فهرست مطالب

Nutrition and Food Security - Volume:7 Issue: 3, Aug 2022
  • Volume:7 Issue: 3, Aug 2022
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1401/05/18
  • تعداد عناوین: 16
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  • Ameneh Marzban, Abdolrazagh Marzban*, Fateme Sadeghi-Nodoushan, Payam Emami Pages 265-267

    Foods and nutrients in them are one of the most important and variable factors affecting the bioavailability and function of oral drugs in the body. Foods affect the effectiveness of drugs in different ways. Just as medications often reduce the absorption of nutrients, foods often reduce the effectiveness of medications; food in the stomach delays the absorption of penicillin and amoxicillin and antihypertensive drugs, such as captopril

    Keywords: Food, Nutrition, Drugs, beverage, Interaction
  • Jalal Sadeghizadeh-Yazdi* Pages 268-271

    Food packaging is used to maintain the safety and quality of food during distribution and storage and to protect them from adverse internal and external conditions, such as water vapor, spoilage due to microorganisms, moisture, light, and dust. In this regard, lots of research studies have been done to increase shelf life, safety, and quality to create suitable physicochemical conditions for food .

    Keywords: Food packaging, Life cycle assessment, Biopolymers, Recyclability, Polymers
  • Akram Kooshki, Mohsen Taghizadeh, Roya Akbarzadeh* Pages 272-281
    Background

    High concentrations of serum inflammatory and oxidative stress markers and lipid abnormities are important risk factors for cardiovascular diseases in hemodialysis patients. This study aims to investigate the effects of Nigella sativa oil on serum levels inflammation and oxidative stress markers and lipid profile in hemodialysis patients.

    Methods

    Fifty hemodialysis patients participated in this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. The patients were randomly assigned into two groups, including receiving 2 tablets of Nigella sativa oil (1000 mg/day, NG) and receiving placebo (PG), for 8 weeks. Blood samples were taken from the patients at the beginning and the end of the study after 12 to 14 hour fasting for measuring serum markers. Then, levels of triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), LDL-c, HDL-c, high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), and malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured.

    Results

    Consumption of Nigella sativa oil as a supplement decreased levels of TC (P = 0.0002), LDL-c (P = 0.001), mean serum hs-CRP, and MDA compared to the PG (P = 0.001).

    Conclusion

    The Nigella sativa oil supplement may reduce serum hs-CRP and MDA, TC, LDL-c, and risk factors for cardiovascular diseases in hemodialysis patients

    Keywords: Nigella sativa, Oxidative stress, Inflammation, Lipids
  • Bahareh Sasanfar, Fatemeh Toorang, Saeed Nemati, Elham Mohebbi, Leila Azadbakht*, Kazem Zendehdel Pages 282-298
    Background

    Most of previous studies have investigated the association of specific food or nutrient with risk of breast cancer (BC) rather than overall diet and there is lack of evidence regarding dietary pattern in BC development. This study aims to examine the association between dietary patterns and risk of BC among Iranian women.

    Methods

    This case–control study was carried out on 453 BC women and 496 healthy controls. A reliable and valid FFQ was used to evaluate usual dietary intake. Factor analysis was also applied to address the most major dietary patterns which were known as the healthy and unhealthy dietary patterns.

    Results

    Those in the highest quartile of healthy dietary pattern had lower risk of BC (P = 0.001). However, being in the highest quartile of unhealthy pattern was associated with 2.04-fold increase of BC risk (P = 0.004) compared to the lowest quartile. In premenopausal women, risk of BC in upper quartile of healthy pattern was lower than the lowest quartile (OR = 0.47; CI = 0.26 – 0.83,
    P = 0.004). More adherence to the unhealthy dietary pattern was associated with higher risk of BC (OR = 2.85; 95% CI = 1.57- 5.17, P < 0.0001).  No significant association was observed between the healthy or unhealthy dietary patterns among postmenopausal women.

    Conclusion

    The findings indicated that the healthy dietary pattern could be considered as a protective factor in terms of BC in women and particularly among premenopausal women.

    Keywords: Dietary pattern, Breast neoplasms, Factor analysis, Case-control
  • Younes Salehian, Adeleh Sobhanipour, Mehdi Mohammadi-Moghadam, Seyed Reza Fani* Pages 299-310
    Background

    Contamination of stored pistachio nuts to Aspergillus section Flavi and aflatoxins (AFs) as well as effective parameters on fungal growth and AF production during storage was assayed.

