فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:17 Issue: 1, Summer 2020
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1399/09/11
  • تعداد عناوین: 24
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  • Mohammadreza Shakibi, Mina Mobasher*, Maryam Okhovati, Elham Iranmanesh, Elham Sharifpoor, Manzume Shamsi Meymandi, Mahmoodreza Dehghani Page 1
    Background

    Several research skills training courses are designed for both faculty members and students in educational and research institutions around the world.

    Objectives

    The current study aimed to design, implement, and evaluate a short-term research skills training course for faculty members of Kerman University of Medical Sciences.

    Methods

    The current scholarship study was conducted in three stages, in 2017. The first stage comprised of a comparative study needs assessment, and course design. The training course was conducted with the participation of 30 faculty members and the teaching of 10 experienced professors. Participants were evaluated through practical work and homework. Instructors were evaluated by participants using survey forms. The course was evaluated through interviews with several participants and professors.

    Results

    After eight months of research and holding 16 sessions (which each took between 2 to 4 hours), a course with three main modules was designed in 2017. Instructors used appropriate teaching methods, including interaction with participants, problem-solving, discussing, teamwork, and practicing at home. According to the results of the evaluation, the content of the course was appropriate for the research activities of participants. Besides, they believed that the instructors were among the strengths of the course.

    Conclusion

    Certainly, increasing research skills of faculty members will lead to better guidance of assistants and qualitative improvement of research conducted by students

    Keywords: Training, Research skills, Faculty, Medical
  • Roghaye Ershad Sarabi, Maryam Salmani*, Elham Danesh, Arash Farvahari Page 2
    Background

    The proper health worker-patient communication is one of the main factors that affect patients’ satisfaction and improve healthcare outcomes.

    Objectives

    The current study aimed at comparing the effect of the two widely used teaching methods of role-playing and lecturing on learning the communication skills among health workers of Kerman health centers in Iran.

    Methods

    The current intervention study included all health workers in Kerman City as the statistical population of whom 120 selected by the census method as the study samples were randomly assigned to three groups of 40 subjects. The first group was trained by role-playing and the second group by lecturing; the third group, as control, received no training. All the subjects completed the Barton standard relationship communication skills questionnaire before and after the intervention. Considering the non-normal distribution of data, the nonparametric Wilcoxon test was used. The data were then analyzed in SPSS software.

    Results

    The mean age of the subjects was 38.54±8.29 years, and 46.7% of them had a high school diploma; 86.7% were married, and 74.2% were females. Based on the findings, the average score of communication skills in the role-playing group increased from 2.90 to 4.29 after the intervention, which was statistically significant (P <0.001).

    Conclusion

    The average score of communication skills (i e, verbal, listening, and feedback skills) in the role-playing group was higher than those of the lecturing and control groups. Therefore, it can be concluded that the role-playing method can be useful in teaching communication skills.

    Keywords: Role-playing, Lecturing, Communication Skills, Learning, Health Worker
  • Reza Abbasi, Ahmad Raeesi, Sahar Zare* Page 3
    Background

    E-learning is one of the new methods of education that helps to increase people’s knowledge and performance by using new technologies.

    Objectives

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the attitude of graduate and postgraduate students of Kerman University of Medical Sciences toward using e-learning technology.

    Methods

    This cross-sectional study was carried out among graduate and postgraduate students of Kerman University of Medical Sciences in autumn 2017. The data were collected by a researcher-made questionnaire whose validity and reliability was verified (α = 0.82). Data were analyzed using descriptive and analytical tests (including t-test, ANOVA, and Spearman correlation) to investigate the relationship between the mean score of e-learning usefulness and students’ demographic information in SPSS software.

