers of Ardabil. The participants were selected from both genders of healthy people with no diseases aged ≥18 years. Some questioners were applied to measure milk consumption.

    Results

    Of 300 studied people, 51.67% consumed pasteurized milk, 40.67% consumed fresh (Bulk) milk, and 4.67% used both of them, while 3% did not use any type of milk. Among the milk company brands, Mihan was the first choice and had the highest consumption rate; 87% of people paid attention to the quality of milk in choosing one brand. Most people used Teflon cookware for boiling milk and many of them used a glass bottle for storing it.

    Conclusion

    Posturized milk has the highest consumption rate. A few people did not consume milk in Ardabil and the quality of milk was the most important factor for its consumption.  A significant association was found between the type of consumed milk and the individuals' educational level, age, and the household head's educational status.  More extensive studies at the national level should be conducted to investigate the causes and effective factors in solving the current problems with regard to milk consumption.

    Keywords: Consumption, Dairy products, Milk, Ardabil
  • Ameneh Marzban, Vahid Rahmanian, Mehrnosh Shirdeli, Fatemeh Jafari, Mehran Barzegaran* Pages 266-273
    Background

    Millions of people worldwide suffer from foodborne diseases every year. So, these diseases are recognized as one of the most common problems worldwide. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of education on knowledge, attitude, and practice of catering staffs about food hygiene and safety in Yazd City, Iran.

    Methods

    This quasi-experimental study was conducted among 55 employees of catering in Yazd in 2018. The cluster random sampling method was applied to select the participants. Data collection tool was a questionnaire containing four parts of demographic, knowledge, attitude, and practice data. Prior to the intervention, all participants were asked to complete the questionnaire. Later, they were provided with the necessary training for 8 hours in four consecutive weeks. Two months after the intervention, the participants were asked to complete the same questionnaire again.

    Results

    The mean score of before and after the intervention of the participants' knowledge, attitude, and practice were 19.32 ± 3.15, 22.69 ± 4.99, 13.20 ± 1.74, 25.07 ± 3.51, 35.21 ± 2.64 and 17.40 ± 3.48, respectively. prior to and after the intervention, respectively. Based on the findings, the participants' mean score of knowledge, attitude, and practice increased significantly after the educational course (P < 0.05). A significant difference was also observed between the mean scores of practice and work experience before and after the intervention (P < 0.05).

    Conclusions

    According to the results, the educational content should be revised and implementation of the acquired knowledge should be improved in order to achieve the desired level of knowledge, attitude, and practice. In addition, education on food hygiene should be continuous and meticulously planned.

    Keywords: Education, Knowledge, Attitude, Practice, Food safety, Catering
  • Kabré Jeanne D’Arc, Bougma Sibiri, Zoungrana Bassibila, Traoré Yves, Savadogo Aly* Pages 274-281
    Background

    In Burkina Faso, malnutrition is a public health problem. Despite the significant drop in the prevalence of malnutrition since 2009 according to the Directorate of Nutrition, malnutrition is still a major concern with regard to its consequences. The objective of this study was to determine the factors associated with acute malnutrition in children aged 6 to 59 months in the Sabou Health District, Burkina Faso.

    Methods

    This was a descriptive, cross-sectional study conducted among 343 children aged 6 to 59 months in Sabou Health District, Burkina Faso from August 1st to 30th, 2016. Factors associated with acute malnutrition were dietary factors, family factors, environmental factors, and infectious factors determined using SPSS version 21.0 software. The difference was statistically significant for P-value of less than 0.05.

    Results

    The prevalence of global acute malnutrition in the district was 9.0%, of which 2.6% was severe according to the Brachial Perimeter. Several factors were associated with acute malnutrition in children under 5 years of age in the Sabou health district. Indeed, morbidity was a factor associated with acute malnutrition in children with a P-value of 0.007. The low dietary diversity experienced by food-insecure households was also associated with acute malnutrition in children. Infant and young child feeding practices, i.e., inadequate introduction of complementary foods and low dietary diversity to children were among the factors associated with nutritional status (P = 0.007). Among mothers, 87.5% had heard of malnutrition, 66.5% did not recognize the signs of malnourished in their children, and 92.4% were unaware of the consequences of malnutrition.

    Conclusion

    Based on the results, initiatives and programmes should be established for women, the bearers of life, to enhance their empowerment and educate them with regard to the integral growth of children, the builders of tomorrow.

    Keywords: Causes, Acute malnutrition, Household, Child, Burkina Faso
  • Mahdieh Hosseinzadeh*, Fatemeh Pakravanfar, Akram Ghadiri Anari, Hossein Fallahzadeh Pages 282-289
    Background

    Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), one of the most common causes of endocrine disorders with irregular menstruation, is accompanied by an increase in androgen and polycystic ovarian. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of weight loss regimen with and without supplementation.
    L-carnitine affects lipid profile, insulin, and hormone resistance indices.

    Methods

    This double-blind randomized clinical trial was conducted over women within the age range of 18 to 45 years, who referred to Yazd Diabetes Center in 2019. The participants were divided into the experimental and control groups. The intervention group received 1000 mg L-carnitine (LG = 28) and the placebo group (PG = 28) received the placebo daily. All people followed a low celery diet for 12 weeks. Anthropometric indices and body composition (weight, body mass index, waist circumference, hip circumference, fat mass, and free fat mass) were measured prior to and after the intervention. Data analysis was performed using SPSS software version 22. The independent sample t-test was used to compare the mean changes between the LG and PG.

    Results

    At the end of the study period, patients treated with L-carnitine showed a significant decrease in waist circumference compared to the PG (change: -1 ± 3.15, P = 0.001) and no significant difference was observed between the two groups in terms of other anthropometrics indices and body composition including fat mass, body mass index, and hip circumference (P > 0.05).

    Conclusion

    The present study showed that 1000 mg oral L-carnitine had no significant effect on body weight, body mass index, body composition, and hip circumference, but had a significant effect on waist circumference size

    Keywords: Polycystic ovarian syndrome, L-carnitine, Androgenic index, Sex hormone-binding globulin