فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:14 Issue: 3, 2020
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1399/06/27
  • تعداد عناوین: 7
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  • Maghsoud Eivazi Gh, Amin Alilou, Sara Fereydounnia *, James Selfe, Sahar Zamani Pages 131-140

    The popliteal fossa is located at the back of the knee joint and it is an area where blood vessels and nerves and also lymph nodes pass. Popliteal fossa injuries includes nearly 2% of acute knee injuries. The treatment of chronic injuries are always more difficult than acute ones, because its diagnosis would depend on careful interpretation of specific clinical exams. In this review, we describe our current understanding of role of popliteal fossa in knee problems, and summarize the anatomy and functional role of popliteal fossa and popliteomeniscal fibers, and mechanism of popliteomeniscal fibers injuries, and discuss strategies for diagnosis of popliteomeniscal fibers lesions, differential diagnosis, and treatment of the posterolateral corner injuries.

    Keywords: Posterolateral corner ofthe knee, Popliteus Fossa, Popliteomeniscal fascicles, Injury
  • Sousan Salehi, Ahmad Reza Khatoonabadi *, Mahmoudreza Ashrafi, Ghasem Mohammadkhani, Saman Maroufizadeh Pages 141-150
    Introduction

    Emotion can contribute to the severity of stuttering, although the underlying mechanism is unknown. Event-related Potential (ERP) could be very helpful for assessing emotional processing in persons with stuttering. Our study aimed at the investigation of phonological processing for emotional and neutral words in Children Who Stutter (CWS) by ERP.

    Materials and Methods

    Ten CWS were given 120 emotional and neutral words to read. Phonological processing was assessed by aloud reading task, while simultaneously ERP was recorded. The results were analyzed as behavioral (reaction time and accuracy) and electrophysiological (amplitude and topography).

    Results

    There were significant differences in reaction time and accuracy between positive, negative, and neutral words (P<0.05). The electrophysiological data analysis showed significant differences for a minimum of amplitude in the left frontal area, for a maximum of amplitude in the right temporal area, and peak to peak distance in the left frontal area (P<0.05). Visual inspection suggested that recorded fluctuations have a bigger amplitude range for neutral words in all brain regions, except prefrontal, frontal and right frontal.

    Conclusion

    Valence would affect behavioral measures. Generally, emotion facilitates word processing by reducing activity in anterior brain areas in phonological processing time.

    Keywords: Phonological processing, Emotional content, Developmental stuttering, Persian, ERP
  • Nafiseh Mohammadkhani, Ramin Balouchy, Mohammadreza Ghasemian * Pages 151-158
    Introduction

    In examining the factors affecting sports injuries, the emphasis is always on physical variables, while cognitive and psychological characteristics can also be effective. Hence, the present study aimed to investigate the relationship between sustained attention as a neurocognitive function and landing error as a mechanical factor associated with lower limb injuries.

    Materials and Methods

    44 female basketball players aged 18-25 years at the national league level participated in this study. The participants were assessed using the continuous performance test, and their landing-jumping was evaluated by the landing error scoring system in two conditions of high and low cognitive load.

    Results

    The results showed that people’s landing errors increased significantly as a result of increased cognitive needs (P=0.0001). Also, the findings revealed a positive correlation between omission and commission errors with landing error scores in both low and high cognitive load conditions (P<0.05).

    Conclusion

    Sustained attention could predict the landing error score that is considered a key risk factor of lower limb injuries. It is recommended that multiple cognitive and physical assessments be used to identify athletes at risk of injury. Hence, cognitive enhancement protocols may be effective along with physical preparation programs.

    Keywords: Cognitive functions, Attention, Sport injuries
  • Shilan Sohrabi, Mohammad Rahimi, Mojtaba Babaei-Mobarakeh, Hashem Piri * Pages 159-168
    Introduction

    Upper Crossed Syndrome (UCS) is a combination of forward head, rounded shoulder, and hyperkyphosis deformities. Yoga is a non-competitive physical exercise with the potential to correct postural imbalances in the human body. Iyengar yoga is a form of Hatha yoga.

    Materials and Methods

    The purpose of present study was to evaluate the effect of Iyengar yoga with an emphasis on spine and shoulder exercises on the UCS in middle-aged women. In this quasi-experimental applied research, 15 subjects were purposefully recruited out of middle-aged women affected with UCS. The participants performed Iyengar yoga exercises with an emphasis on the spine and shoulder. The photogrammetry method was used to measure UCS.

    Results

    At the end of 8 weeks exercises, there was a significant increase in the cervical (P<0.001) and shoulder angles (P<0.005), and a significant decrease in thoracic flexion angle (P<0.001).

