فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:7 Issue: 4, 2020
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1399/05/25
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
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  • Saeed Mohammadi* Pages 1-3

    Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) signaling has been introduced to be involved in macrophages polarization. The perturbation of AHR has been reported in hypoxia and related disorders. Here, I would like to highlight the significance of AHR in hypoxia-mediated macrophages polarization and suggest conducting further experiments on related subjects.

    Keywords: Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor, Hypoxia, Macrophages, Polarization
  • Samira Mahmoudi, Rozita Nasiri, Abolfazl Jafari Sales* Pages 4-10
    Background and objectives

    Microbial resistance to antibiotics is one of the most common problems in the health care system. Therefore, many efforts have been performed to find new compounds as antimicrobial compounds. This study carried out to investigate the in-vitro antibacterial effect of methanolic extract of peppermint on standard Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain.

    Methods

    In this experimental laboratory study, after collecting and performing pharmacognosy evaluations, methanolic extract of the peppermint plant was prepared and its antimicrobial effects on several bacteria were determined at concentrations of 20 to 400 mg/ml using the agar well diffusion method, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC)  methods. The test was repeated five times for each bacterium and the collected data were analyzed using SPSS software.

    Results

    It was revealed that the methanolic extract of peppermint had antimicrobial effects against standard Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The highest effect was observed in S. aureus and the least in P. aeruginosa.  MIC and MBC of methanol extract on S. aureus, B. cereus, E. coli, and P. aeruginosa were 6.5-15.5, 15.5-25, 50-100, and 100-200 mg/ml, respectively.

    Conclusion

    The results of this study reveal that peppermint can be considered as an antibacterial medicinal herb and that if the concentration of the extract is higher, its antibacterial properties will also increase. Thus, it can be used as an alternative to the usual chemical drugs in the treatment of infections after evaluating their effects in vitro.

    Keywords: Antibacterial effect, Methanolic extract, Peppermint, In vitro
  • Faegheh Jafari Amoli, Seyed Ali Hosseini*, MohammadAli Azarbayjani, Parvin Farzanegi Arkhazloo Pages 11-19
    Background and objectives

    It has been reported that deep-fried oils (DFOs) used in the preparation of fast foods can affect the immune system. On the other hand, regular physical activity and proper nutrition, in addition to affecting physical function, have a tremendous impact on the immune system. The aim of the present study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of aerobic training (T) and octopamine (O) consumption in the heart tissue of rats fed DFO.

    Methods

    In this experimental study, 25 male Wistar rats with mean age of 20 weeks old and weighing 300- 350 were purchased and divided into 5 groups of 5 rats, including: 1) control, 2) DFO, 3) DFO+T, 4) DFO+O and 5) DFO+T+O. During four weeks, groups 2- 5 received DFO by gavage; groups 3- 5 ran on treadmill (with speed of 50% Vo2max in the first week which reached 65% Vo2max in the last week) five sessions per week and 20 minutes per session and groups 4-5 received 81 μmol/kg octopamine supplement peritoneally for 5 days per week. Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) gene expression were measured in heart tissue.

    Results

    DFO significantly increased NF-κB (P=0.005) and TNF-α (P=0.001) gene expression levels; T significantly on decreased NF-κB (P=0.01) and TNF-α (P=0.007) gene expression levels; O consumption significantly decreased NF-κB (P=0.001) and TNF-α (P=0.001) gene expression levels; however, the interactive effects of T and O consumption on NF-κB (P=0.57) and TNF-α (P=0.20) gene expression levels was not significant.

    Conclusion

    It seems that T and O consumption alone have anti-inflammatory effects on the heart tissue of rats fed DFO, however T and O do not have anti-inflammatory interactive effects.

    Keywords: Training, Octopamine, Deep-Fried Oil, TNF-α, NF-κB
  • Nafiseh Kaviani, Yaghoub Yazdani*, Hadi Bazzazi Pages 20-29
    Background and objectives

    Vitamin D receptor (VDR) has been identified as a susceptibility gene for several autoimmune diseases. This study was designed to investigate the association of VDR gene polymorphisms with the susceptibility to rheumatoid arthritis (RA).