    Methods

    Twenty one pistachio nut samples were taken from some warehouse of Damghan county. Different parameters of storage, including temperature, relative humidity, and pest infestation were recorded. Contamination to aflatoxigenic fungi was investigated by serial dilution method and aspergillus flavus and parasiticus agar (AFPA) medium with three repetitions. Thin layer chromatography (TLC) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method were used to measure quality and quantity of the produced AFs, respectively.

    Results

    There was a significant difference in contamination to Aspergillus section Flavi between different samples on the basis of statistical analysis. There was no significant difference between samples contamination to Aspergillus section Flavi and storage parameters. The ability of AF production of isolates was variable. More than 88% of isolates were able to produce one or several types of AFs and less than 12% of isolates produced no AF. HPLC assay showed that out of 21 pistachio nut samples, 3 samples were contaminated with various types of AFs, but were below the allowable levels (P ≤ 0.05).

    Conclusion

    Despite the population of aflatoxigenic strains in the mycoflora of warehouse, AF contamination of pistachios was estimated to be about 14%, which was also less than the allowable level. The results showed that the environmental parameters required for the production of AF in the warehouse of Semnan province do not exist and the storage conditions in this province are suitable.

    Keywords: Mycotoxin, Food safety, Contamination, Environmental factors, Semnan
  • Rohollah Edalatkhah, Mehran Karimi, Maryam Parand, Majid Aflatonian* Pages 311-318
    Background

    Malnutrition is one of the most important health issues especially in developing countries that can have adverse effects on physical and mental health of children, resulting in various infections. This study aims to evaluate the growth indices and nutritional status in children hospitalized at the pediatric ward of Shahid Sadoughi Hospital in Yazd, Iran in 2020.

    Methods

    In this cross-sectional and descriptive-analytical study, the anthropometric indices of 100 children older than 1 month hospitalized in the pediatric ward of Shahid Sadoughi Hospital in Yazd, Iran in 2020 were determined. Children's information, including age, sex, cause of hospitalization, and duration of hospitalization were extracted from the patients' medical files and recorded in a checklist. Nutritional status was assessed using weight-for-age, weight-for-height, and height-for-age criteria.

    Results

    The prevalence of malnutrition among the studied children was 40% (18% acute malnutrition and 22% chronic malnutrition). The prevalence of wasting, underweight, and stunting status were 28%, 27%, and 20%, respectively. There was no significant difference in the malnutrition frequency and also the malnutrition type based on sex, age, cause of hospitalization, and duration of hospitalization (P > 0.05); however, the type of malnutrition was significantly associated with age (P < 0.05).

    Conclusion

    Considering the high prevalence of malnutrition in this study and the fact that malnutrition can lead to infections and increase the chances of hospitalization, it is recommended that all hospitalized children be evaluated and treated for malnutrition using anthropometric criteria and nutritional classifications.

    Keywords: Malnutrition, Anthropometric index, Pediatric
  • Mosharafeh Chaleshgar- Kordasiabi*, Atena Ramezani, Seyed Abolhasan Naghibi, Jamshid Yazdani Cherati, Maryam Khazai-Pool, Masoumeh Abbasi-Shavazi Pages 319-330
    Background

    Overweight and obesity are the most serious public health challenges of developed and developing countries. The prevalence of childhood obesity has increased worldwide. This study aims to identify the behavioral determinants of overweight and obesity among adolescents.

    Methods

    This is a qualitative study with directed approach to content analysis of in-depth semi-structured interviews. A total of 27 obese and overweight students (11girls, 16 boys) were recruited in this study based on the PRECEDE model (predisposing factor). The participants were recruited using a purposive sampling method to reach the maximum variation sampling. This sampling took over 6 months in 2018 at the Ghaemshahr middle school. Content analysis approach (directed) was used to analyze the interview.

    Results

    Five main themes and 20 sub-themes of behavioral determinant were emerged from the interview. The main themes included perceived benefit, perceived threaten, self-efficacy, cues to action, and locus of control. The subthemes included self-empowerment, motivation and diligence role, enough information and parent pressure, long term benefits, physical health, doing favorite sports, perceived susceptibility and perceived severity, and internal and external locus of control.

    Conclusion

    Self-efficacy and perceived benefit are the most significant determinants of preventive behavior in obese and overweight students; therefore, considering  these variables in students can be applied in designing an interventional program that affect obesity preventive behaviors, increase parents’ awareness and school authorities.