    Results

    About 80% of e-learning students found it a good tool for the exchange of information and educational content between faculty and students at different universities and more than 40% believed that e-learning could improve the quality of education. About 57% of the participants were interested in using the technology. More than 70% of the students reported e-learning to be useful. Also, there was a significant relationship between the mean score of the usefulness of e-learning with age (P = 0.049), computer use skill (P = 0.025), and mobile use skill (P

    Keywords: Electronic learning, Online education, Perspective, Students
  • Daryosh Gholipour Mofrad Dashtaki, Aeen Mohammadi*, Mitra Zolfaghari, Sakineh Imani, Shahram Tahmasebian Page 4
    Background

    Nowadays, several studies have been performed on the factors affecting the effectiveness of virtual education. One of the characteristics of learners is their different learning styles.

    Objectives

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between learning style and the level of satisfaction and usage of e-learning facilities in medical students.

    Methods

    This cross-sectional and retrospective (ex post facto) study was performed among medical, public health, and operating room students of Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences in 2017. We redesigned their courses to be delivered in the blended method, so that teachers used a Learning Management System (LMS) in addition to traditional teaching. Information about learning styles was collected using Kolb’s questionnaire, satisfaction level evaluated with a researcher made questionnaire and use of e-learning was examined by checking system loggings. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA, Tukey’s post hoc, Welch’s ANOVA and X2 tests in SPSS software.

    Results

    Students’ satisfaction with e-content in diverging learning style was higher (P = 0.032), but there was no significant relationship between learning style and demographic characteristics and total average mark. Also, there was no significant difference in the amount of using e-learning facilities between different learning style groups (P = 0.256).

    Conclusion

    It seems that using virtual learning facilities and considering the type of learning style in students can increase their satisfaction.

    Keywords: Personal Satisfaction, e-Learning, Learning, Students, Education
  • Raika Jamali, Neda Moslemi, Mahboobeh Khabaz Mafinejad*, Maryam Alizadeh, Reza Shariat Moharari Page 5
    Background

    There is a paucity of literature regarding the medical students’ perspectives on web-based training of clinical reasoning.

    Objectives

    This study aimed to describe the implementation of a web-based training course of clinical reasoning for medical students and to evaluate their satisfaction with the program.

    Methods

    This cross-sectional study was conducted at the Tehran University of Medical Sciences in 2018. Fifty internal medicine interns were consecutively enrolled. The study consisted of two phases. The first phase focused on the development of a web-based training module of clinical reasoning. The second focused on evaluating the trainee’s satisfaction with the virtual course. The educational content of the program was prepared by an expert panel and incorporated in a web-based educational tool designed for virtual training purposes. The students’ satisfaction with the virtual course was assessed using a questionnaire. Each item of the questionnaire was scored from 0 (0) to 1.5 (100). The content validity of the questionnaire determined by an expert panel, and its reliability was measured.

    Results

    The mean score of each item of the questionnaire ranged from 77.3 to 85.3 which showed that the participants agreed with the items of the questionnaire. Also, Cronbach’s alpha coefficient was excellent in nine items of the questionnaire, good in four items, and acceptable in three items. The intraclass correlation coefficient was also estimated as 0.98.

    Conclusions

    The participants were satisfied with the web-based training tool for clinical reasoning, used in the present study. The developed questionnaire also showed good validity and reliability for the assessment of trainees’ satisfaction with the web-based training module of clinical reasoning.

    Keywords: Logic, Distance Education, Assessment, Medical Student
  • Amin Beigzadeh, Nikoo Yamani*, Peyman Adibi, Kambiz Bahaadinbeigy Page 6
    Background

    In order to improve clinical education, after evaluating the current situation and identifying the shortcomings and problems, it is essential to find strategies to change and improve the situation. This results in planning an efficient clinical education program and achieving the educational goals.

    Objectives

    This study aimed at identifying strategies for clinical medical education in Iran.

    Methods

    This systematic review was conducted in 2017 to find strategies for clinical medical education in Iran. Bedside teaching, ward round teaching, ward round, teaching round, training round, grand round, clinical teaching, ambulatory education, and bedside round were the keywords searched in both Persian- and English-language databases. Related articles were carefully reviewed and the key information was extracted. Finally, the data were analyzed in MAXQDA software version 10.

