فهرست مطالب

نگره - پیاپی 57 (بهار 1400)
  • پیاپی 57 (بهار 1400)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1400/06/10
  • تعداد عناوین: 10
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  • آتنا شیرزادی*، محمد درویشی، داود بکائیان صفحات 5-23
    تکیه معاون الملک کرمانشاه یکی از بناهای زیبا و باشکوه دوره ی قاجار از جهت غنای تصاویر و تنوع رنگ در هنر کاشی کاری ایران است .در این بنا، علاوه بر کاشی های تزیینی معمول بناهای تاریخی، بخش اعظم نگاره های منقوش بر کاشی ها با توجه به کارکرد تکیه، قصص قرآنی و حوادث مرتبط با عاشوراست. بر این اساس، انتظار آن است که متناسب با این نوع نگاره ها جهت به تصویرکشیدن آن ها از رنگ های خاصی نیز استفاده شده باشند که متناسب با کارکرد و فضای کلی تکیه باشند. با توجه به تنوع موضوعات و تعدد کاشی نگاره ها، به جهت محدودتر کردن دامنه ی پژوهش، در این مقاله صرفا به تبیین ارتباط موضوع و رنگ در کاشی نگاره های عاشورایی تکیه با هدف تبیین تاثیر این موضوع بر انتخاب رنگ کاشی نگاره ها پرداخته شده است. بنابراین سعی شده است به این سوال پاسخ داده شود که انتخاب رنگ کاشی نگاره های عاشورایی تکیه معاون الملک کرمانشاه چه ارتباط بصری و مفهومی با موضوع این کاشی نگاره ها دارد؟ این پژوهش از نوع تحقیقات توسعه ای است و از منظر بررسی داده ها، روش تحقیق به صورت کمی وکیفی است که با بررسی همه ی کاشی نگاره های عاشورایی دردسترس بخش زینبیه تکیه انجام پذیرفته است. با استخراج داده های کمی حاصل از میزان استفاده از رنگ در این کاشی نگاره ها با توجه به نتایج آماری به دست آمده به کمک علم پردازش تصویر، این نتیجه حاصل شده است که گرچه انتخاب رنگ در کاشی نگاره های عاشورایی تکیه معاون الملک متاثر از رنگ های غالب مورداستفاده ی دوره قاجار است اما بیشترین درصد رنگ های به کار رفته در کاشی نگاره های عاشورایی، از خانواده رنگ های خاکستری (Gray) هستند که انتخاب آن ها به دلیل کارکرد اصلی تکیه به عنوان مکان عزاداری اباعبدالله (ع) بوده است. بنابراین انتخاب رنگ های به کاررفته در کاشی نگاره های عاشورایی، علاوه بر حفظ تداوم سنت رنگی کاشی کاری دوره ی قاجار، ارتباط مستقیمی با موضوعات و مفاهیم کاشی نگاره های عاشورایی تکیه معاون الملک دارد.
    کلیدواژگان: کاشی نگاره، رنگ، تکیه معاون الملک، کرمانشاه، عاشورا
  • خشایار قاضی زاده*، مرضیه علی پور، پرویز اقبالی، ایرج داداشی صفحات 25-43

    نگارگری به عنوان یکی از جلوه های هنراسلامی، سیر تحول معنوی خود را از فرهنگ حاکم برجامعه گرفته و در بخشی از آثار  با اتکاء به هندسه معماری اسلامی فضایی متناسب با آن معانی ایجاد نموده است. از آنجایی که نگارگران به طور معمول و متناسب با موضوع آثار خود از فضاها و تزیینات واقعی وعینی موجود در معماری زمان خویش برای طراحی آثارشان بهره برده اند، لذا کشف و تاویل معانی آنها می تواند تاثیر شگرف آموزش های معنوی را بر ابعاد مختلف زندگی آن دوره نشان دهد. متن حاضر نیز با هدف شناسایی چگونگی بازتاب عناصر معماری در نگارگری انجام شده و بدین منظور مشترکات ساختاری و مفهومی نگاره «اولین سخنرانی امام حسن(ع) درباره شناخت امام معصوم» و معماری دوره صفویه مورد بررسی قرار گرفته، تا عوامل موثر بر کاربرد آنها و همچنین مفاهیم و ماهیت باطنی نهفته در آن ها مشخص شود. بر این اساس مقاله در پی پاسخ گویی به این پرسش ها است که مهم ترین فضاها و تزیینات واقعی موجود در معماری که در طراحی نگاره مورد پژوهش بکار رفته اند، کدامند؟ آیا ارتباطی میان کاربرد این عناصر ساختاری با مفاهیم عرفانی شیعی دوره صفویه بازتاب یافته در نگاره  وجود دارد؟ بنابراین پژوهش حاضر بر اساس ماهیت توصیفی- تحلیلی با رویکرد تفسیری و تطبیقی انجام شده و اطلاعات آن از طریق مطالعات کتابخانه ای- اسنادی گردآوری شده است. نتایج پژوهش علاوه بر اینکه بر انطباق و پیوند ساختاری و مفهومی نقوش هندسی این نگاره با تزیینات و فضاهای معماری بناهای هم عصر آن تاکید دارند، مبین این امر هستند که نگاره با توجه به مفاهیم عمیق عرفانی نهفته در اعداد، نقوش هندسی و رنگ هایی که در تزیینات و فضاهای آن بکار رفته است، مفاهیمی از مذهب تشیع را به صورت نمادین به نمایش گذاشته است.

    کلیدواژگان: نگاره سخنرانی امام حسن (ع)، مفاهیم عرفانی شیعی، نگارگری دوره صفوی، معماری صفوی، احسن‎ الکبار
  • فریبا معصومی پور*، فرزانه فرخ فر صفحات 45-61

    نیمه نخست قرن دهم ه.ق، از مهمترین ادوار فرهنگی هنری ایران به شمار می رود که نگارگری در آن رشد بی سابقه ای یافت. شاه تهماسب اول صفوی که شیفته ی هنر نگارگری بود، پس از رسیدن به سلطنت به حمایت نگارگران پرداخت و هنرمندان زیادی را از مکاتب هرات تیموری و تبریز و شیراز ترکمان به خدمت گرفت؛ این گونه بود که یکی از درخشان ترین مکاتب نگارگری ایران در تبریز رونق یافت. شاهنامه تهماسبی از آثار ممتاز این دوره است که تکمیل آن ده ها سال به طول انجامید. از ویژگی های قابل توجه این نسخه، تنوع در شخصیت پردازی است که ناشی از رویکردهای متنی، تحولات هنری، نوآوری و خلاقیت هنرمندان و حمایت شدید دربار بوده و در به تصویر کشیدن شخصیت های شاهنامه تاثیرگذار بوده است. هدف از این پژوهش، شناسایی ویژگی های کیفی و تنوع گونه های مختلف شخصیت پردازی در نگاره های شاهنامه تهماسبی است. پرسش این است: چه ویژگی های کیفی در شخصیت پردازی نگاره های شاهنامه تهماسبی به کار رفته است؟ این پژوهش، به روش تاریخی-تحلیلی انجام پذیرفته و شیوه گردآوری اطلاعات، کتابخانه ای-اسنادی و تجزیه و تحلیل آن بر پایه مطالعات کیفی است. بدین سان جامعه پژوهش شامل 9 نگاره از شاخص ترین نگاره های شاهنامه تهماسبی می شود که با توجه به قابلیت های تصویری، وفور پیکرنگاری و تنوع شخصیت پردازی ، از بخش های مختلف این نسخه انتخاب گردیده اند. نتایج، حاکی از آن است که نگارگران شاهنامه تهماسبی، در بازنمایی شخصیت ها، بر شدت و اغراق ویژگی ها افزوده و به ساختارشکنی و نوآوری توجه داشته اند. می توان اذعان داشت ظهور برخی ویژگی های متمایز در شخصیت پردازی همچون تغییر در تناسبات انسانی، عریانی، اغراق در بازنمایی، کاربست رنگ، نوع جامگان، زاویه دید و جلوه های متافیزیکی، نتیجه جسارتی است که شاه تهماسب با حمایت های بی دریغش از هنرمندان، به ایشان منتقل نموده است. در نتیجه هنرمندان، ویژگی های بصری متفاوت و سلیقه ی شخصی خود را در آثار به کار بسته اند.

