فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:6 Issue: 1, Summer 2020
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1400/03/02
  • تعداد عناوین: 11
  • Samaneh Jafari Porzani, Masoumeh Eghtedari, Masoud Javanmardi *, Farzad Yousefi, MohammadReza Ganjali, Saman Hosseinkhani Pages 1-8

    Phenylalanine dehydrogenase (PheDH) which is categorized in oxidoreductase enzymescatalyzes the NAD+- dependent oxidative deamination of L-Phe to phenylpyruvate.This enzyme has widespread applications in industrial and medical fields such asdetermining the amount of phenylalanine for monitoring of phenylketonuria (PKU). Quantum dots (QDs) are known as semiconductors with many advantages including high photostability, unique optical characteristics, and symmetric emission spectrum.The protein-QD interactions have become an important interest due to its similarity with protein–ligand interactions. These interactions depend on many factors such as protein conformation and orientation and also can be lead to increase or decrease enzymatic activity due to NPs features.In this study, the interaction of B. badius Phenylalanine dehydrogenase (PheDH) and CdTe540 through examining of kinetic parameters of the enzyme for L-phenylalanine and L-tyrosine as substrateswereassessed to understand how this protein can interact with QD. After expression and purification of enzyme in prokaryotic E.coli BL21 host, kinetic parameters of the enzyme such as Km, Vmax, Kcat,Ki and Kcat/km values for L-Phenylalanine and L-tyrosine substrates in the presence and absence of CdTe540 were calculated. The results showed that CdTe could have an inhibitory effect on PheDH enzyme. Fluorescence spectroscopy demonstrated that the binding of QDs with enzyme induced conformational changes in the enzyme in the presence of CdTeQD. It was concluded that a comprehensive characterization of stability of enzyme bound QDs could be a necessary step in their potential use in biomedical fields.

    Keywords: Phenylalanine dehydrogenase, Quantum dots, CdTe, Specificity
  • Samaneh Zareian, Adeleh Divsalar *, Saeed Irian, Fatemeh Zarein Pages 9-16
    Vitamin E is a generic term for eight different molecules of tocopherols and tocotrienols including α, β, γ and δ tocopherol and the corresponding tocotrienols. It is a fat soluble vitamin, and its deficiency is associated with risks of cardiovascular, degenerative and several other diseases. This vitamin acts as a lipid-soluble antioxidant with key roles in protecting cell membrane against damaging free radicals. Encapsulation is one of the best methods for delivery of this vitamin as a nutritional supplement or drug delivery system with a good efficiency. There are two main methods for encapsulation: Biopolymer and lipid base methods. Starch, cellulose, pectin, guar gum, chitosan, alginate, dextran, are among biopolymers usedin biopolymer and lipid based methods. There are different paths such as emulsions and nanoemulsion, solid-lipid nanoparticles, nanoliposomes, nanocochleates, archaeosomes and micro and nanoparticles. Among these, nanoemulsion has the highest encapsulation efficiency of about 99/65. In this review, the methods for encapsulation of this vitamin will be discussed.
    Keywords: Vitamin E, Enrichment, food, encapsulation
  • Lale Feizi, AliReza Saeedinia *, Mehdi Zeinoddini, Reza Gheitasi Pages 17-24

    Glargine insulin, as a recombinant human insulin analog, is the first long-acting insulin analog. In glargine insulin structure, the asparagine amino acid is replaced with glycine amino acid at the end of the carboxyl chain A, and also two arginine amino acids are added to the end of the carboxyl chain B. The aim of this study is to design, clone and express the human modified proinsulin analog in Escherichia coli and purify it to produce glargine insulin. Initially, the nucleotide sequence of human proinsulin analog was designed based on the E. coli codon usage and Gene Bank data, and then syntactically constructed and cloned into the pBHA vector. Then, the modified proinsulin fragment was sub-cloned into the expression vector pET-21b(+) and the recombinant vector pET21b-proInsG was transformed into the E. coli BL21(DE3). Then, induction of expression in cells containing recombinant vector was done by IPTG. After the evaluation of expression, purification of recombinant protein was performed by using a nickel affinity chromatography and a batch system. Synthesis and cloning of modified proinsulin fragment and construction of recombinant vector were confirmed by DNA sequencing, specific PCR amplification and restriction enzyme mapping. The expression of recombinant protein was approximately 40% in mass form that was confirmed by using SDS-PAGE and western blot techniques. The purification of the recombinant modified proinsulin was successfully done with a purity of about 80%. This modified recombinant proinsulin protein can be used for efficient production of the insulin glargine analogue.