    Results

    After retrieving the related articles, the title and abstract of 593 papers were reviewed, and after excluding the irrelevant and duplicate ones, full-texts of 101 articles were reviewed based on the study inclusion and exclusion criteria. The strategies for clinical medical education in Iran were classified into five categories including infrastructures, areas of clinical education, educational planning, and clinical teachers and students.

    Conclusion

    Improving the quality of clinical education and the effectiveness of the educational system depends on the identification of appropriate strategies. The identified strategies pave the way for achieving targeted educational goals.

    Keywords: Strategies, Clinical Education, Iran, Systematic Review
  • Azadeh Horri, Sara Amanpour*, Farzaneh Jalali, Mahshad Masoumi, Sorena Fardisi Page 7
    Background

    Different study skills have been developed and introduced, although most learners are apparently unaware of them.

    Objectives

    This study was conducted to investigate the frequency of using different study skills among undergraduate and postgraduate students.

    Method

    The study population consisted of 201 undergraduate and 45 postgraduate students of Kerman Dental School in 2016-2017, who were selected using the random stratified sampling method. A questionnaire composed of four questions used to collect data. The questionnaire was a modified version of the one used by Karpiacke et al. The frequency of using different study skills (i.e., re-studying, re-writing, using flashcards, studying in groups, memorizing, teaching content, creating headings, self-testing, highlighting, finding connections, and finding real examples) was asked in the first question. Students’ preparation for exams and students’ satisfaction with their study skills were asked in the next questions. Data was analyzed using the chi-square test in SPSS23.

    Results

    Of the 246 participants, 72 (35.8%) undergraduate students and 20 (44.4%) postgraduate students were male. The frequency of using different study skills was the same between the male and female undergraduate students, except for re-writing (P=0.024), studying in groups (P=0.018), and creating headings (P=0.018) which were higher in the female undergraduate students. However, there was no significant difference between male and female postgraduate students in terms of the frequency of using different study skills.

    Conclusion

    The most and least commonly used strategies by the undergraduate and postgraduate students were re-studying and using flashcards, respectively. Only 30.3% of the undergraduate and 24.4% of the postgraduate students used the self-testing strategy.

    Keywords: Study skills, study strategies, students, dental school
  • Fatemeh Alaee Karahroudy, Effat Sheikhbahaeddinzadeh Page 8
    Background

    One of the most important tasks of a university is to assess their weaknesses and build upon their strengths. As the education and skill level of psychiatric nursing graduates in Iran is often unpredictable, we hope to improve the current curriculum by comparing it to a successful educational program.

    Objective

    The current study compared the psychiatric nursing curriculum in Iran with that of Canada in order to assess differences and suggest improvements.

    Methods

     This is a descriptive comparative study conducted in 2018. In order to obtain the required information on the psychiatric nursing field, we utilized the Iran Health Ministry website and several Canadian universities offering psychiatric nursing graduate programs. Data was collected through a comprehensive internet search using databases in both Persian and English. We utilized the four steps of the comparison model, also known as Bereday’s four-stage method. Comparative analysis was conducted on the following key areas: the time of starting to approve M.Sc. course, mission, goals, entry requirements, number and similarity of units (theory/practical), and the duration of completing course.

    Results

    The University in Canada has been established earlier than Iran. Psychiatric nursing programs in both countries have defined missions, goals, job responsibilities. The educational program at Brandon University is focused on community needs. It is possible to complete their program on a part- or full-time basis. Additionally, some courses are optional Admission requirements for Brandon University in Canada include practical psychiatric nursing care experience and a relevant degree; however, in Iran the requirements do not include any background or practical experience. The requirements are limited to a bachelor’s degree in nursing and an entrance exam. The program primarily focuses on theory, and was only offered on a full–time basis.