    کلیدواژگان: هنر عصر صفوی، مکتب نگارگری تبریز، شاهنامه نگاری، شاهنامه تهماسبی، شخصیت پردازی
  • فاطمه عسگری*، سید ابوتراب احمدپناه صفحات 63-81

    حماسه تاریخی عاشورا همواره یکی از مضمون هایی بود که هنرمندان آن را دستمایه خلق آثار هنری خود قرار داده اند. اعلان نیز هنگامی که در لوای مفاهیم مذهبی همچون عاشورا قرار می گیرد برای بیان مفاهیم خود از نشانه ها، رمزگان و علایم ارتباطی استفاده می کند. این تحقیق سعی بر آن دارد  با بررسی اعلانهای دهه 80 و 90ش به هدف پیش رو بپردازد، از جمله نشانه شناسی نقش پرنده همچنین واکاوی انواع ادبی آنها در کنار سایر عناصر تجسمی  این اعلانها با رویکرد یاکوبسن. سوال این تحقیق عبارت است از: با توجه به رویکرد یاکوبسن نشانه شناسی این نقش پرنده چگونه در کارکردهای ارتباطی، استعاره و مجاز مطرح شده اند و چه ارتباطی با انواع ادبی دارند؟ تحقیق پیش رو بر اساس روش توصیفی تحلیلی از طریق کتابخانه ای و اسنادی به کنکاش و تحلیل 44 نمونه انتخابی از اعلانهای عاشورایی می پردازد که بر اساس واکاوی رنگ، فرم، ترکیب بندی و نشانه شناسی نقش پرنده در ارتباط با سایر عناصر تجسمی  بررسی می شود و دسته بندیهای ارتباطی و آرایه ای را در لوای انتقال بهتر پیام عاشورا شکل می دهد. بر اساس یافته های تحقیق منشا شکل گیری بسیاری از اعلانهایی که نقش پرنده در آنها استفاده شده برگرفته از هنرهای آیینی و سنتی از جمله پرنده های علم و کتلها، نگارگریها و... است. با توجه به رویکرد یاکوبسن و بررسیهای انجام شده روی اعلانها در  این دو دهه مشخص شد. استفاده از رویکرد استعاره نسبت به مجاز بیشتربوده و اعلانها در  دهه 90ش نسبت به دهه 80 از لحاظ تاثیرگذاری عملی، استعاره پردازی کمتری داشته اند اما کارکرد عاطفی نسبت به دهه80 ش  بیشتر بوده است. به طور کلی کارکرد ترغیبی کمترین تاثیر ارتباطی و برای انتقال پیام وکارکرد عاطفی بیشترین نمود را در اعلانها داشته است.

    کلیدواژگان: اعلان، پرنده، هنرهای عاشورا، نشانه شناسی رومن یاکوبسن
  • سید رضا حسینی*، فاطمه حیدری صفحات 83-101

    از دیرباز تاکنون هنرمندان از گروتسک به عنوان شیوه و مفهومی شناخته شده برای آشکار کردن حقایق پنهان و پررنگ تر نشان دادن واقعیت های کمتر دیده شده بهره جسته اند.آشوب، انقلاب و جنگ در ایران دهه های 50 و 60 شمسی، سرنوشتی تاریخی را برای این کشور رقم زد و نقاشان انقلاب با بهره گیری از گروتسک ویژگی های جامعه ی آن روزها را به نمایش گذاشتند. هدف از این پژوهش، شناخت بیشتر هنر انقلاب و واکاوی کارکرد و دسته بندی گروتسک در آثار نقاشان انقلاب اسلامی می باشد. سوالات پژوهش عبارتند از:1 گروتسک در آثار نقاشان انقلاب چگونه بروز یافته است؟2 گروتسک دارای چه کارکردی در آثار نقاشان انقلاب است؟ 3 آثار هنرمندان انقلاب اسلامی کدام یک از دسته بندی های گروتسک را شامل می شود؟ در پژوهش حاضر، به شیوه ی توصیفی- تحلیلی و مطالعه ی تطبیقی، با استناد به منابع کتابخانه ای و مشاهده آثار، ضمن مطالعه ی الگوی نظری چهار متفکر مطرح در مورد گروتسک، مهمترین زمینه های خلق مفاهیم آثار در فرایند بهره گیری از گروتسک و سیر زایشی معنا بررسی شده است. جامعه پژوهش، آثار نقاشان انقلاب تعریف گردیده و به عنوان نمونه تحقیق 9 اثر شاخص از اعضای هسته اولیه نقاشان انقلاب آقایان حبیب الله صادقی، کاظم چلیپا و حسین خسروجردی به روش نمونه گیری قضاوتی آورده شده است. نتیجه حاصل از پژوهش نشان می دهد که نقاشان انقلاب از گروتسک به عنوان یک نگرش و جهان بینی برای بیان اهداف خود بهره گرفته اند و اغلب آثار جامعه پژوهش، در دسته بندی گروتسک ناب قرار می گیرد. در تمامی آثار این هنرمندان نوعی تقابل دوگانه میان خیر و شر، نیکی و بدی، زیبایی و زشتی و حق و باطل موردنظر قرارگرفته است. در حقیقت رویکرد نقاشان انقلاب به گروتسک، رویکردی بدبینانه و سراسر اضطراب و ترس است و نقاشان انقلاب از گروتسک در جهت اصلاحات سیاسی، اجتماعی و اخلاقی سود جسته اند.