    Keywords: E. coli, Insulin glargine, Modified proinsulin, Overexpression, Purification
  • Mehdi Zeinoddini *, Afshin Samiminemati, Shadab Jabarzade Pages 25-32
    Genome-based and molecular identification of pathogens is a common and standard method for various microorganisms that are critical for controlling human diseases. In this field, preparation of standard genome/sequence is very important for setting up experiments and using it for molecular detection. For this prospect, microbial enrichment using its culture is necessary and for the most dangerous pathogens, laboratories with a high level of biological safety are very essential. Furthermore, the lack of access to some pathogenic genomes or standard strains in many countries is a major challenge for an accurate diagnosis. One intelligent and scientific strategy to solve this problem is using synthetic or artificial positive control constructs, which are utilized to ensure designed primers, probes, signal amplification and other characters of reaction works. This study reviews the design and development of positive control constructs for accurate and standard detection of dangerous pathogens for use in the manufacture and development of molecular diagnostic kits.
    Keywords: Detection, construct, Pathogen, Diagnostic kit
  • Mandana Givian, Maryam Ghobeh *, Parichehreh Yaghmaei Pages 33-45
    Fatty liver contains a range of clinical symptoms, including the accumulation of fat in the liver cells and it varies from a simple steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and cirrhosis. Using natural therapies has always been a great concern for such health-related diseases. Herein, nerol, as a natural monoterpene, was applied to treat nonalcoholic fatty liver-induced NMRI (Naval Medical Research Institute) mice. The assessment included histological studies of the liver along with measurement of biochemical parameters, including insulin, glucose, HDL-C (high-density lipoprotein cholesterol), LDL-C (low-density lipoprotein cholesterol), Aspartate transaminase (AST), Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), Alkaline phosphatase (ALP), SOD (superoxide dismutase), and catalase. The results demonstrated that treatment with nerol (90 mg/kg) modified the fatty liver indices by significantly reducing the levels of triglyceride, cholesterol, LDL-C, glucose, and insulin (p <0.001) whereas this treatment notably increased the levels of liver antioxidant enzymes, and HDL-C (p <0.001). Nerol administration also improved the status of the liver tissue of the fatty liver condition. Therefore, nerol, in a dose-dependent mode, showed capability of improving nonalcoholic fatty liver and could offer a reliable remedy.
    Keywords: Nerol, Nonalcoholic fatty liver, Lipid profiles, Antioxidant, liver enzymes, Glucose
  • Zeinab Emruzi, Monavar Keshavarz, Dariush Gholami *, Saeed Aminzadeh, AliReza Noori Pages 46-55

    Chitinase is one of the essential enzymes that have broad applications in industrial, agriculture, medical through biodegradation of chitin and hence are in demand. Chitinase-producing Serratia marcescens B4A was cultured in the medium containing chitin and then was purified through ammonium sulfate precipitation and DEAE ion-exchange chromatography. The purity of chitinase was determined by one and two- dimension sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.


    Its optimum activity was at pH 7.0 and temperature 50 °C and was stable at 90 °C for 60 min and over a pH range from 5.0 to 8.0. The Km, Vmax, kcat, and kcat/Km values were 3.72 mg/ml, 0.19 U/ml, 134.75 min-1, and 36.17 mg.min-1.ml-1, respectively that showed a high affinity of chitinase to the substrate and exhibited excellent catalytic efficiency. Investigation of irreversible thermo-inactivation of chitinase at a range of 60 to 90 °C revealed a high value of ΔG# with the low value of ΔH# and a negative value of ΔS#.


    These characteristics of Serratia marcescens B4A chitinase showed high tolerance to thermal denaturation. Therefore, it may have a positive impact on industrial, antifungal applications, and biodegrade chitin waste. The present study is the first report on the thermodynamic and kinetic characterization of chitinase from Serratia marcescens B4A.