    Conclusion

    Comparing the two curriculums, we noted that the Iran educational program still has weaknesses. In order to improve the quality of education, it is suggested that students volunteer to have psychiatric nursing care experience. The curriculum should also include administration, education, and practice. Additionally, a more flexible curriculum should be offered, one that is based on the needs of Iranian society.
     

    Keywords: Curriculum, Master, Mental Health Nursing, Comparative Study, Canada, Iran
  • Hakimeh Ansari, Behnam Talebi*, Asadollah Khadivi Page 9
    Background

    Development of problem-solving skills through policy-making and promotion of physician education can be achieved by establishing specific criteria for policy-making and evaluation of educational policies.

    Objectives

    This study aimed to investigate the challenges of assessing medical education policies.

    Methods

    In this systematic review, the Sample–Phenomenon of Interest–Design–Evaluation– Research (SPIDER) model was used to extract data. Scientific databases were searched to find articles in Persian or English language, assessing policy-making and policies in the Iranian medical education during 2010-2019. Of 485 domestic and international studies, 447 studies were excluded, based on the title or abstract, and 38 full-text articles were selected for further investigation. Finally, 11 relevant articles were reviewed as the final sample.

    Results

    The challenges of educational policies in medical education were determined, based on the descriptive content analysis of the reviewed articles. These challenges were classified, based on the policy analysis steps. The main challenges of assessing medical education policies in selected studies were related to setting the agenda, setting policies, policy selection, policy execution, and finally, policy analysis in medical education.

    Conclusions

    Based on the present results, policy-makers can incorporate the conceptual model of this study, which was based on an established theoretical framework and previous research, in the process of policy-making.

    Keywords: Evaluation, Challenge, Policy, Medical Education, Agenda
  • Sayyed MohammadHossein Mousavi Nasab*, Mahboobe Shamsi Nezhad Page 10
    Background

    Educational situations greatly affect the mental growth and health of individuals, as well as their psychological resources. Of the psychological resources involved in education, academic self-efficacy, academic motivation, and optimism are noteworthy.

    Objectives

    The present study aimed at comparing academic self-efficacy, academic motivation, and optimism among professional doctorate students at Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.

    Methods

    A cross-sectional study was conducted on all the first- and fifth-year medical, dentistry, and pharmacy students of Kerman University of Medical Sciences in the academic year 2018-19 as the statistical population, of whom 266 subjects were selected by simple random cluster sampling. Data were collected using the Vallerand academic motivation and the Owen and Froman college academic self-efficacy scales, as well as the life orientation test (Scheier and Carver) questionnaires. MANOVA was used to analyze the data.

    Results

    Dental students had the highest level of self-efficacy (P=0.007). Also, the mean scores of academic self-efficacy (P = 0.001) and optimism (P = 0.03) were higher among the fifth-year students. On the other hand, in the interaction of the study field with the entry year, self-efficacy was significant (P = 0.001). There was no significant difference in the academic motivation among the students of different study fields (P = 0.16) and according to the entry years. (P = 0.13)

    Conclusion

    Dental students choose their field of study with more interest, which further maintains and increases their academic motivation during the seven years of academic education. On the other hand, interest in the field of study is one of the variables influencing the maintenance and increase of the self-efficacy construct over time.

    Keywords: Academic Motivation, Academic Self-efficacy, Optimism, Medical Students
  • Seyed Saeid Seyedian, Abdolhussein Shakurnia Page 11
    Background

    Medical residents choose to pursue their careers based on multiple internal and external factors. These factors, in turn, affect not only their personal future but the overall status of the health care system in every region.

    Objectives

    To determine the factors affecting radiology residents' choice of specialty career choice.