    کلیدواژگان: نقاشی، نقاشان انقلاب اسلامی، ایران، حبیب الله صادقی، کاظم چلیپا، حسین خسروجردی، گروتسک
  • ندا سادات ملکوتی*، ایمان زکریایی کرمانی صفحات 103-117
    قالی ایرانی که پس از اسلام به ویژه در دوره ی صفویه با رویکرد تجلی بهشت، باغ بهشتی، دروازه های بهشتی و ورود انسان به بهشت رخ نمود دیدگاهی ازلی و قدسی را در عناصر خود که به ظاهر صورتی زمینی داشتند را جای داد، دیدگاهی که در دوران صفویه و به خصوص شهرت پادشاهان آن دوره به اسلام گرایی و رعایت موازین شرعی به شدت مورد علاقه و دارای جایگاهی والا بود. هدف پژوهشگر در این حوزه و با توجه به دو قالی شکارگاه متعلق به دوره صفویه نیز کاویدن پیکره و مفاهیم موجود در حاشیه این دو قالی به منظور دستیابی لایه های نمادین موجود در این دو حاشیه ها در جهت پی بردن تاثیرات محیط اطراف بر خلق این آثار است. در این راستا سوال اصلی که پیش روی پژوهشگر قرار داشت مرتبط بود با دلیل تفاوت موجود در دو حاشیه قالی های مذکور با وجود شباهت های فراوان در متن قالی است که با بررسی دو حاشیه از قالی های عصر صفویه با رویکردی نمادشناسانه و معناکاوی نقوش به کاررفته در حاشیه این قالی ها، به منظور بازنمایی استحاله انسان زمینی به انسانی قدسی است و سعی شده که از دیدگاهی هرمنوتیک و پسا ساختارگرایانه از بعد فرهنگی و ارزشی و با کمک از جریانات حاکم در دوران شاه طهماسب اول با تطبیق دو حاشیه از دو قالی متعلق به دوران صفویه موجود در موزه های هنری بوستون (موزه ی هنری بوستون واقع در شهر ماساچوست ایلات متحده امریکا و بزرگ ترین موزه ی امریکا که در سال 1870 میلادی گشایش یافت (سایت:5).)و هنرهای کاربردی وین (مک) (موزه ی هنرهای کاربردی وین (مک)واقع در شهر وین اتریش، اولین موزه در زمینه ی هنرهای کاربردی است (سایت:6).)،این پژوهش از نظر هدف در دسته پژوهش های کاربردی توسعه ای و از لحاظ روش در گروه پژوهش های تطبیقی -تحلیلی قرار دارد و با کمک گردآوری اطلاعات به شیوه کتابخانه ای صورت گرفته است که به تجلی انسان از حالتی زمینی به جایگاه بهشتی او پرداخته است. نتیجه حاصل از این پژوهش می تواند دریچه نوین در عرصه شناخت ارتباط بین توبه شاه طهماسب و خلق آثار آن دوره باز کند.
    کلیدواژگان: قالی، نمادشناسی، دوره صفویه، شاه طهماسب، قالی موزه ی هنری بوستون، قالی موزه ی هنرهای کاربردی وین (مک)
  • سمیرا سیف علی، مهدی کشاورز افشار* صفحات 119-137
    آثار هنرفلزکاری در دوره صفوی، به لحاظ زیبایی بصری، نقوش تزیینی و شیوه ساخت قابل توجه است. نظر به اینکه در هنر نگارگری دوره صفوی بیش از هر دوره دیگری به بازنمایی دقیق عناصر و اشیاء توجه می شود، با مطالعه نگاره ها می توان اطلاعات بسیاری درباره هنر فلزکاری در این دوره به دست آورد. از این رو پژوهش حاضر با هدف شناسایی اشیای فلزی در نگاره ها و طبقه بندی آن ها، شناسایی اصل این آثار و تطبیق آن ها با نگاره ها، به گونه شناسی و بررسی کاربرد این اشیا و نحوه بازنمایی این آثار در نگاره ها می پردازد و در صدد پاسخ به این سوالات است که: 1. چه نسبتی میان تصاویر اشیای فلزی در نگاره های عصر صفوی و نمونه های آثار فلزکاری به جای مانده از این عصر وجود دارد؟ 2. شیوه بازنمایی اشیای فلزی در نگاره ها چگونه است؟ و از این رهگذر مسئله کلان نسبت نگارگری با واقع گرایی پی گرفته می شود. در این پژوهش از روش توصیفی- تحلیلی با رویکرد مطالعه تطبیقی استفاده شده و گردآوری اطلاعات از طریق مطالعات کتابخانه ای با رجوع به وبسایت موزه ها و منابع اینترنتی انجام شده است. بدین منظور تعداد 23 نمونه به صورت هدفمند از میان تصاویر نسخه نگاره های متعلق به قرن های دهم و یازدهم انتخاب شد و اشیای فلزی موجود در آن ها شناسایی و طبقه بندی شدند. اشیای فلزی مورد نظر پژوهش که در نگاره ها به تصویر در آمده اند عبارت است از: صراحی، ابریق، قندیل، شمعدان، آوند یا دلو حمام و طبل باز شکاری. در نهایت پس از بررسی و تحلیل نمونه ها و مقایسه آن ها با آثار فلزی بازمانده دوره صفوی مشخص شد، شیوه بازنمایی اشیای فلزی در این نگاره ها بر اساس هنر فلزکاری در آن دوره به صورت واقع گرایانه است، به علاوه بسیاری از ویژگی های آثار فلزی نظیر فرم، جنس و تزیینات در نگاره های این دوره قابل مشاهده است.
    کلیدواژگان: گونه شناسی، هنر فلزکاری، نگارگری، دوره صفوی، هنرهای سنتی
  • نفیسه نجفی*، حسنعلی پورمند صفحات 139-153
    مدال ها جدا از جنبه تاریخی، یکی از نمودهای فن و هنر دوره های اخیر تاریخ هنر ایران هستند. نخستین جنبه اهمیت این موضوع ماندگاری این آثار و انتقال سنت های فرهنگی و هنری دوره های مختلف است. مطالعه این آثار که می توانند در شاخه جواهرات و مسکوکات بررسی شوند، به جهت ویژگی های مفهومی و نمادین، ویژگی های تزیینی و ویژگی های بصری حایز اهمیت است. مدال ها که ساخت آنها از دوره قاجار بیشتر رونق گرفته است، به لحاظ بررسی سبک هنری دوره های معاصر هنر ایران نیز دارای اهمیت هستند، و زمینه مناسبی برای بررسی تحولات در ویژگی های بصری مدال ها از دوره قاجار تا زمان حاضر می باشند. بررسی تطبیقی مدال های قاجار، مدال های پهلوی و مدال های جمهوری اسلامی می تواند به شناسایی تفاوت ها و شباهت های فرهنگی هنری این دوره ها و تفاوت های هنری شان کمک نماید. هدف این پژوهش پی بردن به سیر تحولات تجسمی مدال های افتخار در سه دوره یاد شده و درک تفاوت ها و شباهت های تجسمی مدال های این سه دوره است. سوال این پژوهش این است که چه تحولات تجسمی ای در خصوص مدال های افتخار در سه دوره قاجار، پهلوی و جمهوری اسلامی به وجود آمده است و چه تفاوت ها و شباهت های تجسمی ای بین مدال های این سه دوره وجود دارد؟ این پژوهش به روش توصیفی تحلیلی و با استفاده از منابع کتابخانه ای و بررسی نمونه های موزه ای انجام شده است و شیوه تحلیل آثار بر اساس بررسی اصول و قواعد تجسمی به کار رفته در ویژگی های ظاهری مدال ها است. نتیجه این پژوهش نشان می دهد که مدال های قاجار به لحاظ شکل و تزیین یکنواخت تر بوده اند و میان عناوین مختلف این مدال ها شباهت های زیادی وجود دارد، مدال های دوره پهلوی از نظر نقش و تزیینات متنوع تر هستند ولی در نمادهای استفاده شده در این دو دوره شباهت هایی دیده می شود، مدال های دوره جمهوری اسلامی علاوه بر نقوش و تزیینات از نظر شکل نیز تنوع زیادی دارند و میان نمادهای این دوره با دوره های قبل تفاوت زیادی دیده می شود.
    کلیدواژگان: نشان های افتخار، دوره قاجار، پهلوی، جمهوری اسلامی
  • سمیرا عرب، غلامعلی حاتم*، فاطمه شاهرودی صفحات 155-169

    خاتم کاری یکی از روش های تزیین سطح اشیای چوبی است که از دوره آل مظفر تاکنون آثار قابل توجهی در گنجینه های هنری از آن بر جای مانده است. این هنر در طول گذر تاریخی خود فراز و نشیب هایی داشته و شاید بتوان گفت در هیچ دوره ای از لحاظ هنری رکود مطلق نداشته است. بررسی ها حاکی از آن است که دوره قاجار یکی از دوره های پر اهمیت این هنر بوده و آثار خاتم کاری شاخصی در داخل و خارج از ایران به همت هنرمندان ایرانی بر جای مانده است. اطلاعات امروزی از خاتم کاری به ویژه خاتم کاری دوره قاجار اندک و بیشتر معطوف به نوشته هایی مبتنی بر توصیف غیر تخصصی و عدم پرداختن به ویژگی های فنی در مسیر پرفراز تاریخ این هنر است. در این پژوهش منبر خاتم کاری محفوظ در مجموعه فرهنگی تاریخی کاخ گلستان به عنوان نمونه موردی که اهم ویژگی های خاتم کاری دوره قاجار را داراست، مورد مطالعه قرار گرفته است. هدف از انتخاب منبر مذکور، تحلیل فنی آن و همچنین دست یابی به اطلاعات صحیح و فزون تر از نوآوری در شیوه خاتم کاری دوره قاجار است. سوال پژوهش حاضر این گونه بوده که ویژگی ها و نوآوری های خاتم کاری دوره قاجار کدامند و به چه صورتی در منبر مورد مطالعه ظهور کرده است؟ تدوین مقاله به روش توصیفی-تحلیلی بوده و در روش گردآوری مطالب ضمن استفاده از منابع کتابخانه ای، از تحقیقات میدانی شامل بررسی و مشاهده منبر و همچنین مصاحبه استفاده شده است. نتایج پژوهش حاضر نشان می دهد که شیوه خاتم کاری دوره قاجار علاوه بر نوآوری در ساخت ، نوآوری هایی در خاتم چسبانی داشته که از نگاه متخصصین مغفول مانده و هدف بر آن است تا ضمن تحلیل آن ها به حفظ اصالت در شیوه خاتم کاری این دوره اشاره شود.

