فهرست مطالب

Health Policy and Management - Volume:9 Issue: 10, 2020
  • Volume:9 Issue: 10, 2020
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1399/06/16
  • تعداد عناوین: 12
  • Agnes Binagwaho * Pages 413-414

    The current pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has had unprecedented reach and shown the need for strong, compassionate and evidence-based decisions to effectively stop the spread of the disease and save lives. While aggressive in its response, Rwanda prioritized the lives of its people – a human right that some governments forget to focus on. The country took significant steps, before the first case and to limit the spread of the disease, rolled out a complete nationwide lockdown within one week of the first confirmed case, while also providing social support to vulnerable populations. This pandemic highlights the need for leaders to be educated on implementation science principles to be able to make evidence-based decisions through a multi-sectoral, integrated response, with consideration for contextual factors that affect implementation. This approach is critical in developing appropriate preparedness and response strategies and save lives during the current threat and those to come.

    Keywords: COVID-19, Implementation Science, Implementation Research, Evidence-Based Decisions
  • Lee Liu * Pages 415-418
    The world is urgently looking for ways to flatten the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) curve, and many governments have resorted to implementing strict lockdowns, as researchers show the effectiveness of China’s approaches in containing the virus. However, this paper argues that the draconian lockdowns instituted in Wuhan, Hubei, China, may have actually contributed to intensifying patient surges and incapacitating local health systems. Medical aids were rushed to Hubei and new hospitals were rapidly built, however, the healthcare system was still unable to match the staggering increase of patients in the early stages of the lockdowns. The paper proposes using patient evacuation to enhance sustainable COVID-19 mitigation during lockdowns. It demonstrates that patients in Hubei could have been transported to other Chinese provinces where hospitals were under-utilized. This could have theoretically saved thousands of lives by reducing inequities between Hubei and the rest of China in healthcare capacity for treating COVID-19 patients.
    Keywords: COVID-19, Lockdown, Pandemic, Health Inequity, China
  • Stefan Auener, Danielle Kroon, Erik Wackers, Simone Van Dulmen *, Patrick Jeurissen Pages 419-422
    The current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is testing healthcare systems like never before and all efforts are now being put into controlling the COVID-19 crisis. We witness increasing morbidity, delivery systems that sometimes are on the brink of collapse, and some shameless rent seeking. However, besides all the challenges, there are also possibilities that are opening up. In this perspective, we focus on lessons from COVID-19 to increase the sustainability of health systems. If we catch the opportunities, the crisis might very well be a policy window for positive reforms. We describe the positive opportunities that the COVID-19 crisis has opened to reduce the sources of waste for our health systems: failures of care delivery, failures of care coordination, overtreatment or low-value care, administrative complexity, pricing failures and fraud and abuse. We argue that current events can canalize some very needy reforms to make our systems more sustainable. As always, political policy windows are temporarily open, and so swift action is needed, otherwise the opportunity will pass and the vested interests will come back to pursue their own agendas. Professionals can play a key role in this as well.
    Keywords: COVID-19, Healthcare Reform, E-Health, Low-Value Care, Health Policy
  • Florien Margareth Kruse *, Patrick P.T. Jeurissen Pages 423-428
    This perspective argues that for-profit hospitals will be heavily affected by epidemic crises, including the current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak. Policy-makers should be aware that for-profit hospitals in particular are likely to face financial distress. The suspension of all non-urgent elective surgery and the relegation of market-based mechanisms that determines the allocation and compensation of care puts the financial state of these hospitals at serious risk. We identify three organisational factors that determine which hospitals might be most affected (ie, care-portfolio, size and whether it is private equity [PE]-owned). In addition, we analyse contextual factors that could explain the impact of financial distress among for-profit hospitals on the wider healthcare system.
    Keywords: For-Profit Hospitals, COVID-19, Epidemics, Financial Resilience
  • Amy Patterson *, Mary A. Clark Pages 429-431
    Political scientists bring important tools to the analysis of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, particularly a focus on the crucial role of power in global health politics. We delineate different kinds of power at play during the COVID-19 crisis, showing how a dearth of compulsory, institutional, and epistemic power undermined global cooperation and fueled the pandemic, with its significant loss to human life and huge economic toll. Through the pandemic response, productive and structural power became apparent, as issue frames stressing security and then preserving livelihoods overwhelmed public health and human rights considerations. Structural power rooted in economic inequalities between and within countries conditioned responses and shaped vulnerabilities, as the crisis threatened to deepen power imbalances along multiple lines. Calls for global health security will surely take on a new urgency in the aftermath of the pandemic and the forms of power delineated here will shape their outcome.
    Keywords: COVID-19, Power Relations, Issue Framing, Pandemic Response, Health Disparities
  • Olaf Mueller *, Guangyu Lu, Albrecht Jahn, Oliver Razum Pages 432-435
    The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak started in China in December 2019 and has developed into a pandemic. Using mandatory large-scale public health interventions including a lockdown with locally varying intensity and duration, China has been successful in controlling the epidemic at an early stage. The epicentre of the pandemic has since shifted to Europe and The Americas. In certain cities and regions, health systems became overwhelmed by high numbers of cases and deaths, whereas other regions continue to experience low incidence rates. Still, lockdowns were usually implemented country-wide, albeit with differing intensities between countries. Compared to its neighbours, Germany has managed to keep the epidemic relatively well under control, in spite of a lockdown that was only partial. In analogy to many countries at a similar stage, Germany is now under increasing pressure to further relax lockdown measures to limit economic and psychosocial costs. However, if this is done too rapidly, Germany risks facing tens of thousands more severe cases of COVID-19 and deaths in the coming months. Hence, it could again follow China’s example and relax measures according to local incidence, based on intensive testing.
    Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, Pandemic, control, Lock Down, Health Policy
  • Mostafa Shokoohi, Mehdi Osooli, Saverio Stranges * Pages 436-438
    Differences in public health approaches to control the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic could largely explain substantial variations in epidemiological indicators (such as incidence and mortality) between the West and the East. COVID-19 revealed vulnerabilities of most western countries’ healthcare systems in their response to the ongoing public health crisis. Hence, western countries can possibly learn from practices from several East Asian countries regarding infrastructures, epidemiological surveillance and control strategies to mitigate the public health impact of the pandemic. In this paper, we discuss that the lack of rapid and timely community-centered approaches, and most importantly weak public health infrastructures, might have resulted in a high number of infected cases and fatalities in many western countries.
    Keywords: COVID-19, Emerging Infectious Diseases, Pandemic Preparedness, Public Health Responses
  • Waranya Rattanavipapong *, Ritika Kapoor, Yot Teerawattananon, Jos Luttjeboer, Siobhan Botwright, Rachel A. Archer, Birgitte Giersing, Raymond C. W. Hutubessy Pages 439-447
    Background The World Health Organization (WHO) has developed the Total System Effectiveness (TSE) framework to assist national policy-makers in prioritizing vaccines. The pilot was launched in Thailand to explore the potential use of TSE in a country with established governance structures and accountable decision-making processes for immunization policy. While the existing literature informs vaccine adoption decisions in GAVI-eligible countries, this study attempts to address a gap in the literature by examining the policy process of a non-GAVI eligible country.   Methods A rotavirus vaccine (RVV) test case was used to compare the decision criteria made by the existing processes (Expanded Program on Immunization [EPI], and National List of Essential Medicines [NLEM]) for vaccine prioritization and the TSE-pilot model, using Thailand specific data.   Results The existing decision-making processes in Thailand and TSE were found to offer similar recommendations on the selection of a RVV product.   Conclusion The authors believe that TSE can provide a well-reasoned and step by step approach for countries, especially low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), to develop a systematic and transparent decision-making process for immunization policy.
    Keywords: vaccine, Universal Health Coverage, Health Technology Assessment, Priority Setting, Thailand
  • Lydia Kapiriri * Pages 448-458

