فهرست مطالب

Renewable Energy Research and Applications - Volume:2 Issue: 2, Summer-Autumn 2021
  • Volume:2 Issue: 2, Summer-Autumn 2021
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1400/10/15
  • تعداد عناوین: 12
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  • A. Aryanfar, A. Gholami, M. Pourgholi *, M. Zandi, A. Khosravi Pages 147-155
    The current work proposed a novel fuzzy-based multi-criteria decision-making method to assess the development potential of wind power plants in a country. Type-2 fuzzy logic was utilized to investigate the simultaneous effects of several technical criteria such as wind conditions, ambient temperature, and dust activities in a site. Iran was chosen as the case study, considering the various environmental conditions and the lack of thorough investigations in the country. The proposed method could be easily extended to apply to any region. The related technical data for all the 559 Synoptic meteorological stations in the country were collected and used as the inputs for the proposed method. Applying two-step interviews with local experts and reviewing the literature, the leading indicators and their effectiveness were defined. After developing the fuzzy rules and sets, all the sites were scored and ranked using type-2 fuzzy logic in the proposed method. Based on the final standings, priority tables were provided and the top fifty sites for implementing offshore and onshore wind power plants were introduced. Moreover, primary analysis of the collected data indicated that the provinces with high energy consumption and high PM 2.5 levels are in critical environmental conditions. Thus, these provinces need strict attention and planning for sustainable energy supply using renewable energy systems. Based on the results, several recommendations and suggestions were also mentioned to organize investment resources for a more efficient and proper power plant development as well as future studies.
    Keywords: Potential Assessment, Type-2 Fuzzy, wind energy, Multi-Criteria Decision-Making, Technical
  • E. Guler *, S. Yerel Kandemir Pages 157-163
    Today, the use of renewable energy sources is increasing day by day. The essential advantages of wind energy are that it is clean, low cost, and unlimited. In this paper, the wind energy potential of provinces of the Marmara region in Turkey was evaluated by multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) methods. In the study, TOPSIS and PROMETHEE methods were used for analysis criteria weights were determined by two different approaches. In the first approach, the criteria weights were taken equally. In the second approach, the criteria were weighted using the AHP method. When the methods were applied by taking the criteria weights equally, Balıkesir and Çanakkale were determined as wind priority provinces in potential, while Kocaeli and Sakarya took the last rank. After the criteria weights were determined via AHP when TOPSIS and PROMETHEE methods were applied, Balıkesir ranked first, and Kocaeli ranked last. Spearman's Correlation Coefficient determined the level and direction of the relationship between the rankings obtained from TOPSIS and the PROMETHEE method. When the methods were applied, the value of “0.636” indicated that the relationship between the rankings was “positive” and “moderate”. When the criteria were weighted with AHP and the methods were applied, the correlation coefficient was obtained as “0.909”. This value indicated a “positive” and “very high” level of relationship. It was determined that the ranking results obtained when the methods were applied after the criterion weights were calculated with AHP were more supportive of each other.
    Keywords: AHP, TOPSIS, PROMETHEE, wind energy, Wind power plant
  • Seyyed A. Sina * Pages 165-168
    Multi-Megawatt wind turbines have long, slender and heavy blades that can undergo extremely wind loadings. Aeroelastic stability of wind turbine blades is of great importance in both power production and load carrying capacity of structure. This paper investigates the aeroelastic stability of wind turbine blades modeled as thin walled composite box beam, utilizing unsteady incompressible aerodynamics. The structural model incorporates a number of non-classical effects such as transverse shear, warping inhibition, non-uniform torsional model and rotary inertia. The unsteady incompressible aerodynamics based on Wagner’s function is used to determine the aerodynamic loads. Governing differential equations of motion are obtained using Hamilton’s principle and solved using extended Galerkin’s method. The results obtained in this paper, related to clarification of the effects of angular velocity and wind speed on the aeroelastic instability boundaries of the thin-walled composite beams. The obtained results are expected to be useful toward obtaining better predictions of the aeroelastic behavior of composite rotating blades.