    کلیدواژگان: خاتم کاری، منبر، دوره قاجار، کاخ گلستان، تکیه دولت
  • فرزانه کرکوندی اصفهانی، علیرضا محمدی میلاسی*، احمدرضا میرمقتدایی، رسول کمالی دولت آبادی صفحات 171-189

    قلعهنهچیر واقع در جنوب غربی استان اصفهان از بناهای منصوب به دوره ی صفوی و قاجار است که تا بعد از انقلاب اسلامی مسکونی بوده و آخرین یادگارهای بجای مانده از آن مربوط به دوتن از نایب الحکومه های لنجانات قدیمو پدران شان است. متاسفانه این بنا به دلایل مختلفی چون عوامل طبیعی و انسانی، متروکه و با آسیب های جدی مواجه شده است. همچنین در بررسی پیشینه این بنا منبعی در رابطه با تزیینات وابسته به معماری موجود نیست و تا بحال کسی به آن نپرداخته است. هدف اصلی این تحقیق بررسی و سیر تحول تزیینات دیوارنگاره در معماری قلعه نهچیر از ابتدای ساخت تا اوایل دوره ی پهلوی است. و سوال اصلی این تحقیق این است که انواع و ویژگی های تصویری نقشمایه ها و موضوعات به کار رفته در تزیینات دیوارنگاره در بنای مورد نظر کدام است و سیر تحول در آن ها به چه صورت بوده است؟ روش تحقیق در این مقاله توصیفی - تحلیلی و مقایسه ای و روش جمع آوری اطلاعات کتابخانه ای و میدانی است که در پژوهش میدانی با حضور در قلعه مذکور، عکس برداری، مستند نگاری و دسته بندی تزیینات دیوارنگاره بر اساس اسلوب کار، محل قرار گیری و مضامین، به مطالعه سیر تحول تزیینات دیوارنگاره در معماری قلعه ی نهچیر پرداخته شده و یافته ها بیانگر آن است که تزیینات دیوارنگاره در معماری قلعه نهچیر نه تنها دارای ویژگی های شاخص تزیینات دیوارنگاره ی دوره قاجار است، بلکه می توان ریشه برخی نقوش را در دوره ی صفویه و حتی پیش از آن نیز جستجو کرد که تلفیقی از چکیده نگاری و طبیعت نگاری (متاثر از تزیینات اروپایی) هستند. همچنین سیر تحول تزیینات نشان از کاهش کیفیت آنها از نظر اجرا و نوع مصالح بکار رفته از ابتدای قاجار تا دوره ی پهلوی اول است.

    کلیدواژگان: قلعه نهچیر، دیوارنگاره، قاجاریه، معماری، اصفهان
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  • Atena Shirzadi *, Mohammad Darvishi, Davod Bokaeyan Pages 5-23
    Tekyeh Moaven al-Molk of Kermanshah is one of the well-known religious buildings of the Qajar period in the city of Kermanshah which was built and completed by the deputy of Moaven al-Molk, the founder, in 1320 AH. At first, this building only included the Hosseiniyah sections and its main use was to hold religious ceremonies as a place to resolve ethnic nomadic and social differences. This beautiful and magnificent building of the Qajar period, has a variety of tiles of Quranic stories, paintings in European naturalism, paintings of Iranian Kings, Islamic motifs as well as Ashura themes, and is Known as a treasure trove of rich images and color diversity in the art of tiling in Iran. One of the most widely used themes in religious paintings is tiles with Ashura themes. Accordingly, it is expected that in accordance with this type of drawing, certain colors would be appropriated to the function and overall space of the Tekyeh. Therefore, with the aim of explaining the impact of the events of the great Karbala plain on the choice of color of Ashura tiles in this building, an attempt has been made to answer the questions of what visual and conceptual relationship exists between the choice of colors in Ashura tiles of the Tekyeh Moaven al-Molk of Kermanshah and the theme of the pictures? And that in choosing the color for the tiles, the subject of the tiles had the main priority or the choice of color was made according to the originality of the color palette of the Qajar period and the execution methods of the time? The answers to these questions make clear the necessity and importance of the present study. The target population of this research is to examine all the Ashura tiles in the Tekyeh Moaven al-Molk, which have been selected from their main part of the Tekyeh, namely Zeinabia. In this part of the Tekyeh, there were twelve tiles with Ashura theme, two of which had collapsed and physically damaged over time. In the end, due to few shortcomings, seven tiles were studied as statistical population. Due to the fact that each tile is composed of a large number of identical units of 20×20 cm tiles with seven- color tile technique, by dividing each work into parts of these unites, extensible results can be extracted for all Ashura tiles. Therefore, based on the available sampling method, the statistical population of seven Ashura tiles with 834 unit out of a total of 1256 units has been selected, which are firstly completely intact, and secondly have quality in terms of color. In this research, with the technique of image processing science, the amount of color used in each tile has been explained as well as the relationship between color and subject in Ashura tiles of Tekyeh Moaven al-Molk. This research is a type of developmental one and from the perspective of data type; the research method is qualitative and qualitative, which has been done by examining all the tiles of Ashura drawing available in the Zeinabia section of the Tekyeh. The data generation tools in this research are observation, field research and image preparation of the environment. Background information was gathered through written and printed sources, and interviews with knowledgeable individuals helped generate more data in this area. The method of analysis was as follows: After color analysis of seven tiles in MATLAB software and obtaining the percentage of color used in each, colors with a rate of 1% in the frequency range and bar charts of each image were included. Then, the average of the highest and lowest percentages of colors was extracted from the widely used colors in these tiles. By extracting quantitative data obtained from the amount of color used in these tiles according to the statistical results obtained with the help of image processing science, it was concluded that the choice of color in Ashura tiles of Tekyeh Moaven al-Molk was influenced by the dominant colors used in the Qajar period. But the highest percentage of colors used in Ashura tiles are from the family of Gray colors, which were chosen because of the main function of the Tekyeh as a place of mourning for Aba Abdullah. Therefore, the choice of colors used in Ashura tiles, in addition to maintaining the continuity of the color tradition of Qajar tiles, has a direct relationship with the themes and concepts of Ashura tiles of Tekyeh Moaven al-Molk.
    Keywords: color, Tile painting, Tekyeh Moaven al-Molk, Kermanshah, Ashura
  • Khashayar Ghazizadeh *, Marzie Alipour, Parviz Egbali, Iraj Dadashi Pages 25-43