    Methods

    This research was a cross-sectional study. The statistical population was all radiology residents (N=48) of Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical sciences studying during the academic year 2018-2019. The data were collected by a researcher-made questionnaire. The validity of the questionnaire was confirmed by the experts, and its reliability was calculated using Cronbach's alpha (α = 0.71). Data were analyzed using descriptive and analytical tests (Mann-Whitney U test) by SPSS version 18.

    Results

    The mean age of participants was 30.7±2.6 years. The most important factors influencing the choice of radiology specialty were: “Acquiring knowledge and competency for better treatment” (mean 4.18 out of 5), “convenience and lack of emergency” (3.90), and “good career future" (3.88), respectively; While “family and friends' advice” (3.18) and “possibility of continuing education and fellowship” (3.07) were the least important factors. “Higher-income” was significantly more important in the specialty choice among male residents (p < 0.05).

    Conclusion

    This study provided valuable information on the factors influencing the choice of radiology specialty. Understanding specific factors that influence decisions to enter the specialty of radiology may provide proper guidance for human resources planners to consider the needs of the community’s health system.

    Keywords: Medicine, Residents, Attitude, Specialty Selection, Radiology
  • Fatemeh Fathian, MohammadReza Shakibi, Majid Fasihi Harandi, Habibeh Ahmadipour, Mina Mobasher Page 12
    Background

    A person’s appearance and his/her adherence to the dress code standards are essential in the medical profession.

    Objectives

    This study aimed to investigate patients’ and physicians’ viewpoints on interns’ professional outfits.

    Methods

    This is a cross-sectional study, with the participation of patients and physicians of general departments in a teaching hospital of Kerman University of Medical Sciences in 2018. The patients and physicians were selected through convenience and census method, respectively. To examine the participants’ perspectives on the professional dressing, six schematic images, three for males (1, 2, 3) and three for females (A, B, C) were designed. Data were collected through a structured interview in this way, the schematic images were displayed to the participants and they were asked to express their perspective using a series of questions. Data analyzed using SPSS version20.

    Results

    Totally, 381 patients and 34 physicians participated. The majority of the participants preferred the professional outfit A for female interns and the professional outfit 1 for male interns in response to questions regarding the knowledge, responsibility, patient-care, hygiene, reliability of diagnosis and treatment of diseases, giving emergency consultations, the possibility for discussing sexual and psychiatric problems, as well as life problems. The physicians and patients had the same perspective except for the item about knowledge. (p <0.05).

    Conclusion

    Our study shows that the outfits of physicians were considered by the participants in forming an effective relationship between the doctor and the patient, and the amount of patients' trust. Therefore, training interns for dressing professionally and complying with the necessary standards should be considered.

    Keywords: Professional Outfits, Hospitals, Physicians, Patients, Profession
  • Behshid Garrusi, Ali Amirkafi, Saeedeh Garousi Page 13
    Background

    interprofessional education (IPE) is an educational method, in which students learn two or more specific professions together, from each other, and about each other IPE for health students has been proposed as an alternative to conventional teaching methods.

    Objectives

    The aim of this study was to investigate the viewpoint of faculty members and graduates of Kerman University of Medical SciencesregardingIPEand interprofessional teamwork and determine the characteristics affecting their views on IPEand interprofessional teamwork.

    Methods

    This cross-sectional study was done on faculty members and graduates of various fields of medical sciences working in Kerman in 2018. Samples were selected by the quota sampling method. To collect data, questionnaires of "Attitude TowardsInterprofessional Health Care Teams" and "Attitude Towards Interprofessional Education" were used. Data were analyzed using SPSS software.

    Results

    More than 90% of the participants had a good attitude towards teamwork and IPE. There was no significant relationship between work experience and attitude towards teamwork (P = 0.15), but there was a significant and inverse relationship between work experience and attitudes about interprofessional learning (r = -0.43, P =0.007). Those working in non-governmental jobs showed a better attitude towards teamwork and interprofessional learning (P <0.001).