    Methods

    A case-control study was performed on 130 RA patients and 128 healthy subjects in the north-east of Iran using restriction fragment length polymorphism-polymerase chain reaction (RFLP-PCR) technique.  

    Results

    Our findings suggested a significant association of T allele (p=0.01) of TaqI (rs731236), and f allele (p=0.01) of FokI (rs10735810) genetic variants of the VDR gene with RA susceptibility. These significant associations were also found in the T/T genotype of TaqI (p=0.009), and F/f genotype of FokI (P=0.014). The f-T haplotype was more significantly detected in-patients than in healthy controls (p=0.007).

    Conclusion

    The RA group showed an increase in the f allele and heterozygous F/f genotype and also in the T allele and homozygous T/T and heterozygous T/t genotypes as compared to the control group. Our results demonstrated that polymorphisms of TaqI and FokI in the VDR gene might be involved in the development of RA in an Iranian population.

    Keywords: FokI, TaqI, Vitamin D receptor, Rheumatoid arthritis, restriction fragment length polymorphism-polymerase chain reaction (RFLP-PCR)
  • Mohammad Mousaei, MohammadAli Azarbayjani*, Maghsoud Peeri, Seyed Ali Hosseini Pages 30-39
    Background and objectives

    Controlling nutrition and exercise can be two important strategies in controlling tendon health. It has been reported that resistance training and palm pollen separately can improve Scleraxis (Scx) in tendon tissue; so present study aimed to investigate the interactive effects of resistance training with ethanolic extract of palm pollen on Scx protein and gene expression levels in the tendon tissue of male adult rats.

    Methods

    In this experimental study 30 male adult rats divided into 6 groups of 6 rats including: 1) sham, 2) training, 3) palm pollen, 4) testosterone, 5) training + palm pollen, and 6) training + testosterone. During 4 weeks, groups 2, 5, and 6 performed resistance trainings for five sessions per week; groups 3 and 5 received 100 mg/kg palm pollen for five days per week via gavage and groups 4 and 6 received 2 mg/kg testosterone propionate peritoneally. Scx protein and gene expression levels were measured in tendon tissue by Western blot and real-time PCR methods respectively. Shapiro- Wilk, one way ANOVA with Tukey’s post- hoc tests were used to analyze the findings (P≤0.05).

    Results

    Training significantly increased Scx protein levels (P=0.005); palm pollen significantly increased Scx gene expression levels (P=0.001); training + palm pollen significantly increased Scx protein and gene expression levels (P=0.001) also training + palm pollen had more favorable effect on increase of Scx protein and gene expression levels compared to training and palm pollen alone (P=0.001).

    Conclusion

    It seems that resistance training simultaneously with palm pollen administration can have a more favorable effect than each one alone on improving Scx protein and gene expression levels in tendon tissue of male adult rats.

    Keywords: Exercise, Phoeniceae, Tendons, Scx
  • Farzaneh Mirhoseini, Motahare Baghestani*, MohammadHadi Khajezade, Ali Derafshi, Motahareh Kaboodsaz Yazdi Pages 40-48
    Background and objective

    Accurate understanding of the anatomy of the inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) and its relation with anatomical landmarks of mandibular molar teeth can reduce the risk of unwanted injuries to the IAN during implant placement.

    Methods

    44 CBCTs of patients,who have been reffered to the private oral and maxillofacial radiology center, were examined by a radiologist on the axial, sagittal and coronal planes. Then, the distances between mandibular canal and buccal cortex (BN) and lingual cortex (LN), buccolingual width of the mandibular canal (BL), and the distances between the canal and apex of the first molar (M1N) and second molar of mandible (M2N) were obtained from cross-sectional images. Data were analyzed using SPSS17 software and  Kolmogorov-smirnov and Mann-whitney test.