    Keywords: Wind Turbine Blade, Aeroelasticity, Unsteady Aerodynamic, Thin Walled Composite Beam, Pretwist Angle
  • J. Taghinezhad *, E. Mahmoodi, M. Masdari, R. Alimardani Pages 169-173
    The use of ducted wind turbines is developing and various scientists in their studies investigate the performance, economic analysis, and energy production by these types of turbines at a lower cost. In this paper, the ratio of wind speed increment related to free stream wind speed and turbulence rate in a pre-designed duct used for a horizontal three-blade wind turbine was evaluated using a hot-wire anemometer sensor and data analysis methods. The duct installed in the University of Tehran Aerospace Faculty wind tunnel and flow characterization was performed by using CTA apparatus to measure and evaluate the wind flow turbulence in the throat section of the duct, where the wind turbine was installed. Wind speed analysis was done at different speed of the wind tunnel test section and shown that in the throat section of the duct the wind speed increased with a constant slope and in more analysis, it was found the wind speed in the duct throat can be increased to 2.5 up to 3 times of free stream flow speed at a different wind speed of wind tunnel test section. From spectral analysis, it was found that only a few peaks are included in the extracted frequency that shown low turbulence inside the duct it can be concluded that the flow disturbances will not have a significant impact on the performance of the wind turbine placed inside the duct throat.
    Keywords: Ducted Wind Turbine, Optimization, Spectral analysis, Hot-Wire
  • S. Yerel Kandemir *, M. Ozgur Yayli, Emin Acikkalp Pages 175-178
    Renewable energy is one of the sustainable energy sources, the use of which has increased considerably in recent years. Today, wind energy is an essential renewable energy source that does not have a depletion problem. In this study, electricity generation from wind energy and installed power capacity in Turkey were examined. First, the data set of electrical energy production (GWh) and installed power capacity (MW) between 2010 and 2019 was used. Then, electrical energy generation and installed power capacity were evaluated with trend analysis. Three different models were used in trend analysis, and the results obtained from these models were evaluated with MAPE, MAD, and MSD. Finally, the most suitable models for electric power generation and installed power capacity were determined by evaluating the results.
    Keywords: Renewable energy, Electrical energy production, Installed power capacity, wind energy, Turkey
  • Sh. Nourifard * Pages 179-183
    In this article, three topics of wind energy science, wind energy engineering and wind energy policy of Iran have been discussed. Deciding on wind energy in the country requires comprehensive information in these three areas. Due to the increase in the capacity of renewable energy in neighboring countries and global energy transition, as well as the high potential of Iran in the field of renewable energy, especially wind energy, its culture in the country and the transfer of concepts in simple language is necessary.
    Keywords: energy transition, Iran’ s renewable energy, Wind energy science, Wind energy engineering, Wind energy policy
  • A. R. Bozorgi * Pages 185-189
    Noise pollution is known as the biggest environmental problem of horizontal axis wind turbines. The main part of the noise is in the range of Low Frequency Noise (LFN) since wind turbines rotate slowly. Several studies show that the LFN could have adverse effects on human health. In this study, the LFN generated by NREL VI wind turbine in wind speeds of 13 m/s is calculated by using a hybrid approach. In this approach, noise sources are defined on a data surface (DS), and then the noise propagating form the DS is calculated. The results show that a DS obtained by scaling the blade span with a size factor of 5 is appropriate for surrounding all main sources in this problem. It means, in addition to sources located on blade surface, a significant part of steady sources generating LFN is far from blades. On the other hand, the results show that tip vortices have no significant effect on the LFN.
    Keywords: Noise pollution, human health, NREL VI
  • M. Khatibi *, A. Rabiee Pages 191-197
    Electricity generation through renewable energy sources such as wind energy has been growing in recent years due to several reasons including free and infinite resources as well as their considerable impact on the reduction of fossil fuels consumptions as well as CO2 emissions. This paper aims to assess the impact of grid-connected large-scale wind farms in a region located in Iran, on the reduction of natural gas as well as gasoil fuel consumptions in heat-cycle power plants and their related CO2 emissions as a practical case study. The wind farms under study comprise about 51% of the total grid connected capacity of wind power generation in Iran by the end of March 2021. The total energy yielded by the studied wind farms are first extracted over a two-year period from April 2019 to March 2021 based on a detailed practical data and then, its impact is investigated on the reduction of natural gas and gasoil consumptions in a real heat-cycle power plant due to its practical fuel intake data. Finally, the reduction of CO2 emission is calculated as the result of reduction in the natural gas and gasoil consumptions of the considered heat-cycle power plant. The results of this practical case study well demonstrate the effective role of wind farms energy yields on the reduction of fossil fuels consumption in heat-cycle power plants and thus, the significant reduction of CO2 emission as one of the most crucial aspects of decarbonization and fossil fuel phase out plans.