    Conclusion

    Determining the views of faculty members and graduates of Kerman University of Medical Sciences regarding IPE and its influencing factors is helpful for educational planning and development of educational programs in various fields. Also, for better planning, educational needs explained by these people should be considered. Planning and developing an educational program in this regard can lead to improving the quality of health services.

    Keywords: Interprofessional Education, Interprofessional Teamwork, Perspective, FacultyMembers, Graduates
  • Aida Rahmanian, Esmat Nouhi Page 14
    Background

    The formation of small groups and education with an active learning approach is among the basics of problem-based learning (PBL).

    Objectives

    The present study aimed at determining the effect of the PBL approach with virtualsmall groups on academic achievement and participatory learning in midwifery students of Islamic Azad University, Jahrom Branch, Iran.

    Methods

    The present interventional study was performed on 50 midwifery students of Islamic Azad University, Jahrom Branch, studying at internal and gynecologic surgery course in the academic year of 2018-19. The subjects were randomly assigned to the intervention and control groups. The intervention and control groups underwent PBL and the conventional methods, respectively. The academic success of the participants and the active and collaborative learning was assessed. Data were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney U and Wilcoxon tests in SPSS.

    Results

    There was a significant increase in the mean score of academic achievement in the intervention group compared to controls (P <0.05). The active and collaborative learning (ACL) score of the intervention group was above average and significantly higher compared to the control group (P=0.03).

    Conclusion

    PBL virtual with small groups, in addition to academic success, affects ACL. This technology can be used for educational purposes, such as participation and interaction in small groups in the PBL.

    Keywords: Virtual Education, Problem-based Education, Academic Success, Active andCollaborative Learning
  • Mahnaz Saadatbakht, Atefeh Ahmadi, Ali Mehdizadeh Zare Ansari, Mansooreh Azizzade Forouzi, Yunes Jahani Page 15
    Background

    It seems that by improvement of communication skills among midwifery students, their sense of belonging in the medical setting increases.

    Objectives

    The current study aimed to investigate the effect of group counseling with emphasis on communication skills on midwifery students’ sense of belonging in clinical settings.

    Methods

    This interventional study with the pretest-posttest control group design was conducted on 78 midwifery students of Kerman University of Medical Sciences, in 2016. The participants were selected using the census method. Of the total study population, sixty students with low level of mental health were screened using Goldberg's General Health Questionnaire and randomly included in intervention and a control group. They filled out Belongingness Scale–Clinical Placement Experience (BES–CPE) as the pretest. The intervention consisted of eight group counseling sessions (two 2-hour sessions per week) with emphasis on communication skills that were held in their faculty. The final sample included fifty two students filling out the posttest instruments. Data were analyzed using SPSS 22.

    Results

    There was no significant difference in terms of demographic factors between two groups. There was a significant difference between the groups in terms of total score (p <0.0001) as well as the self-esteem and self-efficacy subscales (p <0.05).

    Conclusion

    Sense of belonging in clinical settings is required for midwifery students so that they can improve their communication skills in such settings. Therefore, it is recommended to include programs in midwifery curricula in order to improve students’ sense of belonging by enhancing their communication skills.

    Keywords: Counseling, Belonging, Communication, Clinical, Midwifery, Students
  • Nazanin Jannati, Leila Ahmadian Page 16
    Background

    In peer teaching, students act as both teachers and learners. Peer teaching can be a useful way to learn courses in interdisciplinary fields of study.

    Objectives

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the viewpoint of health information technology students about learning through peer teaching.

    Methods

    This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2017 at Kerman University of Medical Sciences. Undergraduate students in the health information technology department using the peer teaching method participated. Data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire. The questionnaire consisting of 42 questions assesses students' attitudes toward peer teaching. It consisted of two categories: "learning improvement" and "students' satisfaction with the peer teaching." Data were analyzed using SPSS software.