    Keywords: chitinase, Serratia marcescens B4A, Purification, Kinetic characterization, Thermodynamic parameters
  • Amirhossain Mirzaghasab, Garshasb Rigi * Pages 56-63
    Cancer is one of the major causes of mortality in the world, and breast cancer is one of the most common types of cancer affecting adult women. Various neurotransmitters may performed to tumor development through stimulation, migration, or metastasis. One of these neurotransmitters is dopamine, also involved in cell proliferation. Some neurotransmitters, dopamine in particular, can cause T-cells to proliferate and secrete cytokines. In this study, the expression levels of D2-like dopamine receptors were assessed in breast cancer tissues. Total mRNA was extracted from breast cancer tissues and tumor margin samples and reverse-transcribed into complementary DNA (cDNA). Internal control samples were also included prior to real-time PCR, and the results were statistically analyzed. The expression levels of the three genes DRD2, DRD3 and DRD4 were significantly increased in breast cancer tissue compared to those of the normal tissue, in the order of DRD2,DRD4 and DRD3. The correlation between dopamine receptors and breast cancer is discussed.
    Keywords: Breast cancer, Dopamine receptors, Gene expression
  • Masumeh Goodarzi, Majid Pornour, Anoshirvan Kazemnejad, Bijan Ranjbar * Pages 64-75
    It is well known that many biomolecules are chiral and their structure can be monitored by chiroptical spectroscopy. Nevertheless, their analysis in the natural environment of biofluids remains challenging. Recently, little efforts have been made to study biofluids by chiroptical techniques and find a specific signature for healthy/diseased conditions. Blood plasma can be a great subject for this line of examinations. In this study real clinical human blood plasma samples from 46 subjects were analyzed using CD spectropolarimetry to discriminate between type 2 diabetic patients and the control group. For more a challenging condition, patients were selected with type 2 diabetic and ulcer. The results showed a significant decrease in the total α-helical conformation of plasmatic proteins obtained from patients. Also total plasmatic protein content varied with disease condition. As a result, circular dichroism was useful to discriminate between the diabetic patients and the control group, and even between the diabetic patients with or without ulcer. Results of this study encourage possibility of using this technique as a useful supportive tool to conventional diagnostic methods.
    Keywords: Biofluid, Human blood plasma, Chiroptical spectroscopy, Circular dichroism (CD), Type2 diabetes, ulcer, Diagnosis
  • Milad Rasouli, Nadia Fallah, Adeleh Divsalar * Pages 76-86
    Cancer and wound healing lead to high mortality and healthcare problems. To provide therapeutic insights into oncotherapy and wound healing challenges, there is an urgent need for novel technologies. The use of physical plasma for medical purposes is known as medical plasma and this field consists of plasma physics, biochemistry, biology, and medicine. Plasma medicine is one of the most innovative and emerging areas and provides a promising strategy for a variety of diseases including wound healing, cancer therapy, biofilm removal, virus inactivation, dentistry, and ophthalmology. The discovery of the multimodal nature of gas plasma (GP) for widespread medical applications revealed that its efficacy is related to the reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, electric field, and UV radiation. The combination of these agents brings about a unique platform for medicine. Here, along with summarizing the nature of GP, wound healing, and cancer, we review some of the latest work regarding the application of GP for oncotherapy and wound healing.
    Keywords: Gas plasma, Plasma medicine, Oncotherapy, Wound healing
  • Garshasb Rigi, Mozhgan Harfsheno*, Mozhgan Barati, Akram Roohandeh Pages 87-94

    Early detection of trisomy 18 during pregnancy and its termination can prevent disabled infants’birth who are a burden on the family and society. The aim of this study was to identify high-risk individuals by performing screening tests in the first trimester of pregnancy and to identify these cases by examining the karyotype. The present prospective study was conducted on 2421 pregnant women with agegestation between 11+0 and 13+6 weeks who were referred to Narges Genetics Laboratory in Ahvaz from 2016 to 2017. This screening was done using a combination of maternal age and fetal nuchal translucency and crown–rump length, biochemical markers serum free β-human chorionic gonadotrophin, and pregnancy associated plasma protein A.Thereafter, Regression and Chi-square test were performed to analyze the obtained data. Screening tests in the first trimester of pregnancy, 160 cases were included in the high-risk group. After performing karyotype examinations, it was found that 15 cases had trisomy 18. Afterward, in patients with trisomy 18, the mean NT was calculated as 4 mm and the mean CRL was 68 mm, the multiples of the median was of PAPP-A 0.2mg/ , and free β-hCG was 0.3ng/mL. The results of the present study demonstratethat by performing screening tests in the first trimester, considering the age of the mother and gestational age, the baseline risk for fetal anomalies can be detected and using specific software, congenital anomalies can also bediagnosed in the first trimester of pregnancy. And prevented the birth of a baby with a congenital anomaly.

    Keywords: Trisomy18, First pregnancy trimester, Nuchal translucency (NT), Chorionic gonadotropin
  • Mohammad Saadati*, Sadaf Nouripour Pages 95-103

    Proteomics is a powerful technique to identify proteins as important biomacromolecules. The determination of protein maps in the different organs using proteomics is the first step of molecular studies in the nutrition process. The salivary glands of Hemiptera are the main resource of secreting various proteins in the extra-oral digestion as a preliminary digestive process that occurs in the Hemiptera specialty. The importance of salivary proteins is not only in the nutrition process but also they are key agents to elicit/ suppress plant defense pathways in the insect-plant interaction. In this study, a proteome map of salivary glands in the Aelia acuminata was visualized and some of the up-regulated proteins were identified using bottom-up proteomics. Final results lead to the identification of twenty- three proteins in the salivary gland tissues. Identified proteins belong to different categories contain digestive enzymes, and inhibitors, cell metabolism proteins, and cell defense proteins. Results suggests that the many known proteins in this research can be considered as appropriate candidates for using in the enzyme engineering programs to produce and develop new protein inhibitors in the wheat structure that lead to disrupting of feeding process in the bishop's mitre shieldbug.

    Keywords: Digestive system, Inhibitor, Hemiptera, Metabolism, Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis