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مطالعات باستان شناسی - سال دوازدهم شماره 3 (پیاپی 23، پاییز 1399)
  • سال دوازدهم شماره 3 (پیاپی 23، پاییز 1399)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1399/08/20
  • تعداد عناوین: 14
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  • مهتاب اسلامی نسب، بهروز افخمی*، حبیب شهبازی شیران صفحات 1-25

    مطالعات باستان شناختی شهرهای کهن، نقش بسزایی در شناخت چگونگی شکل گیری، توسعه، سقوط و اضمحلال شهرها در ادوار مختلف تاریخی دارد. بنا به روایت مورخان و جغرافی دانان اوایل دوران اسلامی (منابع قرون 3 تا 8 ه.ق)، شهری بنام شاپور خواست در غرب ایران بر سر راه همدان به خوزستان وجود داشته است که در زمان شاپور اول ساسانی بنیان نهاده است. این شهر در دوران اسلامی ادامه حیات داده و به ویژه در قرن 4 ه.ق به دلیل حضور خاندان محلی آل حسنویه و توجه ایشان به عمران و آبادانی منطقه، به اوج رونق و توسعه خود رسیده است. شهر شاپور خواست در قرون 7 یا 8 ه.ق متروک و در شمال غرب آن؛ شهر امروزی خرم آباد به فاصله اندک زمانی شکل گرفت. با گسترش خرم آباد امروزی، بقایای شاپور خواست زیر بافت شهری مدفون شده است. پژوهش حاضر بر اساس اطلاعات منابع مکتوب تاریخی و داده های حاصل از شواهد باستان شناختی و میدانی را به منظور مطالعه چگونگی شکل گیری استقرار، توسعه و رونق و سرانجام سقوط و اضمحلال شهر شاپور خواست را موردمطالعه قرار داده است. نتایج نشان می دهد؛ هسته ی اولیه ی شهر در دوره اشکانی شکل گرفته است. این شهر با داشتن شرایط زیست محیطی مناسب و قرار گرفتن بر سر راه های باستانی توسعه یافته و از شهرهای مهم منطقه در دوران اسلامی بوده است. در دوره ایلخانی شرایط اکولوژیکی و محیطی ازجمله مهم ترین عوامل متروک شدن شهر بوده اند.

    کلیدواژگان: شکل گیری، شاپور خواست، توسعه، سقوط، دوران اسلامی، دوره ساسانی
  • محرم باستانی*، نعمت الله علی محمدی صفحات 27-42

    هرها از جمله اشیا باارزشی هستند که سابقه بسیار طولانی دارند. بنا بر شواهد باستان شناسی قدمت این شییی به هزاره ششم قبل از میلاد بازمی گردد. چنانکه اسناد و مدارک شهادت می دهند، این شییی در طول ادوار تاریخی تحولات زیادی را پشت سر گذاشته است، به طوری که طرح ها، شکل ها، رنگ ها و کتیبه های آن بنا بر شرایط زمانی دشت خوش تغییر شده اند و هر یک از تعلیقات آن مفاهیم پیچیده و اطلاعات ارزشمندی را در خود کتمان کرده اند که واکاوی آنها می تواند بسیاری از ابهامات موجود در متون تاریخی را تبیین نماید. گفتار حاضر درصد است تا با بررسی یک نمونه از  مهرهای نوشته دار (بنا به ادعای قوچانی یکی از قدیمی ترین مهر دوره اسلامی) در کاوش های معبد آناهیتای کنگاور، در سال 1373 به دست آمده است، بر اساس محتوی داده های آن مورد بررسی و تحلیل قرار دهد و برخی از زوایای و کارکرد این مهر را روشن سازد و اختلافاتی که در میان محققان در انتساب این مهر به هر یک از دوره های تاریخی ایران را تبیین نماید؛ و با این سوال مهر مکشوفه معبد آناهیتای کنگاور حاوی چه نوع اطلاعاتی است و چرا محققان در مورد این مسئله و انتساب آن به هر یک از ادوار مورد نظرشان با یکدیگر اختلاف و شاخص های تشخیص آنان چیست و چرایی اختلاف آنان درک درست علایم و نشانه های تشخیص چه می تواند باشد؟ بررسی های اولیه نشان می دهد این مهر مربوط به یکی از حکمرانان ایرانی است. برخی آن را به یک حکمران ساسانی به نام «خسرو شنوم» که در ناحیه همدان و غرب ایران فعالیت داشته مرتبط می دانند و برخی دیگر آن را به یک حکمران سلجوقی منتسب می کنند. از داده های تحقیق چنین برمی آید قوچانی و توحیدی در ارایه فرضیه موردنظر دچار اشکال شده اند و نتوانسته اند آن طور بایدوشاید به درستی زمان و مکان و انتساب مهر به شخص را مشخص کنند. به نظر می رسد هر یک از این افراد به یک یا چند شاخص در مهر تمرکز کرده و از باقی موارد مغفول مانده اند. از این نتایج تحقیق با توجه به ارزیابی و تحلیل داده های مهر به اشتباه افتاده اند و برای اثبات ادعای خود با ارایه دلایل نااستوار و غیرمنطقی، به نحوی سعی کرده اند این مهر را به یکی از قدیمی ترین مهر های نوشته دار اسلامی به خط کوفی منصوب کنند و یا اینکه به یکی از حکمرانان عصر سلجوقی مرتبط سازند در حالی نتایج تحقیق و بررسی های جدید مهر مشکوفه مورد اشاره نظریه هر دو نفر را رد می کند.

    کلیدواژگان: مهر کتیبه دار کوفی، خسرو شنوم، خسرواشم، حسن الله، قرن سوم ه.ق، دوره ساسانی، دوره سلجوقی
  • محمدصادق داوری*، حسن باصفا، محمود طغرایی صفحات 43-66

    حوزه کشف رود بدلیل وجود آثاری از دوره پارینه سنگی قدیم، به عنوان قدیمی ترین حوزه فرهنگی ایران، همواره مورد توجه بسیاری از پژوهشگران بوده، به همین دلیل این حوزه فرهنگی در ادبیات باستان شناسی کشور و خاور نزدیک شناخته شده و دارای جایگاهی ویژه است. رودخانه کشف رود بدلیل سیراب کردن دشت مشهد بستر حاصلخیز و اکوسیستمی بارور را در طول ادوار مختلف تاریخی ایجاد نموده که زمینه جذب و شکل گیری جوامع پیش از تاریخ در این محدوده شده است. با توجه به توزیع نا همگون و محدود کاوش های باستان شناسی در خاک خراسان، شناخت ما از فرهنگ های پیش از تاریخ این منطقه در تمام بخش ها یکسان نیست. تعیین تاریخ نسبی استقرارهای پیش از تاریخ حوزه کشف رود(دشت مشهد) به منظور تهیه جدول گاهنگاری منطقه یکی از ضرورت های مطالعات باستان شناختی در این منطقه محسوب می شود؛ علاوه براین بررسی فرهنگ های سفالی پیش از تاریخ غالب منطقه و ارزیابی کنش های درون و برون منطقه ای نیز از دیگر سوالات پژوهش محسوب می شود. بنیان پژوهش حاضر، بررسی سنت های سفالی پیش از تاریخ استقرارهای حوضه کشف رود در محدوده شهرستان مشهد، جهت تاریخگذاری نسبی استقرارها و بررسی نظام های فرهنگی غالب در منطقه برحسب مطالعات تطبیقی است. نتایج پژوهش بیانگر آن است که سفالهای پیش از تاریخ حوزه کشف رود دارای گونه های مشابه  با سایر مکان های باستانی شناخته شده در مناطق پیرامونی و همچنین دارای گونه ها و فرم های محلی نیز بوده که صرفا بر اساس تحلیل تکنیک ساخت و نقوش، قابل مطالعه و تاریخگذاری نسبی هستند.

    کلیدواژگان: خراسان، کشف‎رود، استقرارهای پیش‎ازتاریخ، گاهنگاری نسبی، سنت های فرهنگی
  • مهدی رازانی*، نسرین داداش زاده صفحات 67-92

    مرمت بقایای معماری بعد از کاوش های باستان شناسی از مسایل مهم موردتوجه باستان شناسان و مرمتگران آثار تاریخی است، مواجهه آثار کاوش شده و از زیر خاک بیرون آمده با شرایط خرد اقلیم جدید (که دارای نوسانات رطوبتی و برودتی متفاوتی از قبل است) موجب تغییر تعادل  مصالح معماری و تخریب زودرس آن می گردد، این امر به ویژه در شمال و شمال غربی کشور باعث تسریع فرآیند تخریب آن ها می گردد. ازجمله روش های کاهش فرآیند تخریب ایزوله سازی بقایای معماری با ملاط های سازگار باشد. در این تحقیق برای بهینه سازی ملاط های پایه آهکی از پوزولان های طبیعی شامل: خاکسترهای پوسته برنج، فضولات حیوانی و چوب استفاده گردید و از ترکیب این مواد با خمیر آهک 6 رده ملاط های آهک -پوزولانی تهیه شد. در ادامه باهدف تعیین نمونه منتخب از لحاظ دوام و استقامت در مقابل چرخه های طبیعی، از آزمون های پیرسازی تسریعی(شامل چرخه های تر و خشک شدن، حمله نمک ها و چرخه های مبنی بر انجماد و یخ گشایی) و مقایسه خواص فیزیکی(چگالی، جذب آب ، تخلخل) برای کلیه رده های ملاط استفاده گردید. نتایج نشان داد ملاط های دارای پوزولان خاکستر فضولات حیوانی در مقابل چرخه های پیرسازی و سایر آزمایش های فیزیکی مقاومت بهتری دارند؛ درنهایت با آنالیزهای XRD و XRF عناصر تشکیل دهنده پوزولان ها و فازهای تشکیل شده در ملاط منتخب مشخص گردید.

    کلیدواژگان: ملاط پایه آهکی، پوزولان، خاکستر پوسته برنج، خاکستر فضولات حیوانی، خاکستر چوب، بقایای معماری
  • عباسعلی رضایی نیا* صفحات 93-116

    فضاهای معیشتی با کاربری های مختلف در معماری روستایی ایران از اشکال متنوعی برخوردار است. یکی از این گونه فضاها، فضاهایی است که برای نگهداری دام ساخته می شود. این فضاها به صورت مستقل و یا در پیوند با بافت روستاها شکل گرفته اند. فضاهای دامی با معماری آزاد و یا معماری دست کند ایجاد شده اند. در سال 1397 مجموعه ای از فضاهای دست کند در روستای بابا واقع در منطقه کوهستانی طارم سفلی از توابع شهرستان قزوین برای نخستین بار مورد شناسایی نگارنده قرار گرفت. در داخل دره و بر دامنه صخره ای روستای بابا، هفت فضای دست کند با فاصله اندکی نسبت به یکدیگر و تقریبا در یک راستا ایجاد شده است. ساختار معماری آنها مشابه و از یک راهرو، ورودی کوتاه و اتاقی بزرگ با پوشش تاق آهنگ تشکیل شده است. راهرو ورودی بنا ترکیبی از لاشه سنگ های خشکه چین و دست کند و بقیه فضاها به صورت دست کند ساخته شده است. همچنین دو فضا از طریق دالانی کوتاه در کنار ورودی، به یکدیگر مرتبط و سایر فضاها مستقل هستند. اتاق ها فاقد نورگیر هستند و تنها از طریق ورودی به فضای خارج راه می یابند. در طول دیوارها و نیز در زوایای اتاق ها، تاقچه ها و حفره هایی کنده شده است. بر سطوح داخلی آنها آثار اندود گچ و نیز در لبه آنها بازوی گلی دیده می شود. همچنین بقایایی از سکو های سنگ چین همراه با ملات گل در طول دیوار اتاق ها امتداد یافته اند. مقاله حاضر به شیوه توصیفی _ تحلیلی تلاش می کند ضمن معرفی این آثار نویافته و شناخت ویژگی های آن، جایگاه آن را در معماری روستایی تبیین نماید. بررسی و تحلیل فضاهای معیشتی روستا نشان می دهد که مجموعه معماری دست کند روستای بابا در زمره فضاهای دامی و به عنوان آغل احشام در فصول سرد سال مورد استفاده بوده است. در ساخت این فضاها از الگوی مشابهی بهره برده شده و نمونه شاخصی برای شناخت آغل های مناطق سردسیر و کوهستانی است. نتایج این پژوهش برای شناخت الگوهای بومی معماری در مطالعات تاریخ معماری روستایی، قوم باستان شناسی و سایر حوزه های علوم انسانی و اجتماعی سودمند خواهد بود.

    کلیدواژگان: روستای بابا، معماری دست کند، معماری روستایی، فضاهای معیشتی، آغل
  • محمد شعبانی، مریم محمدی* صفحات 117-141

    دشت همدان بهار یکی از مهم ترین کانون های استقرار جوامع انسانی در دوره های مختلف پیش از تاریخی، تاریخی و به ویژه دوران اسلامی بوده است. این دشت در سال های 1385 و 1388 با هدف شناسایی محوطه های استقراری بررسی شده است اما به منظور مطالعه الگوهای استقراری محوطه های اسلامی و برای پاسخ به سوالاتی از قبیل؛ مهم ترین عوامل شکل گیری محوطه های دوران اسلامی دشت همدان چه بوده است؟ و حجم عمده مکان های استقراری دشت همدان مربوط به چه قرونی از دوران اسلامی است؟ در تابستان سال 1394 مورد بازنگری قرار گرفت. در این بررسی باستان شناسی تعداد 14 محوطه بازبینی و 2 محوطه نویافته اسلامی شناسایی گردید و برای درک بهتر الگوهای استقراری، اطلاعات مکانی آن ها از قبیل؛ موقعیت جغرافیایی، ویژگی های زمین شناختی محدوده محوطه، ارتفاع از سطح زمین های اطراف، شکل محوطه ها، مساحت، دسترسی به منابع آب، مسیرهای دسترسی و اطلاعاتی از این دست در فضای نرم افزار GIS وارد شده و سپس مورد تجزیه و تحلیل قرار گرفت. به دلیل اهمیت جایگاه داده های سفالی در گاهنگاری نسبی یک منطقه بعد از مطالعات گونه شناختی سفالینه ها و شناخت انواع تولیدات شاخص سفالی، مشخص گردید که محوطه های اسلامی دشت همدان بر اساس دو عامل زمین های حاصلخیز و مسیرهای کاروانرو پراکنده شده اند و وجود ویژگی های دفاعی در برخی از محوطه هایی که در کنار مسیرهای کاروانرو قرار دارند، نشان از اهمیت این موضوع در پراکنش محوطه ها دارد.