    Results

    A total of 52 students participated in the study. Regarding learning improvement, the mean score of development of individual skills, improvement of students' learning, and improvement of peer performance were 3.43 ±1.05, 3.34 ±1.08, and 3.37 ±1.03, respectively. In terms of student satisfaction the mean score of interaction between learner and teacher, knowledge transferred to the student, and the class conditions were 3.52 ±1.10, 3.31 ±1.09, and 3.21 ±1.15, respectively. Students who attended more in peer classes were more satisfied and their learning improved (P<0.05). There was no significant relationship between age, gender, and the number of passed semesters with students' satisfaction and learning (P>0.05).

    Conclusion

    From the students' point of view, peer teaching can improve their learning. Also, the students were satisfied with the training provided by their peers. Peer teaching can be a complement to the teacher-centered method by providing a positive experience.

    Keywords: Peer Teaching, Peer Learning, Evaluation, Satisfaction
  • Hassan Jafaripour, Mahin Qomi, Zahra Moslemi, Seyed Abdullah Mahmoudi, Azam Moslemi Page 17
    Background

    Psychological hardiness as a protective factor plays an essential role in how students face academic challenges. Paying attention to academic enthusiasm and vitality due to their strong impact on various aspects of students' academic life is of great importance.

    Objectives

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between psychological hardiness and academic enthusiasm and vitality in students of Arak University of Medical Sciences.

    Methods

    This descriptive-correlational study was conducted in 2017-2018 on 341 students of Arak University of Medical Sciences selected by stratified random sampling based on gender. Data were collected using the Ahvaz Hardiness Inventory (AHI), Academic Enthusiasm Inventory developed by Fredricks et al., and Academic Vitality Scale. Data were analyzed using SPSS software.

    Results

    There was a negative and significant relationship between psychological hardiness and academic enthusiasm (r=-0.17, P=0.002) and vitality (r=-0.38, P=0.001). Also, a positive and significant relationship was observed between academic enthusiasm and academic vitality (r=0.15, P=0.008). There was a significant difference between the mean scores of academic vitality of male and female students.

    Conclusion

    In order to increase the quality of academic life of medical students, it is essential to teach the components of psychological hardiness, academic enthusiasm, and academic vitality to students.

    Keywords: Psychological Hardiness, Academic Enthusiasm, Academic Vitality
  • Farshid Chahartangi, Hamidreza Shoraka, Sakineh Sabzevari Page 18
    Background

    Time management and metacognitive strategies are the most important academic skills of students to achieve scientific success.

    Objectives

    The current study aimed at comparing the effect of the two widely used teaching methods, role-playing, and lecturing, on learning the communication skills among health workers of Kerman health centers in Iran, 2018.

    Methods

    This descriptive-analytical cross-sectional study was conducted in 2019 on 322 graduate students. The time-management questionnaire developed by Britton and Tesser and the Metacognitive Awareness Inventory Schraw and Dennison were used to collect data. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics (frequency, mean, and standard deviation) and Pearson correlation coefficient, and Multivariate Linear Regression by SPSS software.

    Results

    The mean score of time management in students was 5.24±32.41 (14-70) and the mean score of metacognitive strategies was 11.56±148.97 (52-260), which showed the -moderate level of students regarding these factors. A positive and significant relationship was observed between time management and metacognitive strategies (P <0.050).

    Conclusion

    Time management and metacognitive strategies of graduate students of Kerman University of Medical Sciences are at a moderate level. Due to the relationship between time management and metacognitive strategies, it is recommended to pay attention to metacognitive components in teaching and learning methods. It is also suggested to plan for the creativity and innovation of these students to use their ability to achieve organizational goals.

    Keywords: Time Management, Metacognitive Strategies, Graduate Students, KermanUniversity of Medical Sciences
  • Razieh Fayyaz, Badri Shah Talebi, Reza Ebrahimzadeh Page 19
    Background

    Faculty members are one of the most valuable vital factors of the universities. Therefore, paying attention to their empowerment is an inevitable necessity.