    Persian painting is one of the most beautiful reflections of Islamic art, and its spiritual revolution roots in values of society which are manifested through Islamic architecture and decorative elements. Evidence supports the fact that painter of “The first sermon of Imam Hassan ibn Ali” painting was under the impression of architecture in the Safavid era. This painting was illustrated by Qasim ibn Ali, who was a contemporary of Bihzad and inferior to him in his artistry, based on Mohammad al-Husaini al Varamini’s masterpiece Ahsan – al-Kibar (1526). This manuscript has 39 Persian paintings and now is in the National library of Russia in Saint Petersburg. Very little is known of Qasim -i Ali’s life, but judging by the less vivid palette of this copy’s miniatures in comparison to those of Tabriz in 1520s, one can assume that he worked in Herat and was still alive in the mind-1520s. During the rule of Timurids, Shiism grew more powerful while Sunni Islam tended to lose influence, which paved the way for the Shiite teachings to prevail further. Eventually, the Safavid Sufi-Shia movement established the Twelver Shiism as the official religion of the country in 1502. The connection between Sufism and exaggerated (ghulat) ideals of Shiism had a profound effect on turning it into a political-religious movement. Although these exaggerated Shia beliefs were not in conformity with the original ones, they were so dynamic that eminent figures such as Sheikh Junayd were encouraged to make efforts, which eventually resulted in the establishment of the government in the 16th century. The Safavid rulers, who took power afterwards, spared no attempt to expand and strengthen it even further. Shiite religion is one of the main foundations of creating artworks among Islamic artists. Shiite principles were based on verses of Quran and narrations of Prophet (p.b.u.h) and his family. In verse 3 of surah Maeidah: “…This day I have perfected for you your religion and completed my favor upon you and have approved for you Islam as religion…”, Imam Ali (as), who has been directly appointed by Allah and introduced to community of Muslims by prophet Mohammad in Ghadir Khom, is an evidence of necessity of accepting rightful succession of the prophet. Shia believes Allah chose Ali (as) as successor of the holy Prophet who continued his teachings among people after his passing. The method of Shiite manifestation has been varied during Islamic art history in Iran and depended on the ruling governments in different periods (Shiite or non-Shiite). When Shia had restrictions in expressing their beliefs, they had to deliberately turn to symbols and metaphors, but whenever Shia got the opportunity to become the official religion (as in the Safavid era) artists could show their beliefs through architecture and decorative elements easily. Islamic art lays its real nature on two elements, namely wisdom and technique. The main purpose of this research is to conduct a comparative study of the Architecture and the Persian painting of Safavid era through structural and conceptual common elements. Shiite principals dominated on design and ornaments of architecture of this period and Persian painters were influenced by them. Therefore, this research focuses on identifying the thoughts which provided grounds for the creation of such designing and decorative elements on architecture of the Safavid era; as semantic and decorative elements in architecture are one of the significant tools in hands of governors to develop their religious policies and beliefs among people in every period. Iranians have presented some of the greatest artworks based on Shiite view and artists could express beliefs of Shia through visual elements. Imamate and believing in Imam’s right to guide people after the passing of the prophet Mohammad are one of the two most essential and basic beliefs of the Shiism which is the real Islam. Being suppressed and having a strong will to establish Imamate have constantly been remarkable among the Shiite communities. This feature has found its way into art. Using symbols and ironies in the Shiite art has been widespread during different periods in Iranian art and culture. Also using geometries was mostly meant to help recall the manifest intellectual stages of Shiite school in artworks. Research findings show that the connections of precise appropriateness of ornament and symbolic and overt language of sacred geometry of architecture in this painting clearly reflect deep Gnostic thoughts of Shia. This masterpiece was painted based on Shia wise thought and culture.

    Keywords: Illustration of Imam Hassan's Sermon, Visual Elements, Shiite Thoughts, Safavid Architecture, Safavid Persian Painting, Ahsan al-Kibar
  • Fariba Masoumipour *, Farzaneh Farrokhfar Pages 45-61

    The first half of the 16th century is one of the most important cultural and artistic periods in Iran, in which painting grew at an unprecedented rate. Shah Tahmaseb I ascended the throne in Tabriz in 1524 and supported artists until the transfer of the center of rule to Qazvin in 1548, due to his intense interest in painting. He moved many artists from the schools of Timurid Herat, Turkmen Tabriz and Shiraz to his court. This is how one of the most brilliant schools of painting in Iran flourished in Tabriz. One of the most important illustrated versions of this period is the great Shahnameh called "Tahmasebi Shahnameh" which, in addition to its excellent quality, can be referred to for creativity and variety in the characterization of its drawings. This copy was compiled in the library of the Safavid court in Tabriz and contains 258 images and prominent artists of that time collaborated in illustrating these assemblies Undoubtedly, the diversity of characters in the literary text of Shahnameh has played an important role in this development, but the most important factor is the time of creation of this great version, which was formed during the intellectual and artistic maturity of one of the most prominent schools of painting in Iran, which itself was under the strong support of the court and this has led to the innovation and creativity of artists and sometimes the deconstruction of previous rules. What this research seeks to identify is the qualitative characteristics and diversity of different types of characterization in Tahmasebi Shahnameh drawings. The research hypothesis acknowledges that the painters of Tahmasebi Shahnameh, while adhering to the literary and artistic traditions in drawing, tended to deconstruct and innovate in characterization. The question is: What qualitative features have been used in the characterization of the Tahmasebi Shahnameh drawings? Considering the special place of Tahmasebi Shahnameh, which is a great treasure of Safavid art that has been effective on the process of Shahnameh writing in the history of Iranian painting, recognizing various features in characterization and different approaches to painting faces and iconography of this version matters, while little research has been focused on it. This research in terms of method is historical-analytical, and data was collected using library research method and documented material. The statistical population consists of 9 miniatures that include various visual capabilities, abundance of iconography and characterization, which are illustrated in different parts of Shahnameh. These drawings are in order of review: 1-Kiomars Court, 2-The killing of the black demon, 3-The court of Jamshid, 4-Seeing Zal by the caravan,5-Rostam's battle with Afrasiab, 6- Kikaus goes to heaven, 7- Conquest of Bahman Castle, 8- The story of Haftavad and Karam, 9- Young Shapur in the court. The method of analysis of the selected society is qualitative, based on the types of characters from the two perspectives of narrative and image, and the way of their representation. The studies that have been done so far on the paintings of Tahmasebi Shahnameh are more from the point of view of visual arts and aesthetic aspects, and the painter's approach to characterization has rarely been considered; hence, no source was found that was related to the problem and objectives of the research. The studies of the present research indicate that in terms of narration, there is a significant variety in all types of characters in the drawings of Tahmasebi Shahnameh and artists have had no restrictions in drawing narrative characters. In analyzing the characteristics of characterization, the important point is that artists have tangibly gone beyond the norm and deconstructed. This deconstruction is most evident in the display of facial expressions, strange and abnormal body movements, and exaggeration in human proportions. The authors of this version, in characterizations, did not consider themselves obliged to follow the defined rules and in order to create new characters and the best visual expression, had the courage to break any pre-determined principles and rules. The deconstructive features in the characterizations of this Shahnameh are such that some of the characters seem very different; to the extent that Eva Beer, a scholar of Islamic art, also acknowledges about the Tahmasebi Shahnameh that some of the figures in this version are "caricatures". The artists of the Tahmasebi Shahnameh have ridiculed the characters of the story and have depicted fat and big-bellied, thin and tall, staggering and thin as well as complaining figures. However, it must be acknowledged that this deconstruction does not include all characters. Rather, it consists mostly of base and ugly characters, and the main characters and some important court figures of the narrative have not undergone the changes that were introduced as deconstructive features in characterization.

    Keywords: Arts of Safavid Era, Tabriz school of painting, Painting of Shahnameh, Tahmasebi Shahnameh, Character Design, Deconstruction
  • Fatemeh Asgari *, Syyed Abutorab Ahmadpanah Pages 63-81