    Keywords: Overweight, Obese, Adolescents, PRECEDE model, Qualitative research
  • Mahdieh Momayyezi, Hossein Fallahzadeh, Leila Fakhravari*, Masoud Mirzaei Pages 331-339
    Background

    Lifestyle changes, such as changes in sleep patterns and insufficient sleep have led to an increase in obesity and hyperlipidemia. The present study was conducted to investigate the association between abnormal lipid profile and obesity with sleep pattern among adult in Yazd adults in Shahedieh cohort study.

    Methods

    This analytic cross-sectional study was carried out on the data of the enrollment phase of Shahedieh cohort study conducted in Yazd Greater Area during 2015-2017. In this study, all adults aged 35-70 years from Shahedieh, Zarch, and Ashekzar cities were investigated. The data used in this study included demographic and sleep variables, as well as triglyceride (TG), cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c).

    Results

    The results showed that 4765 participants were male, and 4768 were female, and most of the them were overweight (42.4%) or obese (34.2%). The results showed that long-term sleep (> 8 hours at night) is correlated with high serum TC (P = 0.009) and TG (P = 0.009). Sleep latency is related with an increase in TC (r=0.03, P = 0.004), TG (r=0.04, P = 0.001), and LDL-c (r = 0.04, P = 0.001). Moreover, the duration of daytime sleep increases by increasing TG (r = 0.06, P = 0.001) and decreasing HDL-c (r = -0.07, P = 0.001). The results also showed that TG were significantly higher in people with periodic limb movement in sleep (P = 0.02). The number of people who used sleeping pills increased by increasing TG (P = 0.01) and body mass index (BMI) decreased by increasing sleep duration (P = 0.21).

    Conclusion

    The results of this study showed that long-term sleep increases TC and TG. The findings showed a correlation between long sleep duration and decreased BMI.

    Keywords: Lipids, Obesity, Sleep, Cohort studies
  • Temitope Kudirat Bello, Olorunjuwon Omolaja Bello* Pages 340-354
    Background

    The emergence and re-emergence of antibiotic-resistant foodborne bacteria call for concerted efforts, especially in developing countries. Spices have been employed traditionally to improve the aroma and flavour of foods; however, they could  serve as reservoirs for the spread of potential pathogenic organisms. This study aims to investigate the public health implications of antibiotic-resistant bacteria associated with suya spices.

    Methods

    Three hundred samples of suya spices were evaluated for bacteriological quality. The isolates were presumptively identified by standard biochemical tests and confirmed by API 20 E and API 20 NE. The Etest was used for determining the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the drugs, while the antibiotic resistance profile  of the isolates was evaluated using the Kirby Bauer methods.

    Results

    The mean total plate count (TPC) ranged from 1.0 x 103 to 1.6 x 103 CFU/g. The TPCs of control samples showed significant differences in various zones (P < 0.05). One hundred and thirty-three bacterial isolates were obtained from suya spices. Pseudomonas aeruginosa (25.56%) had the highest frequency and Klebsiella planticola (3.01%) the lowest. The MIC of antibiotics ranged from 0.02 mg/l to > 256. The percentage of isolates resistant to the antibiotics ranged from 3.01% to 87.97% as exhibited by imipenem and teicoplanin, respectively.

    Conclusion

    This study revealed a high bacterial load and the presence of potential pathogens in suya spices. This depicts that suya spices, when added to suya meat, are one of the sources of microbial contamination.

    Keywords: Anitibiotic resistance, Foodborne pathogens, Food safety, Hygiene, Microbiological quality, Spice
  • Somaye Gholami, Narjes Hazar, Behnam Bagheri-Fahraji, Reyhaneh Azizi, Akram Ghadiri-Anari*, Azadeh Nadjarzadeh, Seyed Yaser Ghelmani, Masoud Mirzaei, Sayyed Saeid Khayyatzadeh Pages 355-361
    Background

    Beneficial effects of vitamins and dietary supplements in the prevention and treatment of metabolic syndrome (MS) are controversial. This study aims to evaluate the association between dietary supplements intake and MS.

    Methods

    This analytical cross-sectional analysis was conducted on 9539 people aged 35-70 years who participated in the recruitment phase of Shahedieh Cohort Study in Yazd-Iran (May 2015 to September 2017). The consumption of supplements, such as multivitamin-mineral, multivitamin, calcium-D, calcium, vitamin D, folic acid, omega 3, iron, and zinc were asked in the study. the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATP III) criteria used for defining MS.