    Keywords: wind farm, gas-cycle power plant, fossil fuel consumption, CO2 Emission
  • R. Rostami *, H. Hosseinnia Pages 199-203
    Utilizing distributed generation (DG) units in power system has positive impacts such as: reduction active and reactive power loss, reduce load curtailment, increasing system reliability and reducing the need of installing the new power plant. Wind turbine (WT) is a type of DGs. Employing demand side management in a residential, industrial and commercial loads could highlight the role of consumers in managing the total power and increasing the efficiency of system. In this paper the impacts of utilizing WT in improving technical constraints of the reconfigurable distribution system has been evaluated. The Monte Carlo based power flow equation is implemented to the presented scheduling problem. Simulations are done on IEEE 33 bus reconfigurable distribution system
    Keywords: Wind turbine, Monte Carlo, Demand Response, Microgrid
  • H. Moradi *, N. Piri Yengijeh, A. Hajizadeh Pages 205-210
    The expansion of renewable energy sources (RESs (and advances in power electronics have been led to more attention being paid to DC microgrids (DCMGs). DCMGs enable the exploitation of all renewable energy potentials. Along with the advantages of RESs and DCMGs, the use of RESs is associated with the challenges of absence or lack of inherent inertia. Inertia in the DCMGs plays an important role in reducing voltage changes under destructive events such as load change and power change. Therefore, by applying energy storage systems (ESSs) in DCMGs, and inertia emulation the mentioned challenges can be overcome. The proposed control scheme is implemented based on the concept of the virtual supercapacitor in the inner control loop of the ESS interface dual-half-bridge (DHB) converter with DCMG to emulate the inertia. Due to the high efficiency, electrical insulation, inherent soft switching, and the need for a smaller filter, the DHB converter has been used. Finally, a DCMG is simulated in MATLAB / Simulink. The simulation results show the efficiency and flexibility of the proposed scheme in terms of inertia emulation.
    Keywords: Virtual inertia, Virtual supercapacitor, Energy storage systems (ESSs), Dual-half-bridge (DHB) converter
  • M. A. Javadi, H. Ghomashi, M. Taherinezhad, M. Nazarahari *, R. Ghasemiasl Pages 211-221

    Optimal arrangement of turbines in wind farms is very important to achieve maximum energy at the lowest cost. In the present study, the use of Vestas V-47 wind turbine and uniform one-way wind in achieving the optimal arrangement of horizontal axis turbines in Manjil with genetic and Monte Carlo algorithms has been investigated. Jensen model is used to simulate the wake effect on the downstream turbines. The objective function is considered as the ratio of cost to power of the power plant. The results show that the Monte Carlo method compared with genetic algorithm will give a better result. Under the same conditions, the Monte Carlo algorithm will give 29% and 40% better results in terms of the number of turbines and output power, respectively. In terms of optimization, in the Monte Carlo algorithm, its fitness value is 16% less than the genetic algorithm, which indicates its better optimization.

    Keywords: Wind Turbine, Optimization, Monte Carlo Method, Genetic Algorithm, Farm Layout
  • M. Afshari, Seyed M. Moosavi *, M. B. Abadi, S.M.A. Cruz Pages 223-232
    Doubly-fed induction generators (DFIG) have been widely used in wind turbines installed in the last decades. These generators are prone to some faults that could deteriorate their performance and even lead to their outage from the network. Stator inter-turn short-circuits (SITSC) and high resistance connections (HRC) in the stator are two major types of faults that cause electrical asymmetry in the stator circuit. Yet, SITSC are more noticeable and require immediate scrutiny. Hence, if an HRC can be distinguished from a SITSC fault, the immediate outage of the WT can be avoided in the case of an HRC. In this paper, both types of faults are studied and compared, being their detection performed using appropriate fault indices obtained from the stator current, rotor current, and rotor modulating voltage signals, all available in the control system of the DFIG. Several fault severity indices are proposed for a better evaluation of the fault extension, and the discrimination between SITSC and HRC is discussed. The performance of the defined fault indices is verified using a magnetic equivalent circuit model of the DFIG and an experimental setup with the DFIG running at several operating conditions.
    Keywords: Fault detection, doubly-fed induction generators, stator inter-turn short circuits, high resistance connections