    One of the themes that artists have always used as the basis for the creation of their works of art is the historical epic of Ashura. When placed at the forefront of religious concepts such as Ashura, the representation also uses signs, codes, and communication signs to express its meanings. Ashura has valuable messages with it, the effects of which are still present in the culture and art of our land even after centuries. Today, a large number of Ashura representations are being made in Iran in the form of exhibitions and mourning ceremonies. This research tries to point to the subject of Ashura. Its main purpose is to identify the bird motifs and their symbolic use in the Ashura representation in Iran in the 2000s and 2010s as well as explaining the characteristics of bird symbolism and analyzing their literary variants, along with other visual elements of these representations with Jacobsen's approach. The following question arises: considering the Jacobsen’s approach in semiotics how does the role of the bird work in communication, metaphor, and trope, and what does it have to do with literary genres? The present study is based on the analysis of color, shape, composition and representation of the motifs of birds in relation to visual elements. The necessity of conducting this research is to study and recognize the communicative functions of Ashura representations and the role of birds in them. The evaluation has been done with the Jacobsen’s approach in order to address the impact of these representations and the way to convey the message through a variety of methods such as metaphor, trope, and to convey the meaning using various figures of speech. Jacobsen believes that metaphor and probe are the two fundamental characteristics to convey the meaning. According to him, the formation of a discourse takes place in two different semantic ways. One issue may be followed by another, depending on the similarity or by proximity. A representation itself is a type of communicative language used to convey a message in order to communicate with audience in a visual communication. For this reason, Roman Jacobsen's communicative approach to functionality and expression of metaphor and probe was used to place symbols and determine the syntagmatic and paradigmatic relations, so that the theory could be used as a visual communicational channel. This insight should be a guide for artists, so that they can better convey the message with visual knowledge and communicative semiotics, and make visual impact more engaging. This research is conducted based on descriptive-analytical and fundamental descriptive methods. The method of collecting information is library method. This method has been used by scanning images and taking notes, and the information has been qualitatively analyzed and processed. The statistical population of this study is 44 examples of Ashura representations that were designed and selected for Ashura art exhibitions in Iran during the 2000s and 2010s. Jacobsen's communicative functions include six communicative functions of persuasive, metalingual, motivational, emotional, aesthetic or literary, and referential. Among them, four were related to the communicational field of Ashura representations as a visual communicational channel. According to the research findings, many of the representations in which the motif of the bird has been used are derived from ritual and traditional arts, including the motif of birds on "banner" and "led horse", Coffee house paintings, paintings, lithographs, and so on. In general, according to the research, the epic of Ashura has attracted a lot of attention among the people since the 2010s and more representations have been designed on this issue. There have even been many mourning ceremonies in the last decade and Ashura movement has created various artistic fields. Since the 2010s, the motif of birds has become more prominent in selected representations, especially in mourning regarding the Ashura art. The pigeon symbol is more visible than any other bird, and even in some representations, the feathers and the concept of flight have been repeatedly used. in both decades, the use of metaphor is more than probe. Some representations have both aspects of metaphor and probe, and some do not follow any of them. Emotional function is more notable than other communicational functions in these decades. In the 2010s, representations were less metaphorical in terms of practical impact than in the 2000s, but their emotional function was greater than in the 2000s. In general, persuasive function has the least communicational effect on message transmission, and emotional function has the most effect on representations. The persuasive and referential functions are more pronounced in the 2000s than in the 2010s, but the epic and action-packed approach of the 2000s representations is more explicit than the 2010s. It seems that forcing the audience to react (motivate) and meditate has been more important than other approaches for the designer.

    Keywords: Posters, Bird, Ashura Arts, Roman Jakobson’s Semiotics
  • Seyed Reza Hoseini *, Fatemeh Heydari Pages 83-101

    Grotesque has long been known as a protest and conceptual method, and artists have used grotesque to reveal the hidden truths of the lesser-known truths. Convulsion, revolution and war in Iran in the 1970s and 1980s made a historic fate for this country. The painting of the Revolution was the result of a political movement, which was formed under the name of the justice movement by a group of young artists to accompany the revolution. When the ruling regime in Iran acted brutally to kill its opponents in an attempt to survive, the grotesque spirit was fully visible in the community and this was not overlooked by the argus-eyed painters of the Islamic Revolution who created works that were consciously in line with the liberal movement of that time. Thus, the painters of the revolution, using grotesque, exhibited the characteristics of the society in those days. After the victory of the Revolution, and after the onset of the imposed war, artists continued their companionship with the issues and problems of the day and its evolutions by creating works. The aim of this research is to know more about the art of the Revolution and to analyze the function of grotesque in the works of the painters of the Islamic Revolution. Accordingly, this research seeks to answer these questions: 1. How did grotesque emerge in the works of the Revolution’s painters?  2. What are the functions of grotesque in the works of the Revolution’s painters? Which categories of grotesque do the works by the Islamic Revolution’s artists include? Using a descriptive-analytical approach, library resources and observation of works, this comparative study examines the model of the four thinkers on grotesque and its categorization in visual arts, the most important areas of creating and producing concepts of works in the process of utilizing grotesque and the generative process of meaning are examined as well. Also, elements relations analysis and structure analysis of works have been done according to Charles Jensen's model in Visual Arts works analysis book. The statistical population of the study includes the works of Iranian Revolutionary Painters. Nine important works of the early core members of the revolutionary painters, Mr. Habibollah Sadeghi, Kazem Chalipa and Hossein Khosrojerdi, are considered as a statistical sample using judgmental sampling method.
    In this research, grotesque was first studied in terms of etymology and its meanings and concepts were mentioned in culture and art. Then, grotesque is categorized and its types are specified. Since this topic has always been the concern of many theorists and scholars, the next section of this paper is devoted to the theories provided by the thinkers of this field. In the final section of the study, grotesque has been identified and its outbreak and its functions in the revolutionary painters' works have been addressed. Finally, the classification of grotesque works is presented in the form of a table, in terms of types, important elements of content and the main elements of grotesque. The result of the study shows that the Revolution’s painters used grotesque not as a style, but as an attitude and worldview to express their goals, and most of the works of the statistical population of this study is in the category of pure grotesque. They have strongly used grotesque and their purpose from drawing ugliness, septicity and inelegances is showing the departure of man from his divine principle and reminding this matter. In all the works of these artists, there is a kind of binary opposition between good and evil, goodness and badness, beauty and ugliness, and right and wrong. Using grotesque, these artists exhibited weaknesses, shortcomings and inconsistencies, and tried to make the audience aware of the rogues and villainies of the community. In fact, grotesque is a determinative factor in their works and acts as a tool to encounter us with the truth. In effect, the approach of Revolution’s painters to grotesque is a cynical approach, full of anxiety and fear. Revolution’s painters benefit from grotesque for political, social and moral reform. Their main focus is on human and his body; the bodies that have lost their spirituality and are fitted with grotesque characteristics. The painters of the Revolution depict grotesque not as a style and method, but as an attitude combined with humor and gravity, fear and hope, fear and conflict, laughter and fear, exorbitance and exaggerations, nihility and devastation in their works.