    Conclusion

    All relevant coaches and therapists are recommended considering Iyengar yoga as an alternative for training programs in middle-aged women affected by UCS.

    Keywords: Iyengar, Syndrome, Exercise
  • Fatemeh Ghasemi Dehcheshmeh*, Ali Amiri, Nader Maroufi, Aliashraf Jamshidi, Shohreh Jalaei Pages 169-176
    Introduction

    Knee joint injuries usually occur in a short time, so analyzing the mechanism and process of this short time can be helpful to prevent similar injuries. This study aimed to determine and compare the reaction time of knee muscles and investigate the effect of knee position and perturbation direction on the reaction time of knee muscles in response to horizontal rotational perturbation applied to lower leg from support surface area.

    Materials and Methods

    A total of 30 healthy women volunteers were received ±35 degrees of horizontal rotational perturbation and speed of 120 degrees per second from the sole while standing on the right leg in four conditions (external versus internal rotation of surface while the knee was in both extension and flexion position). Electromyography of knee muscles (vastus medialis and lateralis, medial and lateral hamstring and medial and lateral gastrocnemius) was measured to study the reaction time.

    Results

    The reaction time of knee muscles during the perturbation was relatively long in this study (124 to 151 ms). It seems that muscles are recruited simultaneously in most conditions except in external rotation perturbation, with extension knee that the internal gastrocnemius muscle had significantly less delay time than the internal hamstring (P<0.05) and external quadriceps (P<0.05). The results show that most of these muscles do not react selectively and dependently on perturbation direction and knee position in response to horizontal rotational perturbation.

    Conclusion

    In this study, little difference was seen in the reaction time of most knee muscles in all conditions. Thus in response to this type of perturbation, the knee muscles showed co-contraction.

    Keywords: Rotational perturbation, Reaction time, Knee joint, Support surface
  • Mehran Soleimani, Rahim Yousefi*, Samira Ghazanfarianpour Pages 177-190
    Introduction

    In recent decades, researchers in the field of creativity, have become interested in recognizing the factors associated with the growth and development of creativity in children. Therefore, the purpose of this descriptive, correlational study is to detect the role of intelligence profiles and executive functions (selective attention, switching) in predicting creativity components.

    Materials and Methods

    The statistical population included kids aged 13-15 years living in Isfahan City, Iran in 2015, and so 150 kids were selected by purposive sampling method. The study data were collected using the Delis–Kaplan Executive Function System (D-KEFS) CW simple Stroop test, Gardner’s multiple intelligence questionnaire, and Torrance’s creativity questionnaire, and analyzed by simultaneous multiple regression analysis and the Pearson correlation method in SPSS V. 22.

    Results

    There were significant positive relationships between intrapersonal intelligence and fluency component, as well as, between logical-mathematical intelligence and flexibility component. The results also showed a significant positive relationship between bodily-kinesthetic intelligence and naturalist intelligence with the originality component. There were positive and significant relationships between logical-mathematical, bodily-kinesthetic, intrapersonal, and naturalist intelligence with the elaboration component, as well as, between the selective attention and the fluency component.

    Conclusion

    The characteristics of intelligence and selective attention can predict the components of creativity

    Keywords: Creativity, Attention, Switching, Intelligence, Executive function
  • Zahra Tarkashvand, Belghis Rovshan*, Azar Mehri, Gholamhossein Karimi Doostan Pages 191-206
    Introduction

    The aims and the importance of the study: Regarding the importance of the object marker “râ” as one of the components of Persian sentences and its little investigation in aphasic Persian speakers, we decided to study its usage in the speech of aphasic patients with agrammatic Broca’s aphasia to know whether aphasic Persian speakers use “râ” in comparison to normal Persian speakers. The agrammatic aphasics are known for not using function words (like the object marker “râ”).

    Materials and Methods

    In this experimental-descriptive study, two groups were employed. In the first group, six Persian children with Broca’s aphasia participated as the experimental group. The general linguistic capabilities of these patients were evaluated with the Persian aphasic test by speech therapy specialists. In the second group, six Persian-speaking normal persons participated as the control group. Two similar tests were administered to the aphasic and control groups, inspired by Caplan et al. 's test, to know whether they use “râ”. As there was a difference between the two groups, 1-way ANOVA was utilized to see if this difference was statistically significant. To analyze linguistic data, the approaches of Garman, Saffran, Kolk, Friedman, and Dolfić and Fabijanić were applied.

    Results

    While the control group produced “râ” in all cases, the aphasic group never used it.

    Conclusion

    It seems that using content words (like “nouns and verbs”) may be more vital than using function words (like “râ”).

    Keywords: Broca’s aphasia, Agrammatism, The objectmarker “râ”