    کلیدواژگان: دشت همدان- بهار، دوران اسلامی، بررسی باستان شناسی، الگوهای استقراری
  • بابک شیخ بیکلو اسلام، احمد چایچی امیرخیز*، حمیدرضا ولی پور، رضا صفایی راد صفحات 143-166

    محوطه باستانی مافین آباد، در بخش مرکزی اسلامشهر و 3 کیلومتری جنوب روستای مافین آباد در استان تهران واقع است. این محوطه در سال های 1384 و 1385 به سرپرستی احمد چایچی امیرخیز مورد بررسی و کاوش قرار گرفته است. همچنین، با حفر چند گود و گمانه پیرامون آن، رسوب شناسی محیطی شده است. سفال های مافین آباد عمدتا هم افق با دوره های سیلک II تا III4-5هستند؛ اما، تعداد بسیار اندکی سفال سیلک III6-7b نیز در محوطه مزبور یافت شده است. بر طبق بررسی های رسوب شناختی، لایه ای رسوبی روی یک لایه خاک خاکستری دارای سفال های سیلک III4-5را پوشانده است که احتمالا گویای طغیان رودخانه باستانی نزدیک این محوطه است. پژوهش های دیرین اقلیم نشان می دهند که باوجود شرایط کلی بهینه اقلیمی طی هولوسن میانه در مناطق تحت تسلط بادهای غربی در غرب آسیا، اما رویدادهای خشکی طی هزاره چهارم ق.م رخ داده اند. این تغییرات اقلیمی ناگهانی، احتمالا با رویدادهای آب وهوایی حدی مانند خشکسالی های شدید و بارش های سیل آسا همراه بوده است، به طوری که طغیان رودخانه ها و جاری شدن سیلاب های عظیم در دشت ها و مخروط افکنه ها را در پی داشته است. گسستگی استقرار در محوطه های مس سنگی دشت تهران در اواخر دوره سیلک III4-5 و روند کاهشی استقرارگاه های هم افق با سیلک III6-7b و IV و در تعقیب آن، افول عصر مفرغ در شمال ایران مرکزی، می تواند موید تغییرات اقلیمی اواخر عصر هولوسن میانه باشد.

    کلیدواژگان: مافین آباد، رسوب شناسی محیطی، پژوهش های دیرین اقلیم، هولوسن میانه، سیلک III، هزاره چهارم ق.م
  • عبدالکریم عطارزاده* صفحات 167-192

    انقلاب صنعتی غرب، سبب شد صنایع دستی ایران به تدریج از میدان رقابت خارج شود. این تغییر وضعیت یکسان نبود. فلزکاری با ویژگیهای متنوع، در رویارویی با پدیده انقلاب صنعتی به صورت یکسان تحت تاثیر قرار نگرفت. پرسش پژوهش حاضر این است که تحولات صنعتی اروپا سبب ایجاد تغییرات در کدامیک از ویژگی های تزیینی، فرمی، تکنیکی و ساختاری فلزکاری سنتی ایران شده است؟ شناخت شاخصه های اصیل فلزکاری ایران و تمیز آن از هنرصنعت غرب، ضرورت تحقیق را دوچندان می کند. هدف تحقیق شناخت مولفه های تاثیرگذار و احیای شاخصه های کم توان شده فلزکاری سنتی و رقابت مجدد در این حوزه است. روش گردآوری داده ها تصاویر موجود در کتابها و اسناد و بررسی آثار موزه ها و مجموعه های خصوصی بود. روش تحقیق نیز مطالعه و وصف مدارک قبل و بعد از دوره ایجاد تحول (دوره ناصرالدین شاه به بعد) از نقطه نظر جنس، تزیین، مهارتهای هنری، نقش و نگارها و غیره بود. مطالعات نتیجه منجر به این شد که فلزکاری ایران قبل از تحولات صنعتی غرب، با تغییراتی در دوره بعد از انقلاب صنعتی نیز ادامه داشته است.  این تغییرات بیشتر بر روی کاربرد، جنس و تنوع تولید محصولات فلزی گذشته ایجاد شده،  به این ترتیب که تزیین، نقش و کارکرد آنها، و نهایتا بازار کار و اقتصاد صنایع دستی را دچار ضعف کرده است. ضمن اینکه در مواردی به تنوع ساخت و پرداخت صنایع دستی فلزی، بیش از پیش کمک کرده است.

    کلیدواژگان: تاثیر انقلاب صنعتی، صنایع دستی ایران، فلزکاری صفویه، فلزکاری قاجاریه
  • مهدی علیرضازاده نودهی*، محمود حیدریان، علیرضا خسروزاده صفحات 193-216

    باستان شناسان تنها کسری از بی شمار محوطه باستانی را شناسایی و ثبت کرده اند. در حالی که هزاران محوطه در سال برای توسعه مداوم زمین ها تخریب می شوند. یکی از راه ها برای کمک به درک و شناسایی این مکان ها، مدل های پیش بینی هستند. بسیار مشخص است که وقتی صحبت از مدل سازی می شود، در واقع با رویکرد تقلیل گرایانه، سعی در شبیه سازی آن پدیده ای است که در زمان های بسیار دور رخ داده است. با این حال مدل های پیش بینی ابزارهایی هستند که می توانند در بسیاری از موارد به کمک باستان شناسان بیایند. این پژوهش به کمک نرم افزار ArcMap سعی می کند تا با بهره گیری از رابطه استقرارهای باستانی با چشم انداز و بررسی عوامل تاثیرگذار بر این استقرار ها، براساس مدل پیش بینی، مناسب ترین موقعیت ها را برای شکل گیری محوطه های دوران مس وسنگ چهارمحال و بختیاری معرفی کند. برای دستیابی به این مهم، ابتدا موقعیت جغرافیایی 75 محوطه مس وسنگی این منطقه نسبت به متغیرهای زیست محیطی ارتفاع از سطح دریا، درصد شیب زمین، فاصله از آبراهه، پوشش گیاهی و کلاس بافت خاک بررسی شد. سپس با استفاده از تحلیل منطق فازی در GIS مناسب ترین مکان ها را که پتانسیل بالقوه برای وجود محوطه های دوران مس وسنگ دارند، معرفی شدند. در نهایت و بعد از تجزیه و تحلیل وضعیت توزیع فضایی محوطه ها نسبت به عوامل ذکرشده و بررسی میزان دقت و صحت مدل پیشنهادی با استفاده از 15 محوطه شاهد، مشخص شد که این مدل به خوبی از عهده پیش بینی مطلوب ترین مکان ها برای شکل گیری استقرارهای مس وسنگ منطقه برآمده است.

    کلیدواژگان: مس وسنگ، چهارمحال و بختیاری، تحلیل فضایی، مدل پیش بینی، منطق فازی
  • علی کریمی کیا*، رضا رضالو صفحات 217-241

    در ادبیات باستان شناسی جمهوری آذربایجان فرهنگی به نام فرهنگ خوجالی - گده بی شناخته شده که از لحاظ گاهنگاری در حوزه جغرافیایی قفقاز به عصر مفرغ متاخر و آهن قدیم و در شمال غرب ایران به عصر آهن I و II شامل می شود. این فرهنگ در ادبیات باستان شناسی علاوه بر نام خوجالی - گده بی به نام هایی مانند زاقافیای مرکزی، فرهنگ گنجه - قره باغ در جمهوری آذربایجان و در ارمنستان فرهنگ لچاشن - متسامور شناخته می شود. از آنجا که این فرهنگ برای اولین بار از منطقه خوجالی - گده بی (جمهوری) آذربایجان شناسایی شده به این نام معروف گشته است. بیشترین داده های باستان شناسی این فرهنگ از گورستان های بدون استقرار به دست آمده و مطالعه شده است. در این مقاله سعی خواهد شد شاخصه های اصلی این فرهنگ بصورت توصیفی-تحلیلی با استناد به داده های باستان شناسی و با رویکردی مقایسه ای به بحث و بررسی گذاشته شود. پرسش هایی ازقبیل اینکه، مهمترین شاخصه های باستان شناسی این فرهنگ در جغرافیای مورد مطالعه چیست؟ نقطه شکل گیری، منشاء و مسیر انتشار این فرهنگ چگونه تبیین میگردد؟ پاسخ به این مجهولات می تواند افق روشن و پیش زمینه ی مناسبی برای مطالعات این فرهنگ در شمال غرب ایران را فرهم سازد. از ویژگی های اصلی این فرهنگ، استفاده از سفال های خاکستری رنگ، تدفین های مختلف الشکل، داشتن نوع زندگی بصورت نیمه کوچرو، در گستره معنوی و مذهبی ساخت و بکارگیری معبد بوده است.

    کلیدواژگان: فرهنگ خوجالی - گده بی، قفقاز جنوبی، جمهوری آذربایجان، شمال غرب ایران، مفرغ متاخر، آهن قدیم
  • مهسا محمدقلی بیک*، حمیدرضا جیحانی صفحات 243-269

    شهر بیشاپور به سبب تاریخ مکتوب شهرسازی یکی از نمونه های ارزشمند دوران ساسانی است. از این شهر تاکنون آثار و ابنیه ارزشمندی از جمله معبد آناهیتا، تالار چلیپا، ایوان های دوگانه شرقی و غربی و تزیینات وابسته مانند گچبری و موزاییک بدست آمده است. ایوان موزاییک شرقی یکی از عناصر مکشوفه و مهم ارگ شاهی بیشاپور است که در مجاورت تالار چلیپا، معبد آناهیتا و کاخ والرین ساخته شده و بیشترین و سالم ترین موزاییک ها از آن بدست آمده است. هنر نقش اندازی با موزاییک تا قبل از این در ایران بی سابقه بوده و تصور می شود که به واسطه حضور اسیران رومی و پس از جنگ شاپور اول با والرین به هنر ایران راه یافته است. گیرشمن تا حدودی به توصیف نقوش موزاییک ها و مقایسه آنها با دیگر نقوش در ظروف ساسانی پرداخته است. اما نادیده گرفته شدن برخی از جزییات در نقوش و انتساب ساخت این تزیینات به اسیران رومی و به دستور شاپور اول موضوعی است که بررسی مجدد موزاییک ها را ضروری می کند. لذا این مقاله در پی پاسخ دادن به این پرسش ها است که تصویرهای منقوش در موزاییک ها چه موضوعی را روایت می کنند و ساخت آنها به چه دوره ای بازمی گردد. در این مقاله که روشی توصیفی تاریخی دارد، نقوش ایوان موزاییک مطالعه و با دیگر نقوش باقی مانده از ایزدبانوی آناهیتا بر روی مسکوکات دوره ساسانی، حجاری ها و مجسمه های کشف شده از عمارت اربابی حاجی آباد مقایسه می شوند. مطالعه نقوش موزاییک و مقایسه آنها با اطلاعات تاریخی و متون مذهبی دربر دارنده تفسیر جدیدی از موضوع تصویرشده توسط آنها است. مقایسه تصویر موزاییک ها با نقوش برجسته و ظروف ساسانی، نمایانگر اعطاء فر توسط ایزدبانوی آناهیتا است. مطالعه نقوش آناهیتا و مقایسه آنها با برخی نقش برجسته های ساسانی نشان می دهد که موزاییک ها با احتمال بسیار بالایی قابل انتساب به نرسه می باشند.

    کلیدواژگان: ایزدبانوی آناهیتا، شاپور اول، نرسه، بیشاپور، ایوان موزائیک
  • حسن مرادی*، حسن کریمیان صفحات 271-294

    دشت نیریز که در حدفاصل دو حوزه فرهنگی کرمان و فارس قرار دارد، محوطه های استقراری مهمی از دوران اسلامی را در خود جای داده است. اولین گام در شناخت این استقرارگاه ها مطالعه داده های سفالی به دست آمده از بررسی های سطحی با هدف گاهنگاری و مطالعه برهمکنش های منطقه ای و فرامنطقه ای این دشت بود. بر این اساس از 63 محوطه متعلق به دوران ساسانی و اسلامی مواد فرهنگی شاخص جمع آوری گردید. اهمیت این یافته ها وقتی افزون می گردد که بدانیم علیرغم تلاش های فراوانی که در مطالعه داده های سفالی کرانه های شمالی خلیج فارس به انجام رسیده، اطلاعات اندکی از این داده ها در نواحی مذکور و بویژه مناطق حد فاصل ولایات فارس و کرمان در دست است. بدین سبب مطالعه مواد فرهنگی و داده های سفالی به دست آمده از بررسی های سطحی به منظور گاهنگاری محوطه ها و فهم برهمکنش های منطقه ای و فرامنطقه ای این دشت اهمیت مضاعفی می یابد.در نیل به این هدف، یافته های سفالی براساس شباهت هایشان در فرم، خمیره و تزیین به هشت گروه اصلی طبقه بندی و براساس نمونه های مشابه تاریخگذاری شدند. در نتیجه این تحقیق مشخص گردید که گروه های سفالی اوایل تا اواسط دوران اسلامی ارتباط زیادی را با تمدن های شرق به خصوص سیرجان نشان می دهند؛ به ویژه آنکه سفال های گلابه ای و اسگرافیاتو چندرنگ شباهت زیادی با نمونه های به دست آمده از سیرجان دارد و شاید بتوان نیریز را به عنوان یکی از آخرین مناطق پراکنش سفال گلابه ای به سمت غرب محسوب داشت. همچنین سفال های تاریخگذاری شده قرن 11-7 ه. نشاندهنده ارتباط فرهنگی این منطقه از فارس با مراکزی چون سمرقند، نیشابور، کرمان و سیستان است.

    کلیدواژگان: طبقه بندی، گونه شناسی، سفال دوران اسلامی، دشت نیریز
  • سلمان انجم روز، محمد مرتضایی* صفحات 295-325

    چاه دادخدا به عنوان یکی از دو بخش شهرستان کنونی قلعه گنج، در جنوبی ترین نقطه استان کرمان قرار دارد و تلاقی گاه این استان با استان های هرمزگان و سیستان و بلوچستان به شمار می رود. نخستین فصل بررسی و شناسایی باستان شناسی شهرستان قلعه گنج در راستای تکمیل نقشه باستان شناسی کشور و باهدف روشن ساختن وضعیت فرهنگی منطقه در دوران مختلف در بخش چاه دادخدا انجام شد. افزون بر اهداف یادشده، در پژوهش حاضر تلاش می شود با تحلیل و تلفیق نتایج حاصل از این پژوهش، ارتباطات و برهم کنش های منطقه ای و فرامنطقه ای این ناحیه با نواحی مجاور مشخص شود. تا از این منظر اهمیت و قابلیت این ناحیه از جنوب شرق ایران جهت تبیین پدیده یادشده روشن شود. بر اساس بررسی انجام شده 66 محوطه و اثر در این پژوهش شناسایی و ثبت گردید که با توجه به مجموعه های سطحی به دست آمده به دوران پارینه سنگی (2 مورد)، هزاره پنجم پ.م (2 مورد)، هزاره چهارم پ.م (10 مورد)، هزاره سوم پ.م (27 مورد)، دوران تاریخی (29 مورد)، دوران اسلامی (3 مورد) و سده اخیر (2 مورد) تعلق دارند. در مقاله حاضر، با توجه به ریخت شناسی و کارکرد، کلیه محوطه های شناسایی شده به 8 گونه محوطه های ترکیبی وسیع، گورستان های سنگ چین دوران تاریخی، تپه های باستانی، محوطه های فلزگری، بناهای مذهبی، قلعه ها، سنگ نگاره ها و محوطه های باستانی با دامنه مواد فرهنگی بسیار محدود تقسیم می شوند. محوطه های یادشده با توجه به نوع جغرافیای محل در دو ناحیه متفاوت دشت و ارتفاعات (مناطق کوهپایه ای و کوهستانی) قرار دارند. ریخت شناسی و روند شکل گیری محوطه ها کاملا متاثر از شاخصه های جغرافیایی یادشده است. نتایج بررسی حاضر نشانگر پتانسیل های قوی ناحیه موردبررسی جهت مطالعات فرامنطقه ای در دوران های پیش از تاریخ و تاریخی است. چنانچه تحلیل اولیه نتایج بررسی حاضر با ملاحظه بررسی های انجام شده در نواحی همجوار در حوزه هلیل رود، بلوچستان و سواحل شمالی و جنوبی خلیج فارس  نقش واسطه ای ناحیه جنوبی جازموریان را به مثابه پل ارتباطی بین مناطق یادشده در طول دوران فوق آشکار می سازد.

    کلیدواژگان: چاه دادخدا، بررسی باستان شناختی، محوطه های باستانی، حوزه جازموریان
  • آزیتا میرزایی*، رضا مهرآفرین، سید رسول موسوی حاجی صفحات 327-349

    ویژگی های بستر جغرافیایی و محیطی یک منطقه، نقش بنیادین در نحوه ی شکل گیری استقرارهای انسانی و تداوم حضور آنان در یک منطقه جغرافیایی دارد. طبیعت امکاناتی را در اختیار انسان قرار می دهد و انسان براساس شناخت خود از آن امکانات در راستای اهدافش بهره برداری می کند و بدینسان رابطه متقابل انسان و طبیعت شکل می گیرد. میزان کیفیت و نحوه شکل گیری استقرارهای انسانی و نوع کاربری آنها بر حسب ویژگی های محیطی، شکل دهنده مبحث بوم شناسی با هدف شناخت میزان رابطه متقابل انسان و محیط است. مقاله پیش رو حاصل پژوهش های میدانی در خصوص شناسایی محوطه های اشکانی، بررسی مولفه های زیست محیطی موثر در روند شکل گیری و گسترش استقرارگاه های اشکانی در بخش میانی کریدور کپه داغ/آلاداغ است. این بستر جغرافیایی منطبق بر دره ساختمانی اترک کشف رود می باشد. در این پژوهش، محوطه های اشکانی از طریق بررسی های میدانی، مقایسه گونه شناختی سفالینه های سطحی و شرایط زیست بوم مورد مطالعه و تحلیل باستان شناختی قرار گرفته اند. هدف از این بررسی ها، شناخت و درک چگونگی رابطه ی زیست بوم منطقه با سکونتگاه های اشکانی بوده است. برای نیل به این مقصود، نتایج یافته های باستان شناسی این پژوهش همراه با اطلاعات جغرافیایی و آماری در محیط نرم افزاریGIS  پردازش گردید تا بتوان نسبت به چرایی شکل گیری این محوطه ها در بستر تاریخی دوره اشکانی در بخش میانی کریدور کپه داغ/آلاداغ آگاهی یافت.

    کلیدواژگان: اشکانیان، شمال خراسان، بررسی های باستان شناسی، زیست بوم، GIS
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  • Mahtab Eslami Nasab, Behrouz Afkhami *, Habib Shabazi Shiran Pages 1-25

    Archaeological studies of ancient cities have a significant role in understanding their formation, their development, the fall and destruction in different historical periods. According to the historical sources (the 10th to 14th century A.D) there has been an ancient city named Shapurkhast on the western of Iran, which its history dates back to Sasanian era. In these sources, the city has constructed by Shapur I (240-272 A.D). Life in the city had continued during the Islamic period until the 14th A.D. The city reached its peak in the 11th century AD. The remnants of the old city have been founded at south-eastern parts of the modern city of Khorram Abad especially from the excavations in 2007. The present research analyses the data derived from the historical resources and archaeological evidences in order to study and investigate the factors in settling in the area. This study deals with the formation, development and prosperity and then the fall of Shapurkhast city. The results of this study imply that the main period of occupation of Shapurkhast was Islamic era that its foundation has been made at pre-Islamic periods, and probably even Parthian era. Having appropriate environmental conditions and also lying at the middle of west to east and north to south communication routes, the south plain of Khorram Abad has potentially provided suitable living conditions for forming the city. It seems that Shapurkhast has been abandoned at the 13th or 14th A.D and modern Khorram Abad began to function as the central town of the region. Environmental and ecological conditions are the most important factors for the collapse of the city. The present study is based on a "holistic" approach and based on two categories of historical and archaeological information which has provided new information about one of the early Islamic cities in Iran. The data is based on historic sources from the 10th to 14th AD, and archaeological evidences from the excavation at southeastern Khorram Abad in 2007 and then archaeological surveys at Khorram Abad gorge in 2000 and 2016. The most important questions in this research are the following: 1. When did the settlement in the city of Shapur Khasta begin and what were the reasons for the formation of the city? 2. In what period and based on which components are the peak of prosperity and urban development introduced? 3. What were the factors that cause the collapse and fall of the city in the Middle of Islamic period and the transfer of its population to the northwest of the town? The research hypothesis is that Shapurkhast city was an important early Islamic city, which its foundation was made before of Islamic period. There has not been much research about the city of Shapurkhast from the formation to the fall. Additionally, available researches are relatively old and no new comprehensive research has been done on the city with archaeological viewpoint, and some of the reports have not been published. Therefore, we will try to use archaeological evidences, written sources and the historical maps aiming to provide suitable information about one of the unknown cities in Iran.  Urban development and urbanization was formed as a manifestation of the power of the Sassanid Empire in Iran and in competition with the Roman Empire (Moqimizade, 2017). the development of urban settlements has been subject to environmental, economic and social conditions; That is, urban settlements were centers of communication, recreation, and redistribution of commercial goods to subordinate cities and states. Around the city of Shapurkhast; Suitable ecological substrates including important Zagros highlands around, rich water resources especially KhorramAbad and Karganeh rivers, flat and fertile plain south of the valley, and most importantly being located in the east-west and north-south communication routes from The main factors in the formation of settlements in the south of Khorramabad valley, followed by the formation of urban settlements. We know very little about the formation of the city. Due to the development of the Silk Road in the Parthian period and the location of the city in the communication routes east and west of the region and south to north, the urban life of Shapurkhast city probably took place in the Parthian period. Due to the existence use of the name "Shapur" in archaeological evidence, this city was developed during the Sassanid period. The existence and permanence of the king's name on the coins (Figure 14) left over from the Sassanid period certainly indicates the double and strategic importance of the city in the Sassanid period, which proves the Sassanid rule in these areas. The distribution of Sassanid sites in the Khorramabad valley is another proof of this claim (Figure 4). Our knowledge indicates that the first time, Sassanid Shapur in order to develop individual power to urban development for change the social structure of Iran, cities has undergone changes and developed and in this process the name "Shapur" on most cities as Shapurkhast "was established. Archaeological evidence from the excavation does not prove that urban development is a process, meaning that urban development has been accompanied by ups and downs. Among the reasons could be the decline of the Sassanid rule and repeated invasions of Iran. In the Islamic period from the fourth and fifth centuries onwards, when the Seljuks ruled in the Middle East in Iran, Iraq, and Asia Minor; the golden age of prosperity and development of the city began and the Seljuk’s (10th to 12th AD) of Iraq made Khorramabad one of the most important strategic points and connections with the Seljuks of Iran. The granting of coins to Al-Hasnawiyah and the existence of local coins were minted in the name of local governors clearly and significantly increase the importance of the city. In the Islamic period, this city has completely passed the urban life and has had a mosque, a mint and a government fortress. Due to its importance, the city has been repeated many times in geographical and historical books. Based on the holistic mentality in this study, important information is provided; from written historical resources including geographical and historical books and data from archaeological excavation find such as coins, pottery and the distribution of sites regarding the formation, development and fall of the city of Shapurkhast (Figure 10 and 12). The foundation of the mentioned city was laid in the Parthian period. The city was developed during the Sassanid period due to the importance of the Sassanid kings in the development of cities and their location on trade routes, and was named after Shapur, the second and most powerful Sassanid king. In the Islamic period, after a short break, we see the comprehensive development of the city and the benefit of all urban structures, especially in the Seljuk period. The city was still prosperous until the end of the 14th century AD, when due to the growth of the town of KhorramAbad, its inhabitants merged with the current KhorramAbad and continued urban life. This city has been developed with suitable environmental conditions and being located on ancient roads and has been one of the important cities of the region in the Islamic era. During the patriarchal period, ecological and environmental conditions were among the most important factors in the abandonment of the city.

    Keywords: formation, Shapurkhast, extension, Fall, Islamic period, Sasanian era
  • Moharram Bastani *, Nemat Alimohmmadi Pages 27-42

    Reading Kufic inscriptions is sophisticated, for variations, and because it is without dots. Therefore, caused to biased and fault conclusions. An example is a seal impression that recovered from excavations of Anahita Temple of Kangavar at 1995 (1373).. Illogically, Ghuchani claims it as the oldest Islamic inscribed from a Sassanid governor, known as "Khosrow Shinom", who ruled Hamadan region and western Iran. However, recent peripheral accurate studies including style, type, decoration, and other Sassanid seals and inscriptions indicate inaccuracy of two last words, which Ghuchani claims as "Khosrow Asham" (the same Khosrow Shinom). The first word could be read variously, however, the second is "Allah", not Asham, Hasan seems more logical. Therefore, both appear as Hassan Allah. Considering type of inscription, characteristics, it dates to 9rd century  to Ilkhanid periods. Reading Kufic inscriptions is sophisticated, for variations, and because it is without dots. Therefore, caused to biased and fault conclusions. An example is a seal impression that recovered from excavations of Anahita Temple of Kangavar at 1995 (1373). Illogically, Ghuchani claims it as the oldest Islamic inscribed from a Sassanid governor, known as "Khosrow Shinom", who ruled Hamadan region and western Iran. However, recent peripheral accurate studies including style, type, decoration, and other Sassanid seals and inscriptions indicate inaccuracy of two last words, which Ghuchani claims as "Khosrow Asham" (the same Khosrow Shinom). The first word could be read variously, however, the second is "Allah", not Asham, Hasan seems more logical. Therefore, both appear as Hassan Allah.

    Keywords: Kufic, Khosrow Shinom, Khosrow Asham, Hassan Allah, 3rd AH century, Ilkhanid period, Islamic seal
  • Mohammad Sadegh Davari *, Hassan Basafa, Mahmood Toghraei Pages 43-66

    The Kashafrud area has always been considered by many researchers due to the existence of works from the ancient Paleolithic period, as the oldest cultural area in Iran.   For this reason, this cultural field is known in the archeology of the Iranian plateau and the Middle East and is a very important subject. Due to the heterogeneous and limited distribution of archaeological excavations in the territory of Khorasan, our knowledge of the prehistoric cultures of this region in all areas is unknown (Basafa & Rezaei 2014; Vahdati, 2016). In this study, by studying and analyzing the pottery traditions of Kashafrud basin, the relative chronology of settlements have been determined.  And the dominant cultural styles of the region have been studied. In this regard, relative dating and compiling a chronological table is one of the archaeological necessities of this period. Assessment of prehistoric pottery cultures and evaluation of intra- and extra-regional interactions are research questions. So far, only two prehistoric review and identification projects have been carried out in the city of Mashhad, which include the study of the Kashafrud River by a joint Iranian-French delegation headed by Ali Ariaei and Claude Thibaut (Ariai  and Thibault, 1977), and the survey of Mashhad city by Mahmoud Bakhtiari in 1998 (Labaf  Khaniki, 1391). However, there are a few other scattered studies whose results have been published in several articles. However, several scattered studies have been conducted in this area that their results have been published in the form of several articles. Absolute and relative chronologies of the cultural regions of northeastern Iran and southern Turkmenistan have been used in the relative dating of cultural periods of the Kashafrud basin. However, generalizing these dates to surface materials without any stratigraphic study would be challenging. At present, the dates presented in the present study are based on a combination of chronologies presented in the northeastern regions of Iran and Turkmenistan, and its basis may be changed by future archaeological excavations in the Kashafrud basin. The basis of the statistical population of this study is the cultural materials of the Pottery Bank of the Greater Khorasan Museum, which were randomly sampled based on registered reports. An important point in the deployments of Kashafrud River is the relocation and collection of surface samples in the non-academic process. The city of Mashhad as a main part of Khorasan Razavi province and is located between two mountain ranges. Its northern mountain range is a Hezar-Masjed and its southern mountain range is Binalood. A river called Kashafrud passes through this plain. This area is located in the geographical coordinates of 22-57 to 10-61 east longitude and 39-35 to 04-37 north latitude (Figure 1). In total, and based on the studies conducted so far, about 14 prehistoric settlements have been identified within the city of Mashhad and in the Kashafrud basin (Figure 2), that four settlements of them have emerged for the first time in the Iron Age, which is out of this subject research. In the other 10 settlements, they have cultural sequence from the Neolithic to the Bronze Age and in some continuities to the Iron Age. Of these 10 settlements, three settlements of Qaderabad, Qare Tappeh and Abarghandaray have a sequence from the Neolithic period (6500 BC according to the initial phase of Jaitun and not Sange-e Chakhmagh) to the end of the Bronze Age. In this research, the bronze period means only two phases, old and middle (equal to the date 2900-2100 BC according to the sequence of Namazgah Depe and up to 1700 BC according to the BMAC culture).  According to material cultures, two Sites of Morghanoo and Naderi have appeared for the first time in the transition period from Neolithic to Chalcolithic (5000-4800 or 4500 BC according to southwest Turkmenistan chronology) and have a cultural sequence up to the Middle Bronze Age. Based on the available evidence and cultural materials from among these settlements, the Toup Derakht site has appeared for the first time in the Late Chalcolithic or Namazgah III (3500-3000 or 2900 BC depending on the sequence of the Namazgah). The establishment of the Toup Derakht has a cultural sequence until the Iron Age. The 4 Sites of Devin, Qalurkhaneh, Gash and Junow have appeared for the first time in the Bronze Age, only in which the Devin Tape and Gash Tape have a cultural sequence up to the Iron Age. Based on the study, classification and typology of evidence of the studied area, it was found that the three settlements of Tape Qaderabad, Qara Tape and Abarghandaray Ancient Site have Neolithic surface materials that stone tools (Figure 3) and pottery with appearance characteristics and technically belongs to the Neolithic period (figure 4). The most important cultural materials belonging to the Neolithic period include buff and red ware with geometric designs. They are handmade and have chaff temper. In addition, those samples in terms of form, pattern and technique are comparable   with Sang-e Chakhmagh, Jaitun and Neolithic of the Central Plateau of Iran (Table 2). Finally, according to the relative chronology, the date before 6500 BC to 5000 BC can be considered for the Neolithic period of Kashafrud basin. Based on the study of surface materials, the studied settlements of the transition period from Neolithic to Chalcolithic to the relative date of 5000-4500 or 5200-4800 BC have continued in three settlements of Tape Qaderabad, Qara Tape and Abarghandaray were formed for the first time in this period. The existence of cultural materials of the Chalcolithic period in the three settlements of Qaderabad, Abarghandaray and Qara Tape, equal to the date 4800-2900 BC, indicates the continuity of the establishment and cultural sequence from Late Neolithic period to the Chalcolithic. Also, the presence of surface cultural materials on the settlements of Tape Naderi and Morghanoo, which have appeared in the transition period from Neolithic to Chalcolithic period, has a sequence and continuity, and in addition, the Toup Derakht site also appears in the Late Chalcolithic Period. In addition to these cultural materials, the Early and Middle Bronze Ages have sequences in all the mentioned settlements, including Qaderabad, Abarghandaray, Qara Tape, Naderi, Morghanoo, Toup Derakht Sites, and in addition, Gash Tape, Qalurkhaneh Ancient Site, Tape Junow and they also settle in the Early Bronze phase for the first time. As a result, Kashafrud River, as a vital and effective factor in creating a fertile ecosystem, has provided a suitable platform for spatial and regional Choices of human societies from the Paleolithic period to the present, which in both material and immaterial dimensions with culture, Prehistoric regions of Northeast Iran, especially Shahroud and Damghan, Gorgan plain, Dargaz and Atrak basins, as well as prehistoric cultures of southern Turkmenistan, including the Neolithic period of Jaitun and Anu IA, culture Namazgah I - VI period It is an overlap and perhaps the Kashafrud basin can be considered as the link between the prehistoric cultures of southern Turkmenistan and the Iranian plateau, especially the northeastern region of Iran.

    Keywords: Khorasan, Kashafrud River, prehistoric settlements, Relative Chronology, Cultural traditions
  • Mehdi Razani *, Nasrin Dadashzadeh Pages 67-92

    Next to the archaeological excavations, conservation and restoration of remains of monuments in the fields have received the attention of scientific archaeological excavations. Exposure of new finding materials to the microclimate conditions of earth surface causes to encourage their degradation process. Humidity and cryogenic fluctuations are the most important destructive factors for the architecture remains. Since a number of sites in the north and northwest of Iran encounter precipitation humidity and consequently the destruction of architecture remains, it appears that isolating outer remains of these structures using the compatible mortar is one of the best methods to reduce their damage. Lime mortar is appropriate for this purpose owing to its acceptable characteristics against the humidity. In this research, cow dung ash, rice husk ash and wood (with specific gradation) were used to optimize the lime mortar. The mix of these materials with lime paste prepared 6 different types of lime-pozzolan mortar. To determine the appropriate sample in terms of durability and consolidation against the natural cycles, accelerated aging tests including wetting and drying cycles, freezing & thawing and salt attack cycles as well as physical characteristics (densitometry, water absorption, and durability) for all types. The results of above processes indicated that the compositions of cow dung ash pozzolan’s have better resistance to the aging cycles and other physical experiments. Using XRD and XRF analyses, the structure and the amount of mineral phases were determined. Based on the results, it is recommended that lime mortar (optimized with cow dung ash) be used in the historic monuments and the humid climates of the north and northwest of Iran. Conservation of the historical works while archeological excavations and the conservation, restoration, and maintenance of the obtained remnants in the excavation area, including tombs, architectural remnants, foundations, and even some of the ornaments after excavation are among the moral and professional principles of the scientific archeology.(Sease,1996) The necessity of the conservation of the archeological remnants in the recent century has been one of the most significant parts included in the macro planning of the archaeological approaches and cultural heritage-related knowledge. Among the measures taken for the conservation of the architectural clay and adobe remains after archaeological excavations are: 1) temporary conservation of the hills within the excavation times; 2) re-burial by re-filling the excavation area; 3) bricklaying and covering the walls and the remnants works in the area; 4) implementing roofs and shelters in the area for the temporary or permanent conservation; 5) using chemical and biological substances to strengthen the walls; 6) the use of geotextiles (permeable polymer textiles), and 7) coating the surface in the cold or humid regions.(Baghbanan et al, 2016; Rahmani,2006, Stanley Price,1999; Jandro et al 1999) Also, the northwest of Iran is among the rich regions of Iran in terms of archeology and tourism attractions, with an area of 7.2% out of the country's total area.(Negahban,1998) The northwest part of Iran is among the mountainous regions with a cold and dry climate in terms of climate conditions, causing the ancient sites to be severely damaged after archeological excavations. Therefore, it is necessary to prioritize compatible solutions in conservation measures. One of these measures is the use of protective mortars. The construction technology and mix design of this kind of mortars must be recognized to achieve the most efficient and stable formula; because it leads to the principled conservation in maintaining the obtained remnants in the ancient sites and saving the conservation costs in the future, in addition to achieving a mixture and processing methods and making the optimal mortar. (table 1) How to use compatible mortars to protect architectural remains from archaeological excavations in the northwestern climate of Iran.What variable depends on the quality of compatible lime-based mortar with natural fillers? The protection of ancient sites after exploration in the northwestern climate can be done with compatible and eco-friendly calcareous mortar. The quality of lime-based mortar compatible with natural fillers depends on the high silica content of the filler. Mortar Manufacturing: Lime was kept constant at 30%, and wood ash, rice husk, and animal waste were used as a pozzolan to mix the mortar filler to optimize the lime-based mortar. Six lime-based mortar mixtures with different amounts of rice husk ash (20, 35%), wood ash, and animal waste (10 and 35%) were used. 16 cubes were prepared from each mortar sample. Mortar samples were tested and analyzed to complete the setting reactions after 27 days from manufacture time. (Table 2). aboratory Studies: Laboratory studies include the determining examinations of the physical features of the samples (humidity percentage and water absorption, density, and porosity), (table.3) geological structure by determining the elements using X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) analysis method, fuzzy determination using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis, and assessment of endurance properties based on the national and international standards(Table 7-8, Figures 10-11). The consecutive wetting and drying cycle, Freeze-Thaw cycle, the endurance against salt hydration cycle, mortar samples durability test.(Figure 1-3- 6-8 and Table.4-6). After archeological excavations, the key issue of historical sites is increasing the humidity percentage and cold and heat fluctuations. As stated in the research literature, there are various solutions to reduce and manage humidity and cold fluctuations. In this study, using a durable and optimized mortar system ware studied to reduce the destructive effect of the above factors, especially in the northwestern region of the country. Accordingly, native and natural pozzolans were used to optimize the lime-based mortar. The applied pozzolans in this study include rice husk ashes, cow dung ash, and wood ash. According to the conducted studies, six different groups of mortar with different ratios were manufactured from the combination of three pozzolans along with sand and lime paste. Then, after 27 days to complete the mortar reaction, the proper samples were prepared for laboratory tests. These tests include accelerating aging methods (drying and wetting cycles, freeze-thaw cycle, and salt cycle) and the physical features (densitometry, porosimetry, water absorption, and durability (durability test)) implemented for all samples. The results of the examinations showed that the mortar with compounds and mix percentage (30% lime paste + 35% sand + 35% animal waste ash) has good resistance to aging, freezing and thawing cycles, and salt cycle. The selected sample showed satisfactory results after three durability cycles and was placed in a durable mortar class. Given the important role of grading in the durability and quality of the mortar, the results obtained from the grading diagram show that the pozzolan of the cow dung ash enjoys a proper grading than other pozzolans. According to the results of the above research, it is proposed that the pozzolan-lime mortars with the formula of 30% lime paste+ 35% sand+ 35% cow dung ash are used to overcome the descending humidity and environmental corrosion in the architectural remnants of the excavated historical sites in the cold climates, such as the ancient sites of the northwest of the country to evaluate the results in practice as well. The results indicate this mix's efficiency in the humid regions and salty regions near the wetting and drying cycles and freezing. Mortar reversibility is another considerable point in using the coating mortars. Although reversibility is not entirely possible concerning some protective measures and materials, such as reinforcement and coating with polymeric materials in porous materials, the remarkable thing about applying mortars to protect the architectural remains from its archaeological excavations is that these mortars are suitable for reversibility. Their coating property depends on the depth of penetration of the mortar adhesive in the substrate and because this penetration is not very high (maximum 1 cm of slurry). Mortars use the substrate as a support in the coating state, and the principal setting occurs in the mortar and its components. Therefore, their function will be as a sacrificed layer in conservation. Based on the conditions of the studied mortars, in the case of proper monitoring and solving the critical causes of the destruction of the selected mortar, it seems that they will be efficient for at least five years. Finally, after the destruction process, their surface can be reconstructed, or the coating mortar can be implemented again.

    Keywords: lime based mortar, Pozzolan, cow dung ash, rice husk ash, wood ash, Architectural Remnants
  • Abbas Ali Rezaeinia * Pages 93-116

    Corrals are distinctive types of traditional architecture in Iran which can be categorized into two groups: free standing spaces and troglodytic spaces. In 2018, a number of troglodytic spaces were first identified by the present author in the village of Baba located in the mountainous region of Tarom-e Sofla in Qazvin Province. In the valley and on the cliff slopes of the village of Baba, there are five troglodytic spaces which have been created in a short distance from each other and are aligned in almost the same direction. Their architectural structure is similar and includes a corridor, a low-ceiling entrance, and a large rectangular room spanned with a barrel vault. In only one of these spaces, there is a small room next to the large room. While the entranceway is built of flat stone, other spaces are hand-crafted. In addition, there are two structures which are interconnected through a short corridor next to the entrance, and the other structures are independent of each other. The rooms can be accessed only through the entrance. They are free of any apertures for lightning. Along the walls and at the corners of the rooms, logs and cavities have been carved. There are also remnants of stone raised platforms along the walls of the rooms. The present study attempts to introduce these newly found features in a descriptive and analytical fashion and determine their chronology and function. Based on a comparative study of architectural style and archaeological evidence, the author believes that the architectural complex of Baba village used to serve as corrals to keep livestock in shelter during winters. The results of the present study can make a significant contribution to our understanding of the traditional architectural patterns in the history of village architecture, ethnoarchaeology, and other related fields of social studies and humanities. Troglodytic living spaces are a group of little-understood troglodytic architecture. Troglodytic living spaces that are built to keep livestock, known as corrals or animal slums, play an important role in the livelihood of villagers. The importance and diversity of these spaces in the culture of rural architecture of Iran are hardly disputable. However, they have not yet been paid the due scholarly attention they deserve. Livestock spaces are created independently outside a village or in connection with the residential area of ​​the village. The collection of Baba village handicrafts (Figure.1-2) is a valuable case in point that shows aspects of the rural handicraft architecture tradition. Also, given the fact that the livelihood of the villagers relied on livestock and livestock products, any endeavor to build livestock spaces was highly appreciated. Providing a suitable environment with hygienic conditions has been directly related to maintaining animal health and the cycle of livestock products. These spaces are valuable evidence of the architectural experiences of our ancestors in their confrontation with an ecosystem, which have survived for a long time until at least the last hundred years and have played a role in the economic, social and cultural life of villages. Contemporary developments have led humans to distance themselves from indigenous patterns and turn to new patterns. Sustaining the values ​​of ancient architecture requires knowledge of the principles based on which indigenous architecture was formed and its local values (Sartipipour, 2013: 26). Therefore, a comprehensive understanding of rural issues and paying attention to biological patterns in the rural environment have an effective role in the sustainable future of the village (Rezvani & Rahbari, 2016: 25-6). This study is the first attempt in the literature to introduce the troglodytic collection of the village of Baba (Figure.3) in Tarom-e Sofla region as a biological experience in rural ecology. Although from the 1980s to the present, the Building and Housing Research Center and the Housing Foundation of the Islamic Revolution have provided a macro level typology of rural housing in the provinces of Iran, few, if any independent detailed studies have so far been conducted on this topic.  It commits itself to examining how this type of architecture was created, what its main features are, what the use and construction time of the collection of handicrafts are, and what their status is within the culture of rural architecture. This study rests upon the hypothesis that there is a common pattern in the architectural style of the handicrafts in the mountainous areas and that of cold rural areas. The architectural plan and structure of troglodytic spaces of the village of Baba (Figure.4-26) are closely similar to those of other mountainous areas in Iran such as Kharqan Qazvin (Maraghi & Parhizkari, 2015), Vafs Komijan and Kandovan (Homayoun, 1977) and Meymand (Homayoun, 1973), (Figure.27-30) and their formation is influenced by environmental and geographical factors. The study is aimed to look for the commonalities and differences in the architecture of troglodytic village of Baba and rural architecture. The architecture of the village can be considered as a new example of animal spaces in Iran, which will be described and analyzed in this paper. Adopting a descriptive-analytical methodology, the present study was an attempt to describe the architectural features of this complex through documents, field survey, and comparative analysis.  Troglodytic architecture is the result of human interaction with the natural environment. Examination of known evidence shows that it had been widespread in Iran. Rural architecture is a manifestation of the livelihood of rural communities. The use of livestock spaces indicates the reliance of the villagers’ livelihood on livestock. Creating cages in the form of hand-held spaces is a model of traditional rural architecture in areas with cold climates. This common practice in different parts of Iran is a function of local and indigenous characteristics, but despite social and cultural differences, common executive methods have been used in their construction. In terms of architectural typology, the handicrafts of the village of Baba can be categorized as troglodytic mountain caves. These structures are formed by digging a sandstone bed. Their outline and spatial organization are similar to those in other areas. It seems that the history of the construction of these structures dates back to at least the Safavid period. Based on the study of troglodytic cages, which are examined as an indicator in this article, they can be divided into mountainous and plain spaces. Mountain caves usually lack a clear geometric order and are formed on the basis of the earth's bed. Plain cages, on the other hand, are more orderly and have good ventilation and light. Their access path is designed in a way to create temperature balance. The division of the interior space to separate young animals is seen only in the example of Baba cages. In terms of material and structure, the pits are dug in the bed of sandstones, volcanic rocks, dense and compacted clay, and conglomerate rocks so that they can have high durability and be less prone to degradation over time. In terms of location, the mountain caves are organized individually below or next to the houses or in a centralized and grouped manner along the edges of the textures. Cages built in a residential space have a separate entrance (Kandovan Figure.29) or a common entrance shared with humans (Meymand Figure.30). The number and size of cages depend on the number of livestock. They are located in such a way that they are not in the path of floods and are created under the protection of natural forces. In terms of their use, livestock spaces are classified into two groups: winter and summer cages. Winter pens are created in the village while summer pens are made outside the pastures and are used seasonally. Paying attention to the body and function of troglodytic cages will provide a better understanding of the traditions of rural architecture and the system that governs them, which represent an efficient model and the wise experiences that have led to the development and prosperity of the village.

    Keywords: village of Baba, troglodytic architecture, Village Architecture, dwelling space, corral
  • Mohammad Shabani, Maryam Mohammadi * Pages 117-141

    The Hamadan-Bahar Plain has been one of the most important center for human societies in the various periods, especially in the Islamic Period. The archaeological explorations of this plain was done in the years of 2006 and 2009. But for study and analyze the settlement pattern the Islamic Period and for answer to questions such as, what have been the most important factors for the formation of Islamic Period sites in the Hamedan Plain? And the main volume of Islamic settlements in the Hamedan Plain were have been related to which century of the Islamic period? this plain was reviewed in the year of 2015. The main purpose of this review is to identify the settlement patterns of Islamic sites in the Hamedan plain based on the review of identified sites. In this study, which was conducted in the field study and in the form of a marching, 14 sites were reviewed and 2 newly sites were discovered in the study area. In order to better understand the settlement patterns, spatial information of sites was entered in the GIS and then analyzed. Due to the importance of the position of pottery data in the relative chronology of a region, after studying the typology of pottery and recognizing the types of special pottery products, it was found that the Islamic sites of Hamedan Plain are scattered based on two factors: first fertile lands and second caravan routes. The presence of defensive features in some of the sites which adjacent to the caravan routes indicates the importance of this issue in the distribution of sites. In addition, the influence of significant sites such as Hegmataneh site as the central settlement of this plain in the Islamic period has been effective on a number of sites around it. The lowlands, north of the Alvand Mountain is one of the middle plain in the central Zagros Mountain which in the past was known as Hamedan Plain and today is known as Hamedan-Bahar Plain. (Figure 1). Archaeological studies show that the Hamedan-Bahar Plain with about 880 square kilometers has been one of the most important centers for the establishment of human societies in the prehistoric and historical periods. Studies on prehistoric and historical sites have clarified the course of human cultures of this plain during that periods, However, the lack of sufficient attention to the sites of the Islamic period and the findings related to this period have left many archeological angles of this period unknown. The archaeological explorations of this plain has been done in the years of 2006 and 2009. (Mohammadifar and Motarjem, 2006; Balmaky and Motarjem, 2009). During these studies, a large number of discovered sites have been introduced as sites of the Islamic period. The Intended plain in the form of a master's thesis, was reviewed in form of field study in the summer of 2015 for the aim of studying and analyzing the settlement patterns of the Islamic sites (in the time period from the beginning of the Islamic period to the end of the Safavid period) and to answer the questions such as; what have been the most important factors for formation of the Islamic Period sites in the Hamedan Plain? And the main volume of Islamic settlements in the Hamedan Plain were have been related to which century of the Islamic period? Due to insufficient attention to the artifacts and findings of the Islamic period, especially pottery in the surveys of previous years, out of about 50 identified sites, that were introduced as Islamic sites, only 14 sites had cultural artifacts belong to this period. During this review, two other newly Islamic sites discovered and a total of 16 sites were introduced as sites of the Islamic period. for better understand the settlement patterns, spatial information of sites such as; Geographical location, geological features, altitude, shape, area, access to water resources, access to the routes, etc. were entered in the GIS and then analyzed. Based on these studies, the Islamic sites of Hamedan-Bahar plain were divided into six groups (Figure 2). The first and second groups are related to sites that have been completely destroyed, due to the invasion of agricultural lands or relatively large amount of residential area, and very little evidence of these sites remains today. The third group are the sites, that are less than 10 meters high and less than one-hectare area. The next group is related to sites, that are more than 10 meters high and their areas are less than one-hectare. The sites of this group, like the previous group, do not have a clear and orderly shape. The fifth group is related to sites which have more than 10 meters high and have an area of more than one-hectare to 10 hectares. The shape of this group of sites is geometrically regular, such as squares and rectangles (Figure 7). In the survey of these sites the evidence of defensive fortifications has been seen. The last group is related to sites, that are more than 10 meters high and more than 10 hectares in area. (Table 1). The only settlement of this group is the Hegmataneh/Hamedan Mound, with an area of more than 34 hectares which is considered as the settlement center of the plain. The studies have shown that the sites of groups three and four, around 75% of the total identified sites, dedicated to themselves which are located in the area with very fertile land and often located next to a site with an area of more than one hectare and there are specific defense structures. (Figure 3 and 4). These sites are most likely belong to very small villages that are directly related to the surrounding agricultural lands to be affected by large sites that have a defensive structure. The sites with a defense structure, which are often more than one hectare, are located next to the entrance of caravan routes into the plain. (Figure 7). The existence of sites with defense structures inside the plain, in addition to emphasizing the importance of the transit position of the region, has also shown the existence of insecurity. Based on the analysis of spatial information, the Islamic sites of the Hamadan-Bahar plain are scattered based on two factors: fertile lands and caravan routes and the presence of defensive features in some of the settlements along the caravan routes, shows the importance of this issue in the distribution of sites. The collected pottery was carefully analyzed and their typological studies were carried out with well-known centers sites of the Islamic period. During the study more than 20 types of pottery were identified (Table 2). The discovery of a large amount of evidence of the production of pottery, welding furnaces and metal and glass ornaments of the Islamic period in the Zino-abad shows that this site and Hegmataneh/Hamedan were used as an industrial site in the Islamic period and most probably their products were exported to other sites. Existence of similar species of pottery from large known pottery centers such as the Sultanabad and Soltanieh with local products of the plain, most probably the pottery of these centers transported to the Hamedan region through known routes. According to the pottery data, all the Islamic sites studied have several settlement periods. It seems that the arrival of the Arabs in this region did not have much effect on the continuity of settlement, because the first centuries of the Islamic pottery was found in almost all the studied sites. More than 56% of the sites were inhabited between the 4th and 7th centuries AH. It seems that the region from the beginning of the fourth century AH with the rise of local governments such as the Buyid dynasty and especially from the second half of the fourth century during the Seljuk period, the goal of many economic reforms were to provide livelihood. The importance of the region in this period is such that Hamedan has been chosen as the capital for several years since the Seljuk period. After this period, despite devastating the Mongol invasions of this region, about 62% of the plains were inhabited. It seems that in this period, despite the negative effects of the Mongol invasions, due to the presence of high-ranking people, life in the region has flourished. With the savage invasions of the Timurid period and the conflicts of the Aq Qoyunlu and Kara Koyunlu dynasty in this region between the early 8th century and the early 10th century AH, many settlements were reduced to less than 19%. During this period many of the settlements that flourished in the previous period were abandoned forever. This trend is also seen with less intensity in the Safavid period. In this period, despite the relative attention to the Hamedan and possibly the surrounding areas, the settlement patterns of the plain do not change much compared to the previous period.

    Keywords: Hamedan-Bahar plain, Islamic period, Archeological Survey, Settlement Patterns
  • Babak Shaikh Baikloo Islam, Ahmad Chaychi Amirkhiz *, Hamidreza Valipour, Reza Safaierad Pages 143-166

    The archaeological site of Mafin Abad, located in the central part of Islamshahr city and 3 Km to the south of Mafin Abad village, was excavated under the supervision of Ahmad Chaychi Amirkhiz in two seasons in 2005 and 2006 (Maps 1-2). Moreover, they have dug some trenches around the site for environmental sedimentology. Findings concerning prehistoric pottery in Mafin Abad are contemporary with cultural periods of Sialk II to Sialk III4-5. However, a few pieces of pottery belonging to Sialk III6-7b are found as well. Sedimentological data shows that a layer of dense sedimentary soil, on a grey and black layer, is covered by Sialk III4-5 pottery, which suggests flood events of an ancient river near the site. Mafin Abad had probably changed to a basin catchment for a relatively long time. Paleoclimate studies show that despite the overall optimum climatic conditions during the Mid-Holocene in the westerly-dominated regions in West Asia, this period is punctuated by episodic dry spells, particularly during the fourth millennium BC. Such abrupt climate variability has probably been accompanied by extreme weather events, such as severe droughts and torrential rains which have potentially led to river overflows and massive floodings in the plains and alluvial fans. Detachments in habitats of the Tehran Plain in the late Sialk III4-5 period and the reduction of settlements in Sialk III6-7b and Sialk IV periods, and then, the cultural decline of the Bronze Age in North Central Iran, may be associated with the climate changes during the latter half of the Mid-Holocene. Due to its special geographical location, the effect of the air circulation system, subtropical high pressure, and other factors, Iran generally has a semi-arid to the arid climate and a semi-desert to desert nature. The cultural region of North Central Iran overlaps with two large basins of the Salt Lake and the western part of the Central Desert. Most of the prehistoric sites belong to the Salt Lake basin. In this part, several sub-basins are resulting from the permanent rivers of Jajroud, Karaj, Qarachay, and Qomroud. The mentioned rivers and their branches have formed the main pattern of human settlements since the Neolithic period in the cultural region, because these human societies needed sufficient water resources for permanent settlement and agriculture and animal husbandry, as well as industrial activities and, finally, the formation of government and civilization. Climatic changes have had devastating environmental effects, disrupting the development and cultural transformation of ancient societies; Severe hurricanes, heavy rainfall, severe prolonged droughts, heat waves, and cold spells are some of the outcomes of climate change. Climate change in arid and vulnerable regions such as North Central Iran has had dire consequences for water-based human communities. The archaeological site of Mafin Abad, located in the central part of Islamshahr city and 3 km to the south of Mafin Abad village, was excavated under the supervision of Ahmad Chaychi Amirkhiz in 2005 and 2006. Prehistoric pottery found from the layers of Tepe Mafin Abad was contemporary with cultural periods of Sialk II to Sialk III4-5. Also, a few pieces of pottery belonging to Sialk III6-7b were found on the surface. it is worth mentioning that the area of this site at the time of the excavations was 5.5 hectares, which was one of the largest settlements in North Central Iran in the Chalcolithic Age. During the excavations, six trenches were also excavated for environmental sedimentology around Tepe Mafin Abad called A to F. The A to C trenches were dug in the western part of the hill, side by side, along the northwest, at a distance of approximately 10 meters from each other. Also, Trench D was excavated in the southwest, Trench E in the south, and Trench F in the southeast of the site. The main question of this study was about how the environmental changes in this area in the chalcolithic period. We also sought to answer the questions of whether climatic events and natural hazards contributed to the decline of the prehistoric cultures of North Central Iran? What were the climatic conditions of the Chalcolithic Age (4200-3000 BC) like? This research is based on environmental sedimentology studies of the prehistoric site of Mafin Abad, Islamshahr (Figurs. 1-2). The stratigraphic report of each of the excavated sedimentary trenches along with the features and contents of each layer are presented in full. Also, to analyze the findings, archaeological information of the Chalcolithic Age of North Central Iran and paleoclimate research of Greenland (GISP2), Iran, and neighboring regions have been examined. The Middle Holocene covers approximately 8200 to 4200 years ago. This period in the cultural region of North Central Iran includes the cultural periods of Sialk I, II, III, and IV. Although in the first half of the Middle Holocene, in general, warm climatic conditions (in different areas with a decrease or increase in humidity) prevailed, but from about the beginning of the fourth millennium to the second half of the third millennium BC, frequently, abrupt climate change has occurred, causing severe droughts or torrential rains in various regions. Flood-based sedimentary strata in the ancient cities of Ur, Shurupak, and Kish in Mesopotamia from the mid-fourth millennium BC to the early third millennium BC may indicate the occurrence of climatic hazards associated with climate change. This evidence has been obtained from the C and D sedimentological trenches of Mafin Abad site belonging to the mid-fourth millennium BC. Paleoclimate research in Lake Maharlou in Fars province shows a very dry period between 3700 to 3500 BC. Studies of Lake Neor in Ardebil province determine a significant increase in drought and dust flux during the fourth millennium BC. Proxies of Lake Kongor in the Gorgan plain show the dry conditions from about 3700 BC to the end of the fourth millennium BC. The results of research in Katalekhor Cave in Zanjan indicate the existence of dry conditions in the early and late centuries of the fourth millennium BC. Also, high-resolution paleoclimate research of Soreq Cave shows the very dry climatic conditions between 3700 and 3600 BC (Figur. 3).In the archaeological studies of North Central Iran, it is clear from the datings of most sites, except for a few, that habitation in them lasted until the late Sialk III4-5 and the early Sialk III6-7b, and other sites, since the Sialk III6-7b are set up. In sites that, according to the systematic survey, have pottery of all layers of Sialk III, it is impossible to assume with complete certainty the continuity without interruption of dwelling.  According to sedimentological studies, in Trench D, a thick, dense layer of sediment (3.5 m thick) covered a layer of gray soil with Sialk III4-5 pottery, which probably indicates the flooding of an ancient river near this site (Figurs. 1-2). Paleoclimate studies show that despite the overall optimum climatic conditions during the Mid-Holocene in the westerly-dominated regions in West Asia, this period is punctuated by episodic dry spells, particularly during the fourth millennium BC. Such abrupt climate variability has probably been accompanied by extreme weather events, such as severe droughts and torrential rains which have potentially led to rivers overflowing and sink the plains and alluvial fans. The settlement gap in the Chalcolithic villages of the Tehran Plain in the late Sialk III4-5 period and the decreasing trend of settlements in Sialk III6-7b and Sialk IV periods, and then, the cultural decline of the Bronze Age in North Central Iran may have been related with the climate changes during the second half of the Mid-Holocene. It is worth noting, according to archaeological studies in Alborz and Qazvin provinces, the number of bronze and iron age settlements in these areas is more than Tehran plain. So we can say that probably the abrupt climate change of the late Middle Holocene has changed the pattern and spatial distribution of settlements in the western part of the cultural region of North Central Iran, and shifted the settlement from arid to semi-arid areas and more favorable climates. Environmental sedimentology in archaeological sites can acquaint us with natural events and climate change in antiquity. The results of these studies can also be effective in understanding the causes of cultural changes in prehistoric societies. This study identifies the climatic conditions of the fourth millennium BC and the dry climatic events of the Chalcolithic era and reveals the destructive effects of natural hazards associated with climate change. So far, no research has been conducted with the approach of studying climatic events in the decline of Sialk III culture in North Central Iran.

    Keywords: Mafin Abad, Environmental Sedimentology, Paleoclimate Research, Mid-Holocene, Sialk III, Fourth Millennium BC
  • Abdolkarim Attarzadeh * Pages 167-192

    At the same time as the industrial revolution and the production of factory products in the West, handicrafts gradually got out from the competition and went to the sideline. Due to the exclusive features of each of the handicraft’s fields this conversion of situation was not the same. Metalwork with its specific features has also gone through the ups and downs. In the present research these questions are considered: Has the European industrial developments been the cause of changes in the craft industry in Iran? And if the first question proved, on which features of the decorative, formal, technical and structural features of traditional Iranian metalwork have influenced? The aim of this study is understanding Influential components on Iranian handicrafts especially in metalwork and utilizing the results of the research to revive the low-powered characteristics of traditional metalworking and to compete again in this area. The research methodology is also based on collecting and reviewing the data and samples in the important periods before and after this important historical and documentary event and analyzing them with written texts and resources simultaneously. Data studies have led to the conclusion that Iran's metalworking prior to the industrial changes of the West has continued with changes since the Industrial Revolution. These changes have more to do with the application, material, color and etc. Simultaneously with the Industrial Revolution and the production of factory products in the West, as well as the creation of Western styles, methods and schools of art and the vast changes that took place in the definition and interpretation of art compared to the past, traditional arts and handicrafts gradually out of competition. And went to the margins. Many of these products, which were once the main and most important tools and equipment used by the people and the court, became cultural and traditional goods during the 16 to 20 and 21centuries AD and became more of a gift for gifts, treasures and cultural artifacts. They became the focus for Iranians and foreign travelers. Iranian metalworking as one of the most important industries with characteristics such as material, application, tools and methods of construction, various decorations, patterns, inscriptions, themes and concepts of patterns, forms, etc. were not equally affected in the face of the industrial revolution. Some features of metalworking underwent fundamental changes and some features did not change much. Some became very weak, some rode in the eric of these developments, and some continued to live with changes. were not equally affected in the face of the industrial revolution. Some features of metalworking underwent fundamental changes and some features did not change much. In general, from the late Safavid period to the middle of the Qajar period and the beginning of the reign of Nasser al-Din Shah (1848-1895 ) AD, the import of industrial and artistic products of the West to Iran was less and from the reign of Nasser al-Din Shah, the relationship between Iran and the West became wider and wider. And led to travel and reciprocal travel.     The concern of the present article was that the industrial developments and the corresponding introduction of various products of factories and also the change of deep attitude towards art in comparison with the past in Europe have caused changes in which of the decorative, formal, technical and structural features of traditional Iranian metalwork. ? What is the situation of these possible changes in Iran's metalworking position compared to the past? A general view of a variety of past metal products reinforced the assumption that all disciplines and products related to metalworking, including construction, shape, decoration, motifs, subject matter and concepts of motifs and applications gradually and after the Industrial Revolution Has been influenced by the industrial and artistic developments of the West, This effect has not caused complete oblivion or transformation of the works and the products produced, with traditional concepts and functions and the type of construction and to some extent the decoration in the Western way has continued its life. Knowing the original characteristics of Iranian metalwork and its distinction from the characteristics of Western art doubles the need for research. Accordingly, the aim of this study is to identify the hypertextual effects of the West on Iranian metalworking to revive the indigenous and traditional characteristics of this broad and long-standing field and re-compete in this field.                                          The research method was to study and describe the documents before and after the period of transformation (before and after the period of Naser al-Din Shah) in Iranian metalwork in terms of material, decoration, artistic skills, engravings, etc. that can be based on the information obtained. Recognized the originality or effectiveness of the work. Metal works that could be studied in written sources, museums and private collections inside and outside Iran were very numerous and highly scattered this situation made them difficult to access and beyond the size of an article. For this reason, by using the non-probabilistic and random selection method, from the multitude of metal utensils, objects and tools, 300 works belonging to the pre-transformation period and 300 works belonging to the post-transformation period were selected. Since the features associated with metalworking were varied, including construction, polishing, decoration, engraving, inscriptions, and the like,To describe and analyze each of them, the following options were considered: role, form, application, line, gender, technique, subject matter and product type. Each of these options, due to its breadth and variety, was divided into sub-options and sub-options.. For example, the "decorations" variable included more detailed options such as embossing, plating, wire work, carving, machining. Studying 600 metal works with structures, forms, ornaments, patterns and other features produced results almost in line with the hypotheses. Circular-shaped works, from the middle of the Qajar period onwards, have become much more diverse due to the use of new tools, and despite the continuation of past methods, industrial casting has affected the production of more metal products in the second Qajar period.The diverse uses of former metalwork, especially government objects and jewelry, have continued into the new era, but their general use has declined ( Figure 1, 9-12).The writing on the metal works in the first period, with the greater use of the third line in the second period, shows the construction of the necessary equipment for mourning, taziyeh ceremonies and other religious performances (Figure 4, 18- 21). Which includes all kinds of signs, boilers, signs, gauges and the like. Reduction of metals such as bronze in the new period compared to the previous period, and the use of new metals such as Warsaw, the use of iron and gold in the second period compared to the previous one, explains the excessive interest of the later Qajar kings and after them in collecting jewelry and using iron in new constructions (Figure 5). The prominent presence of decorations on coatings, machine lathes, tapestries and enamels, while showing more variety of colors in the second Qajar period onwards, is a reason for using new techniques and sometimes foreign orders for metal works (Figure 6, 13- 15). Also, in relation to the subjects used, it can be said that the change in the use of works from the military and folklore of the pre-transformation period to decorative applications determines the gradual functional shift of metalworking in the two periods before and after the Industrial Revolution (Figure 7, 16- 17). In response to the second question: "What is the situation of these possible changes in Iran's metalworking position compared to the past?" It can be answered that Iran's metalworking continued before the industrial developments in the West, with changes in the period after the Industrial Revolution.

    Keywords: Influences of industrial revolution, Safavid, Qajar, s metal work, Iran Metalwork
  • Mahdi Alirezazadeh Alirezazadeh *, Mahmood Heydarian, Alireza Khosrowzadeh Pages 193-216

    Archaeologists have identified and recorded only some of the innumerable archaeological sites, while thousands of sites are destroyed each year to make way for ongoing land development. One way to help us understand and protect these sites is to create Predictive models. It is obvious that when it comes to modeling, in fact, with Reductionist approaches, it is an attempt to simulate a phenomenon that has occurred in very distant times. However, predictive models are tools that can help archaeologists in many cases. This research tries to introduce the most suitable locations for the formation of the Chalcolithic settlements of Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari whit ArcMap software and based on utilizing the relationship between ancient settlements and landscapes, investigating the role of factors affecting these settlements and predictive models. To achieve this, at first, 75 Chalcolithic sites in this area were surveyed relative to the environmental variables of altitude from the sea level, slope percent, distance from the water resources, vegetation, and soil texture class. Then using fuzzy logic analysis in GIS, the most suitable places for the existence of Chalcolithic sites were identified. Finally, after analyzing the situation of the spatial distribution of the sites concerning the factors mentioned above, and examining the accuracy of the proposed model based on using 15 control sites, proved that this model has come up well from the forecast of the most suitable locations for the formation of the Chalcolithic settlements of Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari. In addition to saving time and money, such models can help to better understand the environmental potentials and factors influencing the formation of prehistoric sites. It is very clear that in archeological surveys, a process similar to modeling is subconsciously formed in the mind of the survey team so that after a few days of fieldwork in a particular landscape, the survey team subconsciously understands in which part of the environment the "possibility" of the site is more and in which parts it is less. It should be noted that environmental factors affecting ancient settlements are diverse and abundant. But some of them can be selected as the most important factors. It can never involve all the influencing factors in modeling. The nature of modeling takes advantage of this reductionist perspective. In the meantime, to provide a predictive model for Chalcolithic sites of Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari, 75 Chalcolithic sites in the region are used. These sites have been identified in archaeological surveys in the region. However, from the environmental variables, five variables of Altitude, Percentage of Land Slope, Distance from the Waterway, Vegetation, and Soil Texture Class were selected. Another point involved in selecting variables is that they do not change much over time. The way it works is that these five variables are added information layers in the ArcMap software. Then the geographical UTM of the desired sites will be added to each of these layers separately. It is easy to determine the distribution of the Chalcolithic sites of the region concerning these layers. These distributions will be presented in the form of diagrams. Here the required information is extracted from 75 sites. This information extracted in the next step forms the basis for the production of “Fuzzy” layers. These fuzzy layers are made with the help of the extracted data of the previous step and by selecting the desired Fuzzy Functions. Finally, by overlay the five fuzzy layers produced, a prediction model is presented for the Chalcolithic sites of the area. The questions that arise here are how ArcMap software can help to better understand environmental factors on ancient settlements? What are the advantages of fuzzy logic modeling? Are such proposed models effective in practice or are they purely theoretical? How accurate is this model and where are the position of important sites and regional indicators in this model? It should be noted that ArcMap software has many capabilities. Among other things, it can easily provide researchers with a view of an area with the help of a digital elevation model (DEM). Using DEM, the location of the sites to environmental factors can be determined. Suppose you have identified a large number of sites, with the help of this software you can easily and with a few commands to determine what distribution the sites have taken with rivers and other factors. These are just a few of the many features of ArcMap software. Using this software, different layers can be analyzed and models can be presented. One of the advantages of the fuzzy prediction model for researchers is that it provides infinite continuous values ​​for the possibility of having a site in a landscape. That is, based on the input information, it can determine the possibility of a site in a landscape as a continuous spectrum (from zero to one). Therefore, the study area can be divided into very desirable, desirable, moderate, etc. in terms of the possibility of the existence of an ancient site. This capability is due to the continuous quantification of fuzzy logic to each of these environmental factors. Also, the prediction model presented in this method is testable. That is, if a model is presented based on the number of sites, it can be tested by several other sites. It can even be determined in the model where the position of the index sites of the region is and what number this model considers for the geographical location of those sites. In fuzzy logic modeling, the performance of fuzzy functions plays a key role. The proposed model can only provide a near-realistic explanation if these functions are used correctly. For example, it is very obvious that in the analysis of variables of altitude and percentage of land slope, different fuzzy functions should be used. As the following theoretical studies will show, the percentage of slope changes compared to altitude changes are more decisive in determining the location of the site. That is, if a few percent is added to the slope, this factor moves to the critical point, while the altitude variable is not so sensitive. That is, in this particular example, the fuzzy function for the slope of the land must be more sensitive than the fuzzy function for the altitude variable. Therefore, it is necessary to model each of the variables with the most appropriate fuzzy function available. That is, the sensitivity of the variable is in good agreement with the sensitivity of the fuzzy function. Considering all these cases, a fuzzy prediction model was presented for the location of Chalcolithic sites of Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari. In this model, it was determined what distribution the sites of the region have adopted concerning the mentioned five variables. The desired geography was determined for the possibility of the existence of Chalcolithic sites in this area. In this model, the entire surface of the area was presented as a map, which is colored with a range of black (zero) to white (one). White areas are desirable places for the existence of Chalcolithic sites in the region. However, the black dots indicate that the possibility of a site in those areas is very low. Significant sites of the region, such as Choghate Eskandari, Tape Jamalo, Koganak, Aloni, Tape Afghan, Gerde Chelehgah, and the like, are in white dots in this model. Also, the fuzzy value of these areas can be determined with great accuracy, as shown in the table in this text. Therefore, by using these models, it is possible to determine the desired landscape for placing the Chalcolithic site in practice, not just on paper. While the importance of environmental factors involved in this modeling can be seen. This modeling can save time and money. Also, the reasons for the formation of sites in different landscapes can be examined, and vice versa, why the distribution and existence of sites in such parts of the study area are so low.

    Keywords: chalcolithic, Chaharmahal, Bakhtiari, Spatial Analysis, Predictive Model, Fuzzy logic
  • Ali Karimikiya *, Reza Rezaloo Pages 217-241

    Khojaly-Gadabay is a culture in the archeological literature of the Republic of Azerbaijan that was first recognized in the Khojaly region of this country. Chronologically, it dates to the Late Bronze and the Old Iron Ages in the Caucasus area, and the Iron Ages I and II in the northwest of Iran. In addition to Khojaly-Gadabay, this culture is known with the names such as Central Zagafia, Ganja-Garabagh in the Republic of Azerbaijan, and Lechashen-Metsamur in the Republic of Armenia. Most archeological data of this culture have been obtained and studied from the cemeteries of non-residential cites. This descriptive-analytical study analyzes the main characteristics, based on archaeological data and with a comparative approach. In this study, it is tried to answer two main questions. First, what are the most important archaeological attributes of this culture in the studied geography? Second, how the origins and ways of expanding this culture can be explained? This paper can provide a clear understanding and an appropriate background for the study of this culture in the northwest of Iran. The main features of this culture have been the use of gray pottery, various burial shapes, semi-nomadic lifestyle, and the use of structures and temples in the spiritual and religious range. This study aimed at investigating the archeological data obtained both in the South Caucasus and in the northwest of Iran. The main objective of this work is to explore the most important cultural features of Khojaly-Gadabay culture and its distribution areas, as well as clarifying some unknown and dark features and commonalities and differences of this culture in the two mentioned geographical locations.The main questions of this study are as follows: 1) What are the most important archaeological features of this culture in the studied geography? 2) How the nuclei of formation, origin, and dissemination of this culture are explained? The answer to these unknowns can provide a clear horizon and a suitable background for studying this culture in the northwest of Iran (Azerbaijan). Reviewing previous studies show that the main features of this culture are the use of gray pottery, burials of different shapes, having a semi-nomadic life, and the construction and use of temples (in terms of spiritual and religious aspects). Based on the obtained archaeological data of this culture, Azerbaijani archaeologists attribute the formation, origin, and spread of this culture to the west of this country in 1450 to 900/800 B.C. This culture has spread from the South Caucasus to the northwest of Iran (Azerbaijan) between tribes that have been peacefully connected. The present study was conducted based on a descriptive-analytical method with a comparative approach. The authors of the article try to study this culture in the two geographical areas of the South Caucasus and northwest of Iran using different designs, species of pottery, and metal objects through a comparative approach and provide a clear understanding of this culture. Toward the end of the second millennium BC, tribes and communities engaged in agriculture and animal husbandry emerged in the western part of the Republic of Azerbaijan. All archaeological and cultural data related to these communities are known in the Azerbaijani archeological literature as “Khojaly-Gadabay culture”. Based on the obtained archaeological data of this culture, Azerbaijani archaeologists attribute the formation, origin, and spread of this culture to the west of this country in 1450 to 900/800 B.C.  This culture has spread from the South Caucasus to the northwest of Iran between tribes that have been peacefully connected. Khojaly-Gadabay culture has been studied in terms of burial method, as well as archaeological and cultural aspects in the geographical area of ​​the northwest of Iran, especially on the banks of the Aras River in sites or cemeteries such as Jafarabad Khodaafarin Cemetery, Larijan Cemetery, Tuali Sofla Cemetery. One of the main features of Khojaly-Gadabay culture is gray pottery (Figurs: 5,6,7,8) decorated with carvings and bronze objects (Figur: 3). In terms of shape and form, tombs come in a variety of shapes, including box-shaped and stone-shaped tombs in mountainous areas foothills whereas simple graves, earthen tombs, pit, plain-like, and brick graves in plain-like areas. Burials have been performed both collectively and individually. Burials in the residential area of ​​the Caucasus basin were mostly collective and secondary, except that burial with a brick structure has not been obtained from the Caucasus region. Kurgani burials (Figur: 15) and stone-shaped boxes (Figur: 9) are located in two geographical areas in non-residential areas while cemeteries and have been reported from the foothills and around the castles. Khojaly-Gadabay culture pottery includes portable and removable utensils. Commonly used geometric patterns in the study area include horizontal recessed stripes, lace-shape patterns, horizontal lines, dot-like patterns, mushroom-shaped appendages, rhombus-shaped patterns, spring-shaped patterns, and stamped patterns. Animal motifs used in this culture include motifs of goats, rams (Figur: 6), cows, or birds. The resulting pottery is technically divided into two categories of wheel maker and handmade. Interestingly, according to the present study, pottery species show resemblance in two geographical areas, both in terms of pattern and form. One of the interesting points about these cemeteries is the secondary burial and having an altar or temple. The use of sacred sites and religious activities in the residential area obtained from layer VIII of Kul Tepe-I is related to the Chalcolithic period. Also, indemnification of a temple that has cow-horn and horseshoes shaped stoves is related to the Early Bronze Age of Kul Tepe-I and II. The use of sacred sites in residential or burial area in the region is suggestive of the Late Bronze Age and the Early Iron Age in the South Caucasus basin. In some of these cemeteries, including Muncuqlu Tǝpǝ/Munjuglu Tepe, each tomb has its own altar, and the altars were built right at the entrance and in front of the tombs. The depth of the altars is 50 cm and the depth of the graves is 70-100 cm. One of the religious sites related to this culture is obtained from the Gegarut site of Armenia, which was named temple (Figur: 10) by an excavator. Another important element in the subject of spirituality and religion is the construction and use of the temple. In this regard, the use of the temple is one of the major features of Khojaly-Gadabay culture. The reason is that some squirrels, dogs, and horses have been found in these tombs. Furthermore, finding an altar platform from the cemeteries and the mixture of soil covering the upper part of the tombs, along with pieces of pottery, has been recognized by archaeologists as a sign of the burial rite with the reception. Sometimes, the temple is built in the settlement area and sometimes in cemeteries and non-settlement, indicting worships in both parts. One of the important features of this culture is the decoration of pottery with animal heads, including ram heads, which were obtained from the Goy Tepe (Figur: 20) and belongs to the Iron Age II. The decoration of the utensils with the heads of animals such as cows, horses, and other animals, in addition to pottery, is also reflected in bronze objects. Pottery with embossed decorations with animal heads (ram or cow heads) from Zayamchai Cemetery of the Republic of Azerbaijan, is seen in this culture. These potters have two holes near the edge and the crescent sign inside the bowls. Like this type of earthen bowl, some potteries were detected in Dinkhah Tepe (Figur: 22) and Kordlar Tepe (Figur: 23). Based on the discovery of uninhabited cemeteries in the foothills and mountainous areas along with the settlement in the lowlands, archaeologists have concluded that the livelihood and lifestyle of the Khojaly-Gadabay culture were semi-nomadic and the inhabitants in mountainous areas had been engaged in livestock and agricultural activities.

    Keywords: Khojaly-Gadabay culture, South Caucasus, Republic of Azerbaijan, Northwest Iran, Late Bronze Age, and Old Iron Age
  • Mahsa Mohammad Gholi Beik *, Hamidreza Jayhani Pages 243-269

    Due to the written history of urbanization, the City of Bishapur is counted as one of the Sassanid era's valuable examples. Through this city, valuable buildings and monuments were obtained, including the temple of Anahita, hall of Chalipa, eastern and western Ivans (loggias), and related ornaments such as stucco and mosaic. The eastern mosaic Ivan (loggia) is one of the fundamental discoveries and components of the Bishapour royal citadel (Figure5), built in front of Anahita temple, Valerian palace, and hall of Chalipa. This Ivan has the most sets of intact mosaics. It is believed that the Roman prisoners (captured during the battle of Shahpour I and Valerian) were among the first people to teach the Iranians the art of mosaic imagery. May we emphasize that this story cannot be accepted for certain and requires further research. Today, studying the images on mosaics and comparing them with available historical and religious data gives us a new opportunity to interpret them differently than what our ancestors have been telling us for all these years and centuries. Comparing these images with those engraved on Sasanid plates tells us how Anahita (Persian goddess of fertility and wisdom) provides blessings and wisdom for kings and emperors. There is a strong possibility that these mosaics are dated back to Narseh's reign, 7th Sasanid king, and Shahpur I son. The Bishapur eastern mosaic porch (Ivan) is the precious remnant of the Sassanid era in which the greatest amount and most intact mosaics were obtained. The art of creating images using mosaic was pretty much rare in Iran. It is considered that this art found its way to Iran through Roman captivity after the war of ShapurI and Valerian. The study of the mosaic Ivan ornaments is important because it helps us know more about the city's use and historical interventions in it. Neglecting some of the details in motifs and attribution of making these decorations to Roman captives made it necessary to re-examine mosaics and their details. A review of the mosaic motifs and comparing them with historical and religious documents represent a new interpretation that can lead to a more understanding of the construction time and a clearer view of eastern Ivan's role within the royal palace. The purpose of this article is to re-read the mosaic motifs of the eastern Ivan to understand the architectural use of the mosaic Ivan, the possible period of construction, and understanding the story told by mosaics. This historical and descriptive study was conducted by comparing the images and motifs. Based on the results and findings of comparing mosaic motifs with reliefs and the same motifs on dishes and containers, the mosaics' images can be considered a glorious ceremony of giving splendor by the goddess Anahita to an important person (Figure 7). But who is this person? Considering the incompleteness of the mosaic motifs in the northwest and southwest fronts of the Ivan, it is impossible to express the person's identity in question (Figure 9). Still, by reviewing historical events and examining the fundamental changes in the art of this period during different years, perhaps a new hypothesis can be put forward about the possibility of building an Ivan by someone other than Shapur I. The first step is to search among the people who showed the most attention towards the goddess Anahita and showed her their support. The importance of this goddess is evident in the Sassanid Dynasty. But what is the reason for not attributing the mosaics to the Shapur I? With Shapur I's arrival, the image of Anahita was removed from coins and was replaced by Ahura Mazda. While even the quality of implementation of motifs is not the same as the similar examples built by the Romans in Antioch (Figure 4), how can solely because of the presence of Roman captives at Bishapur, assign the construction of mosaics to them? Also, Ivan's space in Bishapour is different from the Ivans in other royal buildings in the Sassanid period (Figure 1). Neither of these two porches is located along the principal axes of the Chalipa Hall. This is so obvious that Girshman does not consider the period of construction of the mosaic Ivan and the hall of Chalipa to be simultaneous. Sarfaraz has also found another layer of red mortar under the mosaic layer of the mosaic courtyard (western mosaic Ivan), which was thought to be the oldest flooring layer. Before examining Anahita's clothing, it is necessary to return to the issue of the dissimilarity of the Ivan with other spaces called Ivan in royal palaces. Lionel Bier believes that the discovered parts are a small part of a larger building. Azarnoush also considers the two buildings of the west and east Ivans along with the Chalipa Hall as a temple for the worship of Anahita. According to this, the Bishapour royal citadel plan was compared with the plan of an important religious complex such as Takht-e Soleiman. The number of similar cases in terms of plan form and the arrangement of spaces and structure is so numerous that the possibility of religious use for Bishapour can be considered probable (Figure 2). Furthermore, during the first Hormozd, Anahita's dress was different on the coins than the clothes in the mosaics of Bishapur. In the coins related to the second Bahram, her crown lacks a bullet above the head. So, the first similarities in the motifs of mosaics with Anahita are visible from the period of Narseh. According to Girshman, in the third century AD, the Sassanids' woolen and silk fabrics rarely had a pattern. We should consider that the use of patterns on the fabric has probably become common with the construction of weaving centers in Khuzestan by Shapur II (Table1). In terms of clothes, hair, and narrated subjects, mosaics' motifs have tremendous similarities with relief and motifs of coin attributed to the Anahita in the next periods. Also, there are some similarities in the description of the fifth Yasht regarding Anahita's appearance with a piece of the mosaic decorated with the woman lying on the pillow. Therefore, it should be studied in the history between 276 to 379 AD from Bahram II to Shapur II. Finally, by comparing the motifs of Mosaic Ivan with other remaining motifs of the goddess Anahita on the coins of the Sassanid period, the motifs attributed to Anahita on the carvings and sculptures discovered from the Arbabi mansion of Hajiabad, it was concluded that the motifs implemented on the mosaics are completely Iranian in terms of faces, clothes, and sitting posture. The weakness in the implementation of the motifs and the method of preparing the Bishapour mosaics is probably due to the implementation of those who learned this art from Roman captives in the past and later performed it at the request of the king. During these 100 years, one of the people who explicitly mentions the goddess Anahita is Narseh, Shapur I's son. Since his monarchy has been taken away, he clearly turns to Anahita and receives the ring of power from her (Figure 6). Narseh owes this victory to the goddess Anahita's support, so he wants to show the power, glory, and support of Anahita. The best place for this is his hometown, which was established by the order of the powerful Sassanid king, Shapur I. According to the issues mentioned above, it is more likely that the mosaics were made by order of Narseh to thank the goddess Anahita and to show her support in a city that is probably a collection for the worship of this goddess.

    Keywords: Bishapur, mosaic ivan, Goddess Anahita, Shapur I, Narseh traditions
  • Hassan Moradi *, Hassan Karimian Pages 271-294

    The Neyriz Plain, which is located between Kerman and Fars provinces, with an area of around 240km2 has hosted important settlements belonging to the Islamic era (Figure 1). In order to identifying these settlements and to determine their chronological order, a systematic surface survey was carried out by the authors at the first season of 2017. The first step was to study the ceramic fragments collected from surface survey, and compare them on the basis of similarities of their forms, fabric and decoration. Based on the results of data analysis, the ceramics were classified into eight main categories. So, the main aim of this paper is to perform classification, typification, and propose a relative chronology of the collected potteries from Islamic period sites from the Neyriz Plain. The results suggest a strong relation between the ceramics belonging to the Early to Mid-Islamic era (11-16 cetury AD) and the eastern Iranian civilizations, such as Sirjan. For instance, the slip-painted and polychrome Sgraffiato potteries have considerable similarity to those obtained from Sirjan. Indeed, the Neyriz plain may be considered as one of the main distribution areas of the slip-painted potteries of Sirjan. Moreover, the ceramics dated 13-17 centuries AD are indication of the cultural ties and trade relations between this region of Fars province with Nishabur, Kerman and Sistan regions of Iran. The main aim of this paper is to perform classification, typification, and to propose a relative chronology of the collected potteries from Islamic period sites from the Neyriz Plain. The objectives are to compare Neyriz Plain potteries to similar ones from other Islamic archaeological sites, and to recognize inter and intraregional connections of the ancient settlements of this plain and other ceramic production centers. The present research aims answer the question of to what extend settlements of the Neyriz Plain find cultural relation to other Iranian Islamic settlements? And how much study of ceramic fragments will reveal such relationships? Primary investigation of historical sources indicates interregional cultural ties between Neyriz and Shiraz (on the west), and Kerman and Sirjan provinces (from the east). Furthermore, considering the location of Neyriz Plain on the main route between Shiraz to Kerman corridor, vast cultural ties can be imagined between Neyriz Plain settelement and eastern Iranian cities, such as Sirjan, Kerman and even Nishabour on the northeast of Iran. The present research adopts a descriptive-analytical method in both fieldwork and bibliographical studies. Fieldworks consist of pottery findings, typology, and classification of findings (based on similarities of their forms, and decorative elements), while bibliographic activities include literature survey, similar findings, and suggestive dating. Although there have been efforts in investigating pottery data of northern coasts of the Persian Gulf, there is little information on regional data, especially areas between Fars, Kerman, and Mokran (northern area of Persian Gulf) during early Islamic periods. Neyriz, located at the eastern Fars Province on the Shiraz to Sirjan trade corridor, is a marvelous ancient region with remarkable sites. Further to identification of 63 sites at Neyriz Plain, some 911 potsherds recovered from the Bakun to late Islamic periods. The authors focus on 440 Islamic fragments, which were generally divided into two unglazed (214 pieces), and glazed (226 pieces) sherds. Considering their form, temper, impurity and decorations, they were categorized to eight main groups, towards chronological comparison against other similar samples.  Unglazed potteries include two slipped ones and potteries with incised and stamped decorations, which are characteristically the majority in the collection and consisted of two groups of thickly slipped potteries (Figure 2). Glazed samples include six main groups of monochrome, Sgraffito, splashed, slipped painted, underglaze painting, and painting on glaze ceramics. The potteries reveal information about patterns of production, consumption, and distribution of pottery during different periods. Thick slipped potteries date to Sassanid to early Islamic periods (3-8 centuries AD). Considering incised designs under slips and color of slips within the group, it appears that all four groups are from the same period. The first group, with thick slip and fine temper, from Williamson Collection, date to 2nd century BC to 7th AD century (Priestman, 2005: 232-234, 402, Pl. 82-84). It appears, considering incised designs with similar themes, they are later than the other three groups, while they date to a same period. It is confirmable following absence of the same findings from two other Parthian sites in Neyriz Plain. Potteries with incised designs frequently associated with potteries with stamped, and cylindrical designs, similar to findings from Sirjan and Qasr-i-Abu Nasr (Whitcomb, 1985: 122, 135). However, turquoise glaze is the most common monochrome glaze; it is the most abundant one. On the other hand, there are other monochrome glazes that characteristically are significant in the pottery studies. The white mono chrome pottery that is one of the particles of the “Samarra Horizon”, has several production centers including Sirjan (Williamson, 1987: 15), which appears an indication of a bigger pattern of relations, comparing to previous period. The green mono chrome glazed pottery that is very similar to the same color Sgraffito is reported also as findings of eastern coasts of Africa. The turquoise mono chrome glaze with earthen temper, vastly range many forms and quality of glaze that date as wide as Sassanid to Late Islamic periods, for continuity of production and consumption. The other type is stone paste that mainly appears as open form vessels and date to 11-13 century.    Slip painted wares of Neyriz are similar to the findings from Sirjan, which appears, as a characteristic pottery within 10th and 11th centuries AD, as an indication of more relations to Sirjan. Potteries with splashed and Sgraffito glaze are chronologically and technically similar, which indicate a penetration of Sirjan to Neyriz. Pottery with underglaze paintings from group 1 are similar to findings from other centers including Kashan, Gorgan, and Soltan Abad that had commercial relations. Such pottery can be found in other areas of Iran as well. The underglaze painted Potteries from group 2 indicate commercial relation to the regions such as Nishapur and Samarqand, of which productions have found in other regions including southern Africa. Black painting under turquoise glaze potteries are of common types dated to 13-17 centuries. Blue and white potteries produced at various centers, the closest one Kirman. Turquoise & Black Underglaze-Painted Ware, Blue and White Underglaze-Painted are similar to findings from Keram and Sistan that indicate vast inter regional cultural relation. The absence of some mostly known Islamic potteries including moulded Celadon, and luster ceramics are of the other issues, significant in studies of potteries of Neyriz Plain, which probably is for lack of production and circulation of the wares in the region.

    Keywords: Typology, Classification, Islamic Potteries, Neyriz Plain
  • Salman Anjomrouz, Mohammad Mortezayi * Pages 295-325

    Chāhdādkhodā is located at the southernmost of Kerman province; on the border with ‎provinces ‎of Sistan & Baluchistan and Hormozgan.‎ In the administrative divisions of Iran, This area is one of dual districts of Qalehganj towns. ‎In 2016, the first archaeological survey season of Qalehganj was carried out for completing ‎the ‎archaeological map of Iran and identifying the cultural sequence in this area.‎  In present paper, it's tried to determine the regional and trans- regional interactions of study ‎area ‎with its adjacent regions by analyzing and integrating the results of survey.‎  Based on the carried survey, 66 sites and traces were identified that chronologically ‎belonging to ‎periods of Paleolithic (2 cases), fifth millennium bc (2 cases), fourth millennium ‎bc (10 cases), ‎third millennium bc (27 cases), Historic periods(29 sites) and Islamic era (3 cases) ‎and Recent ‎century(2 cases.).‎ Morphologically and functionally, the Ancient sites can be divided to 8 types: 1-Wide multi-‎‎ ‎functional sites 2- Historical Crain burials 3- Ancient tepes 4- Metallurgy sites 5- religion ‎buildings ‎‎6- fortresses 7- Rock engravings 8- Ancient sites with small cultural domination.‎  Based on geographical location, all of above sites situated on two areas as highland zone ‎and ‎plain.‎   Finally, by analyzing of preliminary results of present study area and its adjacent area at ‎northern ‎highlands of Persian gulf, Baluchistan (Bampur) ,Halilroud basin (Jiroft) and Soghan valley) we can consider the study area as a intermediation for connection of mentioned areas in prehistoric and historical periods.‎ Qal’eh Ganj is located on the mostsouthern place of Kerman province. Chāh-e Khodādād is one of two districts of the present Qal’eh Ganj County, on the border of Sistan & Balouchestan and Hormozgan (Figure 1). In 2016, the first season of archaeological survey and reconnaissance of town of Qal’eh Ganj has been carried out as a part of the Iranian National Archaeological Map Project in which the authors tried to clarify the cultural status of the region in different periods in Chāh-e Khodādād District (Mortezayi & Anjomrouz, 2017). In addition to the purposes as mentioned above, the present research attempts to analyze and compound the results of this research and to discern regional and trans-regional connections and interactions with the neighboring areas. This region has a strategic situation because it lies at the trijunction of three significant culturalgeographical zones in the southeast of Iran (Mokrān shores, the Persian Gulf shores and Halīlrūd Rūd (Halīl River) basin (Figure 1). This survey resulted in the discovery of 66 archaeological localities dating from Palaeolithic to Islamic periods. The sites as mentioned earlier which are morphologically influenced by the geographical factors of their places can be categorized into two different types: plain areas and highlands (foothill and mountainous areas). The first season of archaeological survey and reconnaissance of town of Qal’eh Ganj has been carried out as a part of the Iranian National Archaeological Map Project in which the authors tried to clarify the cultural status of the region in different periods in Chāh-e Khodādād District (Mortezayi & Anjomrouz, 2017). The present research attempts to analyse and compound the results of this project and discern regional and trans-regional connections and interactions of this area with the neighbouring areas.  Throughout historic and prehistoric period, how is assess the cultural connection of survey area with surrounded regions? Based on geographical location of study area and archaeological document from surrounded area, we can assume survey area as an intermediation for cultural connection between Halilroud basins, Baluchistan and northen beach of Persian Gulf. Based on the survey, 66 sites and properties have been identified and registered which belong to the Paleolithic (Figure 7 & 8; Table 1), 5th millennium BC (Figure 9; Table 1), 4th millennium BC (Figure 10 & 11; Table 1), 3rd millennium BC (Figure 12 & 13; Table 1), Historical period (Figure 15 & 16; Table 1), the Islamic period (Table 1) and the recent century (Table 1). Considering the morphology and forms of the settlements, all of the recollected sites have been divided into eight types of sites including large compound sites, historical cemeteries, ancient tepes (mounds), archaeometallurgical sites, religious buildings, fortresses, petroglyphs and ancient sites with a few numbers of cultural materials. The sites as mentioned earlier which are morphologically influenced by the geographical factors of their places can be categorized into two different types: plain areas and foothill and mountainous areas. This survey which begins with an investigation on some cases dating back to the middle Paleolithic is in line with other similar researches, but it is the starting point of a series of studies in the area in question as well as in the southeast of Iran. The preliminary findings prove, at least, the noticeable potentials of the area under study for further Paleolithic researches. New finds of Paleolithic period from survey area provide a base to develop Paleolithic research in southeastern Iran especially for asses this area in dispersal of human at southern corridor of Iran (Vahdati nasab et al, 2012). Typology and dating of prehistoric sites (Table 2-4) along with their quantity an  dispersion of cultural materials indicates  potentiality  of survey area for appearance and development of third millennium bc occupations and probably  cities of this period on the margin of episodic rivers. Vicinity and interference of third millennium sites with chalcolithic occupations suggest fifth and forth millennium cultures for searching origins of Bronze Age occupations formation in same regain. The analysis of the preliminary findings as well as other few investigations in the neighboring regions in the northern heights of the Persian Gulf (Podat, 2010) including the vast sites of the Bronze Age in the seasonal riversides of the sites under study, these findings can function as a bridge between basin of Jazmurian and the northern shores of the Persian Gulf. Presence of special pottery of historical period, namord and londo in study area (Figures 15 & 16; Table 5), implies on intermediating role of southern Jazmurian between areas from Baluchistan to southern shores of Persian Gulf in Arabian Peninsula.

    Keywords: Chāhdādkhodā, Archaeological survey, ancient sites, Jazmurian basin
  • Azita Mirzaye *, Reza Mehrafarin, Seyed Rasoul Mosavi Haji Pages 327-349

    Geographic and environmental attributes of a given region assume a pivotal role in the formation and persistence of human settlements. Nature confers possibilities and resources on human, who, as per his understanding of them, employs them in pursuit of his goals, hence the rise of human–nature interaction. The frequency of and the ways in which human settlements are established and the type of functions they serve with regard to environmental characteristics give rise to the ecology, which aims to grasp the scope of the interrelationships between humans and the environment. The present paper examines the scope of human-environment interactions in the Parthian period over the geographic extent of ​​the central part of the Kopeh dagh-Aladagh corridor. The paper seeks to ascertain the local environment’s influence on the formation and evolution of Parthian settlements and to find out the pertinent settlement patterns in northern Khorasan. Given the environmental potentialities, what were the Parthians’ criteria for site location when establishing their settlements? How did these priorities affect the distribution of sites and their settlement pattern in the study area?  The present paper represents a multifaceted research drawing upon archaeological survey, ecological studies, information processing in GIS, examining the relationships between natural and cultural variables and their impact on the formation of the contemporaneous settlements, and finally archaeological analysis.  The study adopts an ecological and economical approach. In this context, ecological data on the relation between soil type, geology, flora, fauna, and water table or “biosorption analysis” have been used. Processual archaeologists use ecological systems as their basic model for observing the adaptive transformations humans in response to environmental circumstances as even small environmental alterations will have the potential to affect cultural structures. The Kopeh dagh-Aladagh corridor stretches from Garmab in western North Khorasan to the Mashhad plain to the east. For the purposes of this study, the corridor is divided into the following three separate parts based on geographic features that someway affect cultural aspects: a) Western part: extending from the beginning of the village of Garmab to the border of Shirvan County (Reza Abad), this part is characterized by a mountainous terrain with narrow passes such as Badranlu; b) Central part: in this part, defined by the beginning of Shirvan County (Reza Abad) and the end of Quchan County, the plains grow wider as the mountains begin to sit back; c) Eastern part: Chenaran County and the Mashhad plain mark the extreme boundaries of this part. The focus of the present work is on the central corridor, viz. the stretch delineated by the counties of Shirvan, Farooj and Quchan (Figure: 1). Geographically, the study area encompasses the structural valley of Atrak-Kashafrud, an expanse that is bounded by the mountains of Kopeh Dagh/Hezar Masjed to the north and the Aladagh/Binalud mountains to the south (Figure:2). This plain geomorphological unit exhibits a fairly wide and flat landform, and is principally affected by the sedimentary process of the flowing water bodies of the Kashafrud and Atrak rivers and their tributaries. Geomorphology, it consists of three main units of plain, foothills, and mountains. Its northern and southern sectors are mountainous, its slopes are characterized by foothills, and its central part consists of plain. Indeed, the mountainous quarters comprise small, narrow intermontane plains, which fall in the plain sub-class. The regional heights follow the northwest-southeast trend dictated by the general orientation of the Kopeh dagh zone. The Atrak and Kashafrud rivers rise from the regional mountains, forming two drainage basins. The archeological survey of the concerned area recorded more than 500 archaeological mounds and sites spanning the Chalcolithic to the Islamic period. Based on a comparative analysis of the surface pottery, 20 Parthian sites are distinguishable. It is notable that due to the lack of adequate knowledge of common Parthian pottery forms in the region, due caution has been exercised in the identification of these sites. These Parthian sites are divided between 16 examples lying in the northern half of the plain on the southern slopes of Kopeh dagh/Hezar Masjed and 4 instances that occur in the southern half on the northern slopes of Aladagh. As stated, a main objective of this study is to pin down the influential factors of the region's ecology in the formation of Parthian sites and their distribution in the geographic setting of the central Kopeh dagh-Aladagh corridor. To this end, such components as geology, altitude, slope gradient and aspect, climate, water resources and soil are explored. Finally, the results of the study reveal a close and direct correlation between the site location and the environmental factors (Figures: 3-10). The central Kopeh dagh/Hezar Masjed corridor on the north and Aladagh/Binalud on the south form an upland district hemmed in by mountains. Due to its mountain geomorphology, the area is generally dominated by cold, dry climate. In mountainous regions, slopes and valleys generally offer more advantageous conditions for settlement as the altitude variable prompts reduced temperature and increased humidity. Dropped temperature in warm seasons results in lowered evaporation of water resources, making water resources more easily accessible throughout the year. The choice of appropriate altitude as an influential factor in human activities has thus led to the concentration of Parthian settlements on the slopes dominating the plain. Choosing slopes provided the local populations with access to montane pastures, but also enabled them to exploit alluvial and fertile plains. The same strategy is still operative in the region, where, save for the cities that lie in the plain, rural settlements mostly sit on the slopes overlooking the plain. The distribution of the sites in reference to the slope gradient and aspect shows that, with the exception of F 0026, the Parthian sites lie in proper points of terrain ruggedness and slope gradient spectra, and their dominant slope aspect indicates the maximum use of solar heat in this cold region, with advantageous impacts on agricultural production and pastures. Given their location on slopes, the hitherto identified Parthian sites mostly occur on the spring-fed influent streams that flow into the Atrak, with no instances recognized along the latter. In light of the results from environmental studies, the altitude, slope gradient, easy access to water resources, and fertile soil served as the foremost factors governing the distribution of Parthian sites in the region as they were directly linked with subsistence. It is notable that while our environmental studies drew on the present-day landscape, the survey of the study area produced about 500 sites dating between the Chalcolithic to the Islamic period, and presence of this huge number of sites over this protracted timespan testifies to the fact that advantageous environmental conditions did prevail in the past.

    Keywords: Parthian Settlements, Ecology, Archaeological Survey, North of Khorasan, GIS