    Keywords: Painting, Painters of the Islamic Revolution, Iran, Habibollah Sadeghi, Kazem Chalipa, Hossein Khosrojardi, Grotesque
  • Neda Sadat Malakouti *, Iman Zakariae Kermani Pages 103-117
    Iranian carpet that appeared after Islam, especially in the Safavid period, was created with the approach of manifestation of paradise, Garden of Eden, paradise gates and human entry into the paradise. It incorporated an eternal and sacred perspective into its seemingly earthy elements.
    The view in the Safavid era, especially regarding the inclination of Safavid kings to Islamism and the observance of religious norms, was very popular and had a high status. Each of the motifs in these rugs expresses specific concepts, originated from within the artist and his society, which together has created a beautiful and harmonious work, and the artist mirrors the art, culture and ideas of the people of that time in the form of a magnificent rug. Symbolism can help us achieve this goal to a considerable extent. The aim of the researchers in this field, considering the two hunting rugs belonging to the Safavid period, is to explore the body and concepts in the margins of these two carpets in order to achieve the symbolic layers in them and to understand the effects of the environment on the creation of these works. In order to conduct the research, with the help of documents and writings in the field of culture and beliefs of Safavid society, in addition to using the Holy Quran, the transformation of earthly man into a holy man was observed. Using the obtained data, the main question of the research is in regard to the reason for the difference in the two margins of the studied carpets, despite the similarity in their main bodies. With a symbolic and semantic approach, the motifs used in the edges of these carpets were studied in order to represent the transformation of earthly man into a holy man from a hermeneutic and post-structuralist point of view, culturally and value-wise, with the help of currents during Shah Tahmasp I by comparing two Safavid-era rugs in Boston Art Museum and the Museum of Applied Arts of Vienna. In order to achieve the purpose of the research, the method was first described in the section of theoretical concepts and literature of the holy art as well as the holy man, and then in the same section a description of the religious situation and the adherence of Safavid kings were given. Following the description of the general characteristics of rugs and the appearance of both margins, as well as the intertextual observations, the patterns used in these margins were analyzed. In order to get closer to the purpose of the research in another part of the analysis of patterns of the margins, firstly the angels and the winged men were described, and then paradise in the hunting scene carpet of the Vienna Museum was done. Subsequently, in order to achieve the goal of the research through intertextual study, paradise was described from the Quran's point of view, and was then compared with the Vienna carpet’s margin in form of a table.  A separate table provides the result of the comparison of heavenly features, extracted from Quranic verses, and elements used in the Vienna carpet.
    In the other part of the research, hypertextual studies were conducted. In this context, firstly a brief description of hypertextual studies and their process were given, and after repentance of Shah Tahmasp, and the decree of enjoining the good and forbidding the evil, the hypertext of the research was examined. Finally, according to the documents as well as the work of Sultan Mohammad and its comparison to the design of the carpets, it can be said that the designer of both carpets was Sultan Mohammad. However, the important issue about these two carpets is that the design and weaving of the Boston Museum's carpet belong to the pre-repentance period of Shah Tahmasp while the Vienna Museum's carpet belongs to the period after the Shah's repentance.
    According to research studies, it becomes clear that Shah Tahmasp, after his repentance, removes all signs of sin from the country. As for depiction of king's binge in the margins of the Boston Museum’s carpet, given the king's keen interest in the art of carpet weaving and the promotion of this art, and the fact that his interest in this art was so great that he designed carpets, as well as the fact that this carpet is one of the most luxurious or even the most luxurious carpet of this period; in the case of this carpet, Shah Tahmasp's decision to cleanse this carpet faces a challenge, and finally he made a new decision for another carpet to be woven with the same theme and different margins. This decision was in line with his interest in the art of carpet weaving and in keeping with his repentance.
    Keywords: carpet, symbolism, Safavid era, Shah Tahmasp, Carpet of Boston Art Museum, Carpet of the Museum of Applied Arts of Vienna (Mac)
  • Samira Seifali, Mehdi Keshavarz Afshar * Pages 119-137
    The metalwork in the Safavid era is remarkable in terms of visual aesthetics, ornamentation, and style. As in Safavid miniatures the objects are represented more than any other period, studying the miniatures can provide much information about the art of metalwork in this period. Also, the miniatures can be considered as one of the valuable resources in research on identifying the characteristics of Iranian cultural and social history in different eras. In miniatures, the goal has always been expressing a historical, epic, literary, and narrative through in the image, furthermore, the artist has attempted to convey the message of the text. But, in some periods this approach has changed to represent the real objects, and in some cases, the artists have tended to realism for drawing natural objects and they have paid attention to details. This particularly appeared in Safavid paintings in which the artist emphasizes the representation of the cloth, carpets, rugs, and buildings, etc. There are many collections of metalwork among the objects depicted in various parts of Safavid paintings. Today, several of these metal objects are in the museums and private collections, while some of them disappeared. The metal objects are one of the elements in the paintings that exist in different parts of the image. They can be seen inside or outside of the palaces. It can be said that the finest and the most beautiful type of Safavid metalwork in the paintings belong to the 10th century AH. The metal objects in the paintings have been used for different purposes. However, the presence of these valuable visual resources provides the basis for research on the social life, and by referring to them we can get much information about the range of metalwork of this period which is not available today. Therefore, the purposes of this study are identifying and classifying the metal objects in Safavid paintings and comparing them to the real ones in the museums. We also examine the use of these objects and how they are represented in the paintings. This study seeks to respond to the following questions: What is the relation between the images of the metal objects in Safavid paintings and the samples of real metalwork? And how the metal objects are represented? In this way, the problem of realism in painting is followed. For this, firstly, the miniatures were determined and those similar to the metal objects were eliminated. Then 23 samples were purposefully selected from the manuscripts from the 10th and the 11th centuries, including Shahnameh Tahmasebi (931 A.H.), Khamse Tahmasebi (931 A.H.), Khamsa (Quintet) by Nizami (946 A.H.), Divan by Amir Hasan Dehlavi (939 A.H.), Manuscripts from Qazvin – Mashhad school (second half of the 10th century) such as Haft Awrang (Seven Thrones) by Jami (964 A.H.), Shahnameh Shah Ismail II (984 A.H.),  also the manuscripts from  Habib al-Sayr (early 11th century), Bostan Sa’di (11th A.H.),  as well as single copies of the Isfahan School. The metal objects that are depicted in the paintings are: Tutya Surahi, Ewer, Candlestick, Lamp, Bath Pail (satl) and Drum. In the next step, the metal objects in the miniatures were identified and classified then they were compared with those that exist in museums. Finally, after analyzing the samples and comparing them with Safavid metalwork, it is concluded that the metal objects in these miniatures are depicted based on the metalwork of Safavid period and there is a realistic approach in Safavid paintings. Also, there are many similarities between the metal objects in miniatures and the real ones in terms of depicting separate parts of objects such as the base, the surface and the edge, flask and pitcher lids, and the ornamentations on the surface as well as the handle of the dishes. Moreover, despite the small size of the objects in the miniatures, the artist has not ignored the decoration of their surface. Besides, the existence of these different decorations on the objects in the paintings can be considered a sign of paying attention to representing metal objects according to reality. However, in some cases, such as candlesticks, according to the literature in this period, it seems that their pictures are similar to the pre-Safavid period, especially Timurid samples, in this way the same objects may have existed in Safavid palace to which the artist has paid attention. It can be said that despite the similarity in the general form of objects over time, we can see changes in form and different ornamentations on their surface in the paintings. Moreover, by referring to the findings of this research we can see many characteristics and functions of metalwork such as form, material, and ornamentation in the miniatures of this period. In this research, a descriptive-analytical method with a comparative approach was used and data were collected through library research by referring to museums' websites and online resources.
    Keywords: Typology, Metalwork Art, Miniature, Safavid era, Traditional Arts
  • Nafise Najafi *, Hassanali Pourmand Pages 139-153
    Apart from their historical importance, medals are an important symbol of arts for Iranian over the last few centuries. The first important aspect of the medals is their long durability which enables them to carry arts and cultural traditions from many centuries to the Qajar era. The present article deals with the visual study of these developments and by studying the formal, decorative and graphic features of the designs and details of the insignia and commemorative coins of Iran in the Qajar, Pahlavi and Islamic Republic periods, examines art’s and visuals’ changes. A study about these historical artworks is essential due to their visual, decorative, symbolic and conceptual features, which can be classified into two groups including the jewelry and coinage. The medals are important in terms of their artistic style which has been derived from the contemporary Iranian art. The production of medals prospered since the Qajar dynasty that provided a proper condition to study the visual evolution of properties of Iranian medals from the Qajar dynasty until now. A comparative study of medals from the Qajar, Pahlavi and the Islamic Republic can identify the similarities and differences among the various cultures and arts of these periods in the history of Iran. It seems that the symbols and artistic features of each period are influenced by the previous period, but they also reveal the specific differences of that period and according to the political and social differences of each period, there are decorative differences in terms of semiotics with medals of other periods. There is also a gradual change in terms of variety in form, role and symbols used in the medals of these three periods. One of the main goals of this study is to investigate the procedure of visual changes in the medals of honor to understand the depth of Iranian artworks during the three mentioned periods. In this study, we address the following question that “what visual evolution in the medals of honor has occurred from the Qajar to the Pahlavi era and carried to the Islamic Republic period? In addition, what are the visual similarities and differences in Persian artworks during the recent eras?”
    In this work, an analytical and descriptive method was developed through an extensive literature review as well as Persian museums samples. The visual principles and rules, which were considered to have created the apparent characteristics of medals, were used to analyze the artworks. The statistical population of this study is all government signs made in these three periods. Ten signs from each period have been selected for a more detailed study by random cluster sampling method, so that from each category of signs, related to a topic, several samples were randomly selected and studied, which were then analyzed by related criteria in a logical and deductive way. The method of analyzing the works is based on the study of visual principles and rules, used in the physical characteristics of medals, and based on logical and deductive analysis. In this research, the badges of honor of the three periods of Qajar, Pahlavi and the Islamic Republic are visually studied and compared, respectively. These three periods and the evolution of medals in these periods are discussed. The results of this study showed a more uniform shape and decoration in Qajar medals, which contained remarkable similarities in terms of their title. A special variety in the engraving and decoration of Pahlavi medals was observed, including similar symbols with that of the Islamic Republic. In the Islamic Republic era, diversity in the shape of the medals has appeared in addition to the several engraving and decoration patterns. There are many differences between the symbols of this period and the previous ones. Comparing the medals of the three periods, it can be seen that the Qajar medals were more valuable materially and more expensive jewelry was used in them, with the medals of the Pahlavi and the Islamic Republic eras in the following places, respectively. In the Pahlavi period, the nationalist aspect was more used, while in the Qajar medals more signs related to power and Islamic symbols can be seen. The symbol of the lion and the sun is common in both periods, but is dominant in the Qajar period and is the central image of most medals. Among the symbols of the Islamic Republic, like in the Qajar period, there are many religious symbols. Also, the image of the country's leaders has been portrayed in all three periods. In general, it can be said that Pahlavi medals are more diverse in terms of variety of designs and themes, and Qajar medals are more valuable in terms of material prices and incorporated jewelry, while the medals of the Islamic Republic are comparatively much more diverse in terms of subject matter.
    Keywords: Medals of Honor, Qajar Dynasty, Pahlavi, Islamic Republic
  • Samira Arab, Gholamali, Ha Tam *, Fatemeh Shahrody Pages 155-169

