فهرست مطالب

Addiction & Health - Volume:13 Issue: 4, Autumn 2021
  • Volume:13 Issue: 4, Autumn 2021
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1400/11/07
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
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  • Mahmoud Zivari-Rahman, Siroos Ghanbari, Solmaz Shokouhi-Moghadam * Pages 207-220
    Background

    Addiction to pornography in the virtual world can seriously affect the mental, psychological, social, and family health of individuals and easy access to the Internet and cyberspace has intensified addiction to virtual pornography. Knowledge of the status of phenomena requires an accurate and scientific measurement tool with appropriate validity and reliability, so this study was conducted with the aim to study the Youth Pornography Addiction Screening Tool (YPAST).

    Methods

    This study was carried out using the descriptive-exploratory method. The statistical population of the study included all students aged 18 to 30 years studying in the universities of Hamadan, Iran, in the academic year 2020-2021. Using stratified random sampling method, 480 individuals were selected from Bu-Ali Sina University, Islamic Azad University, and Payame Noor University of Hamadan Province. To collect data, the YPAST was utilized. The Cronbach's alpha coefficient, exploratory factor analysis (EFA) with Varimax rotation, and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) were used to analyze the data.

    Findings

    The YPAST consists of the 3 components of lack of control over pornographic behavior, regret after pornography use, and pornography for sexual arousal. These 3 factors together explained 61.16% of the total variance of pornography addiction in cyberspace, with the first, second, and third factors explaining 22.98%, 21.79%, and 16.39% of the variance, respectively. The CFA results showed that the scale items were of appropriate factor loads and higher than 0.40 on each factor, and the study measurement model in the first and second order factor analysis was of an acceptable fit. Therefore, the YPAST had an appropriate and acceptable structural validity among young people. The total validity coefficient of the YPAST was 0.88 and that of the first, second, and third factors were 0.94, 0.93 and 0.88, respectively. The YPAST has 3 factors.

    Conclusion

    The YPAST can be a powerful and accurate tool for measuring youth pornography addiction and it can be used with confidence in various situations to measure youth virtual pornography addiction. In addition, it seems that the scale items have a proper coherence and fluency, which, as a unified and integrated set of different aspects, can measure virtual pornography addiction among young people with high accuracy.

    Keywords: Psychometric Properties, Addiction, Pornography, Youth, Cyberspace
  • Yusuf Hassan Wada *, Garba M Khalid, Zayyanu Shitu, Umar Idri Ibrahim Pages 221-231
    Background

    Drug and substance abuse among university students is of public health concern and is becoming a global threat to the education system. This is more devastating to the academic performance of the addicts. The present study aims to assess the prevalence and impacts of psychoactive substance abuse among the university undergraduate students in Katsina State, Nigeria, and to determine the effects of such abuses on the students’ academic performance.

    Methods

    A cross-sectional study was conducted using online survey tool (Google Form) validated by content validity and pilot study. The hyperlink to the online survey tool was shared with undergraduate students from three universities located in Katsina State via emails and social media platforms, namely WhatsApp, Facebook, and Twitter. Data collected from eligible participants were analyzed using descriptive statistics.

    Findings

    A total of 308 students from the three universities returned the online questionnaire, of which 67.2% were men and 32.8% were women. Among the respondents, 37% admitted practicing drug and/or substance abuse. Majority of them (56.2%) were third-year students in the age range of 20-25 years.

    Conclusion

    Drug and substance abuse among the undergraduate university students in Katsina State is common, and it cuts across both male and female students. Concerted efforts towards parental support and supervisions, social intervention programs, and campus-based prevention and supported programs against drug and substance abuse should be encouraged.