    Results

    21 males and 23 females aged 20 to 50 years old (mean age: 37.8±7.52) were examined. The mean intervals in the regions of first molar in the right and left sides were BN: 4.03,4.06 mm, LN: 2.10,2.58 mm, BL: 2.20,2.20 mm, and M1N: 5.77,5.78 mm and in the second molar region, on the right and left sides were BN: 5.21,5.20 mm, LN: 1.95,1.80 mm and BL: 2.30,2.20 mm and M2N: 3.85,3.55 mm, respectively. There was a significant difference in the mean buccolingual width of mandibular canal in both sides in the region of first molar and left side in the region of second molar between two genders. (P=0.009, P=0.019, P=0.045). Other measurements were not significantly different between two genders (P>0.05).  The age range of patients had no effect on any of the distances and measurements (P>0.05).

    Conclusion

    buccolingual width of mandibular canal in both sides in the region of first molar and left side in the region of second molar was associated with gender.

    Keywords: Locatin, dimensions, inferior alveolar canal, mandibular canal, CBCT
  • Abdol Kheder Keshtvarz, Maghsoud Peeri*, MohammadAli Azarbayjani, Seyed Ali Hosseini Pages 49-56
    Background and objective

    Exercise and nutrition are two factors influencing the improvement of inflammatory markers in patients with colon cancer. Aim of present study was to investigate the effect of aerobic training (AT) with Purslane (Portulaca Oleracea) Seed (PS) on toll like receptor 2 (TLR-2) and TLR-4 in colon tumor tissue of rats with colon cancer.

    Methods

    In this experimental study 30 adults rats were divided into five groups of six rats including: 1) healthy control, 2) control, 3) training, 4) PS, and 5) training + PS. Colon cancer induced by intra-peritoneal injection of azoxymethane in groups 2- 5. During eight weeks, groups 3 and 5 performed AT for five sessions per week also groups 4 and 5 received 75 mg/kg PS intra-peritoneally. TLR2 and TLR4 protein levels were measured by ELISA method. For review the normal distribution and data Shapiro- wilk was used and for statistical analysis of data one way ANOVA with Tukey’s post- hoc tests were used (P≤0.05).

    Results

    Training had not significant effect on TLR-2 (P=0.91) and TLR-4 (P=0.95); PS and training + PS significantly decreased TLR-2 and TLR-4 (P=0.001) also training + PS had more favorable effect on decrease of TLR-2 compare to training and PS alone (P=0.001).

    Conclusion

    Although PS alone can improve TLR-2 and TLR-4 levels in colon tumor tissue of adult rats with colon cancer, nevertheless it appears that AT along with PS have more favorable effects on improvement of TLR-2 compare to training and PS alone.

    Keywords: Exercise, Portulaca, Toll-Like Receptors, Colonic Neoplasms
  • Zinab Shykholeslami, Ahmad Abdi*, Alireza Barari, Seyed Ali Hosseini Pages 57-65
    Background and objectives

    Proper nutrition and exercise are two effective factors in improving liver function in old age. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of aerobic training (T) with consumption of Citrus aurantium (CA) on SIR1 and PGC-1α gene expression levels in the liver tissue of elderly rats.

    Method

    In this experimental study, 25 elderly female rats were placed in five groups of 5 rats, including 1) control, 2) sham, 3) CA, 4) T and 5) T+CA. Over the course of eight weeks, groups 4 and 5 ran on the treadmill three sessions per week at 65 to 75 percent of the maximum running speed, and groups 3 and 5 received 300 mg/kg/day of CA extract peritoneally. Forty- eight hours after the last training session and CA consumption, SIR1 and PGC-1α gene expression levels in the liver tissue were measured by real-time PCR method. In order to analyze the findings, the Shapiro-Wilk, one-way ANOVA with Tukey’s post- hoc tests were used (P≤0.05).

    Results

    T had a significant effect on increasing SIR1 (P = 0.009) and PGC-1α (P = 0.001) gene expression levels; CA had a significant effect on reducing SIR1 gene expression levels and increasing PGC-1α (P = 0.001); T + CA had a greater effect on increasing PGC-1α gene expression levels than T and CA (P = 0.001).

    Conclusion

    Although eight weeks of T and CA consumption alone appear to improve PGC-1α gene expression levels in the liver tissue of elderly rats, concurrent T and CA consumption has more favorable effects than each of them alone.

    Keywords: Training, Citrus aurantium, Liver, Metabolism, Elderly