    Inlay is one of the methods of decorating the surface of wooden objects, notable examples of which have remained in artistic treasuries and collections from the Al-Muzaffar period to the present. A collection of inlaid works can be found in art galleries inside and outside of Iran as well as in architectural decorations. According to what is justified based on the technical analysis of the endings of the Qajar period, the technical, artistic, and original values of the works are of great importance in this period. Endings like many other artifacts are part of a cultural heritage which identification and artistic characterization are of importance and necessity, while preserving data acts as a guide to identifying prominent features, including innovations in style of inlaid works at the end of the Qajar period. This art has its ups and downs during its historical passage and it is possible to say that it has not gone through an absolute depression artistically. Studies have shown that the Qajar period is one of the most important periods during which prominent inlaid works inside and outside of Iran are created by Iranian artists. Today's information about inlay, particularly inlay during the Qajar period, is little and written essays have more focused on non-specialized description, not paying attention to the technical characteristics of the course of the history of this art. In this research, Inlaid pulpit preserved in the Historical Cultural Complex of the Golestan Palace is presented as a case study that has important trait of the inlay in the Qajar period. The sampling method was selective. Initially explained by the information collected during the Qajar period and finally by analyzing the information, the authors came up with the characteristics of innovation in the way termination of this period ended. The qualitative method was also used to analyze the data used in this study. The purpose of selecting the pulpit is to provide technical analysis as well as to obtain more accurate and up-to-date information on innovation in the Qajar period. The question of this study was what are the features and innovations of the Qajar period and how did it appear in the pulpit under study? The paper uses descriptive-analytical method in gathering materials while using library resources, field research including surveying and viewing the pulpit, as well as interviews. The results of the present study show that, in addition to the innovations in construction, the Qajar period has had some innovations in inlay which are ignored by scholars and aim to analyze the characteristics of authenticity in inlay. The hypothesis used in this study is that inlay in the Qajar Style that was a continuation of the path of the ancestors; in many cases has manifested innovations. Considering the description of this period as a period of decline, in this article after explaining inlay and analyzing the inlaid pulpit, which is kept in the Historical Cultural Complex of the Golestan Palace, the innovative features in the Qajar inlay style have been listed. During the Qajar era, inlay patterns have been designed based on the intended geometrical forms, drawing on various shapes of triangle. In this method, which has been unprecedented prior to the Qajar period, pre-made patterns and cuts were put together side by side to fill any given background; a technique which has continued to the present time and manifested in rare cases. Using local materials rather than imported ones, such as bone instead of ivory, is anther innovation which occurred in this period. In this technique, colorful raw materials, namely a variety of woods, were used to make the inlaid works. Prior to this, in the Safavid-era inlay, merely the died bone (which was green) was used, but in the Qajar period to achieve colors such as red, woods would be died. It is noteworthy to mention that this technique was first applied during the Zand period, but the extent of the innovations and use of colors reached their peak in the Qajar era. These changes and transitions are reflected in many remaining works from the Qajar period and as discussed in this paper, the above-mentioned features may well be observed in the studied inlaid pulpit as well. To better portray these innovations, the features of the Qajar-era inlay have been compared with the Safavid and the contemporary examples.

    Keywords: Inlay, pulpit, Qajar Dynasty, Golestan Palace, Tekyeh, Dowlat
  • Farzanhe Karkevandi Esfshsni, Alireza Mohamadi Milasi *, Ahmadreza Mirmoghtadai, Rasool Kamali Dolat Abadi Pages 171-189

    Nehchir Castle, located in the southwest of Isfahan province, is one of the buildings attributed to the late Safavid and Qajar periods, which was inhabited until after the Islamic Revolution. Its last remaining relics belong to two of the old Lenjan’s viceroys and their fathers. Founded by Agha Mohammad Rafi, this historical complex has been gradually expanded after him with the increase of the family population, so that Mohammad Reza Khan Nahchiri, the deputy governor of Lenjan region, had a new house in the ward. The southern part of this complex has a beautiful entrance with decorations of painting, plaster modeling and brickwork, which includes its most prominent exterior elements. Unfortunately, due to reasons such as natural elements and human factors (fire and destruction of walls by uninformed people and theft of decorations by profiteers), this building is abandoned and has suffered serious damages. In the study of the background of this building, no source deals with its architectural decorations. Thus the main question of this research is what are the types and pictorial features of the motifs and themes used in the mural decorations in the building in question, and how have they evolved? This article uses descriptive and analytical methods. The method of collecting information is library research and field research, in terms of the latter, by visiting the mentioned castle, photographing, documenting and classifying the mural decorations based on the style of work, location and themes, the evolution of the mural decorations in the architecture of the Nehchir Castle has been studied. The findings depict that the decorations in the architecture of the Nehchir Castle are influenced by antecedent periods, especially Zand and Safavid art, because they are in accordance with the motifs of the mentioned periods in other historical buildings. Furthermore, since the studied ornaments have the characteristics of decorative art in the Qajar period, these motifs are specific to the Qajar period, which encompasses both the traditionalism of Iranian motifs and influences from European motifs. In general, the studied motifs are classified into six categories of plant, animal, human, landscape, objects and geometric motifs, of which the floral motifs have the highest level of ornaments; sometimes abstracted in two styles such as Khatais and Eslimis (arabesques) and in some places used in a completely naturalistic way, such as red flowers and lilies. Plant motifs are also combined with other elements such as vases, mirror frames and birds. Animal motifs include partridges, ducks, parrots, pheasants and some other birds which species are unknown, while include animals such as lions and dragons as well. The role of man is also depicted in various scenarios such as recreation, hunting and daily activities in landscapes. The evolution of mural decorations in the architecture of the Nehchir Castle was studied based on the order of construction of houses in three periods from the early Qajar to the early Pahlavi period. The decorations of the first period of "House F" are symbolically executed in an abstract style in triangular compositions with the most important elements depicted large and located in the center of the frame. In the middle of the Qajar period, "House E" was painted with more vivid floral motifs. Conversely, chicken motifs were painted in pairs and more dynamically with a wider color spectrum than in the past, and were completely decorative. In house "G", floral and chicken motifs appear in different compositions. Parrots, storks, nightingales and other birds are depicted similar to the Sassanid birds; breast to breast and face to face and so on. Abstract floral motifs are less important than naturalistic ones. In fact, the elements of a frame are combined in different planes, and landscapes cover slang themes. In the late Qajar and the early Pahlavi periods, we see symbolic motifs such as the combined depiction of the cypress tree and the dragon's head. Improvised subjects, reflecting the experiences of the painters, is also one of the special methods of mural painting of the Qajar period, and different from the common landscape painting method. The evolution of decorations shows a decrease in their quality in terms of execution and the type of materials used from the beginning of the Qajar to the first Pahlavi periods.

    Keywords: Nehchir Castle, mural, Qajar, Architecture, Isfahan