    Results

    4785 (50.2%) men and 4754 (49.8%) women with mean age of 47.64 ± 9.60 years participated in this study. The prevalence of MS was 2901 (30.41%). The participants with MS were significantly different in consuming supplements, such as Calcium-D (P < 0.001), Calcium (P < 0.001), Calcium-D or Calcium products (P = 0.001), vitamin D; injection (P = 0.017) and vitamin D orally or injection (P = 0.005), Omega 3, fish oil (P = 0.001), and at least one supplement intake (P = 0.001). However, the relationship between MS and supplement consumption was not significant after adjusting for covariates in the multivariate regression model.

    Conclusion

    Multiple factors may be responsible for the high prevalence of MS. It seems that a known supplement may not be the pathologic factor in the MS

    Keywords: Metabolic syndrome, Oxidative stress, Vitamins
  • Fatemeh Moghtaderi, Mohammadtaghi Sarebanhassanabadi*, Shabnam Hosseini, Mohammadreza Pakseresht, Omid Beiki, Seyed Mostafa Seyed Hosseini, Seyedeh Mahdieh Namayandeh, Mahmood Emami, Amin Salehi-Abargouei Pages 362-373
    Background

    Obesity and overweight are important public health problems which are rapidly growing throughout the world. This study aims to provide 10-year incidence estimates of obesity and overweight in adults along with their risk factors in an Iranian adult population.

    Methods

    This cohort study was conducted within the framework of the Yazd Healthy Heart Project (YHHP) throughout phases from 2005-2006 to 2015-2016 among urban adult population. The participants comprised of 1000 males and 1000 females aged 20-74 years from urban areas of Yazd. Cox proportional hazards model was used to examine the potential risk factors for obesity and overweight.

    Results

    A total of 2000 participants aged 47.09 ± 16.97 years and body mass index (BMI) of 21.99 ± 2.21 kg/m2 were entered in this study at baseline. After 10 years of follow-up, the cumulative incidence of overweight for the entire population was 38.6% (41.6% in women and 36.8% in men). Furthermore, the 10-year cumulative incidence of obesity was 14.8% in the population (20.8% for women and 10.5% for men). Female participants showed a significantly higher incidence rate compared to males either for obesity or overweight. Regarding risk factors, there was a significant association between non-smoking (HR= 1.54, 95% CI: 1.06-2.25), socio-economic status (HR= 1.82, 95% CI: 1.13-2.94), and education (HR= 1.56, 95% CI: 1.14-2.13) with overweight (P < 0.05).

    Conclusion

    This study revealed the incidence rate of obesity and overweight is significantly high in adult population of Yazd, Iran especially in women. The most important predictors of overweight seem to be smoking, lower socio-economic status, and education.

    Keywords: Overweight, Obesity, Incidence, Cohort, Risk factors
  • Najmeh Yazdanfar, Sara Mohamadi*, Tayebeh Zienali, Parisa Sadighara Pages 374-378
    Background

    Rosa damascena Mill. (Rosaceae) is a relevant ornamental and medicinal flower, whose distillation is known as Golab (Rosewater) in Iran. Due to the nature of the distillation process, methanol and ethanol are likely to be formed in the final product. Therefore, due to their toxicity, along with their frequent prescription, this study aims to investigate the concentrations of essential oil, methanol, and ethanol in commonly used brands of Rosewater available in Tehran, Iran.

    Methods

    Methanol and ethanol concentrations were determined by gas chromatography, using a Flame Ionized Detector.

    Results

    The mean essence level in the tested samples was 204.1 ± 18.0 ppm, which was significantly higher (P < 0.001) than the Iranian standard level. The mean methanol and ethanol levels in the tested samples were 1.25 ± 0.70 ppm and 700.0 ± 100.0 ppm, respectively, which were significantly lower than the maximum residues levels.

    Conclusion

    The mean essence level in the tested samples well coped with the Iranian standard level. Moreover, there is no health risk to methanol and ethanol through Rosewater consumption

    Keywords: Rosewater, Essence, Methanol, Ethanol, Gas chromatography
  • Vali Musazadeh, Parvin Dehghan*, Sodeif Azadmard-Damirchi Pages 379-387
    Background

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disease (CLD). Omega-3 fatty acids and antioxidants co-supplementation have been considered as an alternative treatment in NAFLD. This trial will evaluate camelina sativa oil (CSO) effects as a rich source of omega-3 fatty acids and antioxidants on cardiometabolic risk factors, metabolic endotoxemia, liver enzymes, hepatic steatosis, and mental health in NAFLD patients.