    Keywords: Substance-related disorders, Students, Nigeria
  • Gerardo Maria De Araujo Filho, Vinicius Camargo Mingatto, Vivian Greco De Lemos * Pages 232-241
    Background

    Substance abuse is a public health concern given its high prevalence worldwide. The early onset of such abuse predicts greater severity of addiction, morbidity, and use of multiple drugs. The use of psychoactive substances among Brazilian university students is frequent and cannabis stands out as the most consumed illicit drug. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of cannabis use among medical students from public universities in the state of São Paulo, correlating it with socioeconomic data, perceptions, and conceptions about use, triggering factors and possible implications in academic performance.

    Methods

    The data were collected using an anonymous online survey, which was sent to students attending public medical universities in the state of São Paulo in the year 2020.

    Findings

    The survey was answered by 225 participants. Among all participants, 147 (65.3%) reported at least one episode of cannabis use during their study in university. 91 (61.9%) reported the first use before entering university, while 56 (38.1%) used it for the first time during the university years. The frequent group included 41 (27.9%) people and the sporadic group included 106 (72.1%) people.

    Conclusion

    The present study indicated that the medical students in public universities in the state of São Paulo have higher cannabis use rates compared to the general Brazilian population and to other medical students worldwide. The users are aware of the possible damages caused by cannabis use, but this does not stop them from smoking.

    Keywords: Cannabis, Medical students, Substance-related disorders, Perception
  • Tahereh Afaghnia, Mohammad Nasim-Tajik, Elham Boushehri, Marzieh Nikparvar, Abdollah Gharibzade, Hossein Farshidi * Pages 242-248
    Background

    Patients who undergo percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) receive anticoagulants, most commonly heparin to prevent thrombotic events during the procedure. Opioid addicts may require higher doses of heparin for PCI. We aimed to compare the effect of heparin on activated clotting time (ACT) between opioid addicts and non-addicts prior to and during PCI.

    Methods

    This comparative study included 107 patients scheduled for elective PCI, of whom 50 were opioid addicts and 57 non-addicts. Patients’ baseline characteristics including age, gender, weight, comorbidities, drug history, and smoking were recorded. Prothrombin time (PT), partial thromboplastin time (PTT), international normalized ratio (INR), and platelet count were measured in venous blood samples collected from all participants. All patients underwent PCI through femoral access. They received 100 IU/kg heparin right at the beginning of the procedure. ACT was measured at 2 and 30 minutes.

    Findings

    Age, gender, weight, and the amount of heparin used were comparable between groups. As for general characteristics, the number of patients with hyperlipidemia was significantly higher in non-addicts (P = 0.031), and cigarette smoking was higher in opioid addicts (P < 0.001). No significant difference was found between the groups regarding PT, PTT, INR, and platelet count (P > 0.050). ACT at 2 and 30 min were significantly lower in opioid addicts (P < 0.001). Taking other variables into account, ACT at 2 min was directly correlated with drug history of aspirin in opioid addicts (P = 0.031) and inversely correlated with cigarette smoking in non-addicts (P = 0.023).

    Conclusion

    Opioid addicts may require higher doses of heparin in PCI for the prevention of thrombotic complications compared to non-addicts.

    Keywords: Opioids, Percutaneous Coronary Intervention, Heparin, Activated Clotting Time
  • Meysam Abshenas-Jami, Mohamadreza Baneshi, Maryam Nasirian * Pages 249-258
    Background

    To provide prevention programs and educate drug users (DUs), the estimation of their population is necessary. This study aimed to estimate the population size of this hidden group in Isfahan city as a metropolitan in Iran using the network scale-up method (NSUM).

    Methods

    This cross-sectional study was performed in summer 2018 on 1000 people selected through a multistage sampling method based on 14 region of the municipality of Isfahan. The data collection tool was a questionnaire that was previously used in Dr. Banshi's national plan without any changes. The Cronbach's alpha value of the questionnaire was 0.826. Using correction factors such as transparency of response and the ratio of social network size used in previous national studies, the number of people with high-risk behaviors was estimated. The results were analyzed through NSUM based on survey analysis.