    Objectives

    The purpose of this study was to develop a model for empowerment of the faculty members of the Islamic Azad University.

    Methods

    This qualitative study was conducted using the grounded theory approach. Using the purposive sampling method, 13 faculty members of Islamic Azad University were selected and subjected to semi-structured interviews. Strauss and Corbin method was used to analyze the interviews in three stages of open, axial, and selective coding.

    Results

    Based on the obtained data, 11 main categories, and 29 subcategories were extracted as dimensions and components of the empowerment of the faculty members. The dimensions of the conceptual model of research were formed considering causal conditions, axial phenomena, contextual factors, intervening factors, strategies, and consequences.

    Conclusion

    Considering the position of faculty members in the development and effectiveness of the universities, it seems that the results of the present study can be useful in promoting the capabilities and competencies of faculty members.

    Keywords: Empowerment, Faculty Member, Effective Factors
  • Batool Ghorbani Yekta, Azar Doost Mohammadi, Tabassum Saeed Parvar Page 20
    Background

    It is nearly a century that psychologists strive to identify the predictors of academic achievement.

    Objectives

    The present study aimed at investigating the relationship between self-regulated learning, achievement motivation, and academic achievement, and obtaining results to create appropriate strategies to increase motivation and improve learning in students to help them with academic achievement and empowerment.

    Method

    The present cross-sectional study was conducted in the academic year of 2016-2017. A total of 190 students of Islamic Azad University, Tehran Medical Branch, were selected by the convenience sampling method and completed the motivated strategies for learning (MSLQ) and achievement motivation questionnaires. Data were analyzed using the Pearson correlation coefficient in SPSS.

    Results

    There was a significant relationship between achievement motivation and the components of self-efficacy, intrinsic goal orientation, help-seeking, and time management (P <0.001). Students getting higher scores on MSLQ also got higher scores on self-efficacy, time management, and intrinsic goal orientation (P <0.001).

    Conclusion

    According to the study results, to empower medical students in academic achievement, their self-efficacy, time management skills, and goal orientation should be improved.

    Keywords: Self-Regulated Learning, Achievement Motivation, Medical Students
  • Fatemeh Keshmiri, Seyedeh Elham Fazljoo Page 21
    Background

    Reflection plays an important role in in-depth learning. Reflective ability must develop among students of medical sciences.

    Objectives

    The aim of this study was the psychometric assessment of the Reflection in Learning Scale and evaluating this ability among nursing students.

    Methods

    This descriptive-analytical cross-sectional study was conducted on nursing students of Shahid Sadeghi University of Medical Sciences (Yazd, Iran) in 2019.The participants selected by the census. The research was conducted in two phases. In the first phase, the validity (qualitative and quantitative methods), Confirmatory factor analysis, and reliability of Reflection in Learning Scale were evaluated. In the second phase, the reflection in learning was assessed using this tool. Data were analyzed using descriptive and analytical tests by SPSS software.

    Results

    The content and face validity of the scale were confirmed. Internal consistency of the instrument was 0.92 using Cronbach's alpha coefficient and ICC of 0.90 determined. Confirmatory factor analysis revealed acceptable indices: goodness of fit index =0.89, standardized root mean square residual (SRMR) = 0.06, root mean square error of approximation = 0.18. Learners' reflection ability with a mean score of 4.37 ± 1.04 was at a moderate level.

    Conclusion

    The Persian version of Reflection in Learning Scale is a valid and reliable tool and can be used to assess reflection abilities in learners. Nursing students' reflection ability was at a moderate level. Therefore, planning to assess reflection ability in nursing education by the tool is recommended.

    Keywords: Reflection Ability, Learning, Validity, Reliability
  • AmirMohammad Salehi, MohammadMahdi Talimkhani, Mahnaz Khatiban, Ailin Talimkhani Page 22
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