    Background There is a growing body of literature on evidence-informed priority setting. However, the literature on the use of evidence when setting healthcare priorities in low-income countries (LICs), tends to treat the healthcare system (HCS) as a single unit, despite the existence of multiple programs within the HCS, some of which are donor supported.   Objectives (i) To examine how Ugandan health policy-makers define and attribute value to the different types of evidence; (ii) Based on 6 health programs (HIV, maternal, newborn and child health [MNCH], vaccines, emergencies, health systems, and non- communicable diseases [NCDs]) to discuss the policy-makers’ reported access to and use of evidence in priority setting across the 6 health programs in Uganda; and (iii) To identify the challenges related to the access to and use of evidence.   Methods This was a qualitative study based on in-depth key informant interviews with 60 national level (working in 6 different health programs) and 27 sub-national (district) level policy-makers. Data were analysed used a modified thematic approach.   Results While all respondents recognized and endeavored to use evidence when setting healthcare priorities across the 6 programs and in the districts; more national level respondents tended to value quantitative evidence, while more district level respondents tended to value qualitative evidence from the community. Challenges to the use of evidence included access, quality, and competing values. Respondents from highly politicized and donor supported programs such as vaccines, HIV and maternal neonatal and child health were more likely to report that they had access to, and consistently used evidence in priority setting.   Conclusion This study highlighted differences in the perceptions, access to, and use of evidence in priority setting in the different programs within a single HCS. The strong infrastructure in place to support for the access to and use of evidence in the politicized and donor supported programs should be leveraged to support the availability and use of evidence in the relatively under-resourced programs. Further research could explore the impact of unequal availability of evidence on priority setting between health programs within the HCS.

    Keywords: Priority Setting, Use of Evidence, Health System, Low-Income Countries, Uganda
  • Anokha Oomman Joseph *, Janso Padickakudi Joseph, Jasdeep Gahir, Bernadette Pereira Pages 459-460
  • Yuta Tani *, Toyoaki Sawano, Ayumu Kawamoto, Akihiko Ozaki, Tetsuya Tanimoto Pages 461-463
  • Mohammad Vahidi, Laya Jalilian Khave, Ghazal Sanadgol, Dorsa Shirini, Mohammad Karamouzian * Pages 464-465