    Findings

    Among all kinds of DUs, men were the largest consumers. The prevalence of use of opium, cannabis, heroin/crack, stimulants, ecstasy, hallucinogens, tramadol, zolpidem, tobacco, and drug injection was 2983, 2342, 613, 766, 86, 268, 1185, 213, 5869, 135 in 100000 people, among individuals of over 18 years of age. In both sexes, the prevalence of using opium and its nectar and illegal treatment with methadone and buprenorphine was higher in people of over 30 years of age, while the prevalence of consuming cannabis, ecstasy, tramadol, tobacco products, and stimulants was higher in the age group of 18 to 30 years.

    Conclusion

    The results indicated that the prevalence of different DUs in Isfahan city, especially among men was higher than the reported average (especially in young men of 18-30 years of age). Since the prevalence of drug use varies based on the type of substance used among age groups, targeted preventive planning based on the type of drug used and age group is recommended.

    Keywords: drug users, Network scale-up method, Hidden population, Iran
  • Saeed Bashirian, Majid Barati, Manoochehr Karami, Behrooz Hamzeh, Elahe Ezati * Pages 259-267
    Background

    The prevalence of hookah is increasing worldwide and in all age groups, especially among women. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine the effect of web-based educational program in the prevention of hookah smoking among girls in Kermanshah, Iran, using theory of planned behavior (TPB).

    Methods

    This study was a randomized controlled trial performed on 110 adolescent girls in Kermanshah City in 2020. Multistage random sampling was used in this study. The data collection tool included a researchermade questionnaire. Designed intervention was implemented for the intervention group in 5 educational sessions according to analysis of pre-test results. Data were collected 3 months after the end of the training intervention. Data analysis was carried out using SPSS software.

    Findings

    The presented interventions significantly improved the structures of attitude (P < 0.001), subjective norms (P < 0.001), and intention (P < 0.001) in the intervention group compared with the control group. However, the difference between perceived behavioral control score in the two groups was not significant (P = 0.131). There was also a significant difference in reducing the behavior of hookah smoking between the intervention and control groups after the educational intervention.

    Conclusion

    Using web-based interventions is a good educational strategy for prevention of hookah smoking in adolescent girls.

    Keywords: Adolescent, female, Education, smoking
  • Ahmad Ali Eslami, Sedigheh Shariatinia, Mohadeseh Khoshgoftar * Pages 268-276
    Background

    Psychotropic drugs can cause many complications and side effects including cognitive, behavioral, and psychological disorders. In recent years, the Iranian youth and adolescents have growingly been using psychotropic drugs. Therefore, this study analyzes the overall prevalence of psychotropic drugs and the relevant factors among the Iranian youth through a systematic review and a meta-analysis.

    Methods

    Based on the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) checklist, this study includes a systematic review and a meta-analysis. For bias prevention, qualitative evaluation and data extraction were performed independently by two people. Different databases (PubMed, Science Direct, Springer, Wiley, ISI Web of Science, Cochran, Google Scholar, Magiran, IranMedex, SID, ISC) were investigated online, and data analysis was done in Stata software.

    Findings

    In total, 5 articles were selected for the meta-analysis phase. They had been published between 2008 and 2018. According to the meta-analysis results, the overall prevalence of psychotropic drugs was 4.18% [95% confidence interval (CI): 2.52-5.84] in the Iranian youth population. The overall prevalence of psychotropic drugs was 4.74% (95% CI: 1.49-7.99) and 1.06% (95% CI: 0.72-1.41) in young men and women, respectively. Three studies indicated a significant relationship between gender and the use of psychotropic drugs. In other words, the prevalence of psychotropic drugs was significantly higher in boys than in girls (P < 0.05).

    Conclusion

    The research results showed that family, parents, close friends, and unemployment were the factors affecting the prevalence of psychotropic drugs in the youth and adolescents.

    Keywords: Psychotropic drugs, Adolescent, Meta-analysis, Iran
  • Zouina Sarfraz, Azza Sarfraz, Muzna Sarfraz, Krunal Pandav*, George Michel Pages 277-278