    Methods

    Forty-six patients with NAFLD will be randomly assigned to either a CSO supplementation or placebo for 12 weeks. Both groups will receive a weight-loss diet too. Insulin resistance, oxidative stress, anti/inflammatory biomarkers, lipid profile, adiponectin, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), anthropometric indices, liver enzymes, hepatic steatosis, and cortisol will be assessed all patients at baseline and post-intervention. DASS and GHQ questionnaires will be completed for all patients at baseline and post-intervention.

    Results

    The CSO is expected to reduce hepatic steatosis and improve cardiometabolic risk factors, liver function, and mental health compared to the placebo group after 12 weeks.

    Conclusion

    The CSO as a phytopharmaceutical drug may improve cardiometabolic risk factors, metabolic endotoxemia, liver enzymes, hepatic steatosis, and mental health in patients with NAFLD.

    Keywords: Fatty acids omega-3, Camelina oil, Oxidative stress, Inflammatory biomarkers, Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease
  • Sepideh Dolati*, Alemeh Hariri Far, Zahra Mollarasouli, Ali Imani Pages 388-397
    Background

    The COVID-19 pandemic has caused serious disruption to food security in the world. Declining incomes, purchasing power, and food production and rising prices in the food supply and consumption chain have affected and increased the risk of food insecurity, the most important consequence of which is the worsening of world hunger and malnutrition. The outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic since December 2019 in Wuhan, and its spread around the world has caused major changes in people's lives; one of the most important affected areas is the food and nutrition sector. This study aims to evaluate the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on changes in food choice, purchase, and consumption.

    Methods

    Keywords "food", "nutrition", "choice or select", "buy or purchase", "consumption" and "behavior" in combination with the word "COVID-19" were used to search for English articles in Google Scholar, PubMed, and Scopus. All articles from the beginning of the pandemic to the end of May 2021 were included in this study. After deleting some studies due to non-English language, duplication, inconsistency with the intended purpose, and being reviewed, 25 articles entered the final phase.

    Results

    The results indicate that forced quarantine and travel restrictions with the formation of new nutritional behaviors have affected the quality of nutrition of different populations. It has positive consequences, such as reducing ready meals and fast foods, increasing attention to nutrients to promote and maintain health and reduce food waste. The negative consequences include increased intake of snacks, high-calorie foods, canned foods, and processed meats in some countries.

    Conclusion

    Decreased nutritional quality from this pandemic can have adverse effects on public health. More detailed studies are needed to examine the impact of quarantine on food choice, purchase, and consumption during the COVID-19 pandemic.

    Keywords: COVID-19, Food, Purchase, Nutrition
  • Arezoo Haghighian-Roudsari, Nazli Namazi, Pardis Irandoost, Fatemeh Mohammadi Nasarabadi, Mohammad Naemi Kermanshahi, Maryam Mohammadi Nasarabadi, Zahra Shahveghar, Mahdiyeh Khabbaz, Azizollaah Zargaraan, Ali Milani-Bonab, Samira Pourmoradian* Pages 398-406
    Background

    Traffic Light Labeling (TLL) system is a simple tool to communicate information regarding the nutrients content of food products and has been widely applied to promote public health. However, evidence on the effectiveness of the TLL system on consumers’ choices is conflicting. The present study aims to systematically summarize the effects of TLL on consumers’ point of purchase behaviors.

    Methods

    Five electronic databases, including PubMed/Medline, Scopus, Web of knowledge, the Cochrane library, and Science direct were searched from 2000/01/01 to 2021/11/01. Randomized-controlled trials, in English or Farsi languages, investigating the effects of TLL on choosing healthier foodstuffs or beverages were examined for eligibility and included in the review. Of 6408 potentially relevant publications (including 1255 duplicates), five clinical trials were finally included in the study.

    Results

    The duration of the interventions ranged from 4 to 12 weeks and all studies except one had high methodological quality. Out of 5, three clinical trials did not show positive effects of TLL on customers' choices to purchase healthier food products.

    Conclusions

    The present review showed that TLL without other public health-promoting interventions may have no substantial effects on consumer’s food choice.

    Keywords: Food Labeling, Consumer’s behavior, Choice behavior
  • Azadeh Lesani, Fatemeh Sharafi, Mahsa Hatami, Sakineh Shab-Bidar* Pages 407-419
    Background

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common metabolic disorder among age reproductive women. It could result in anovulation, infertility insulin resistance, and obesity. Dietary intake especially antioxidant components may improve some disorders. The current study is the first meta-analysis to assess the effect of green tea, a source of antioxidants, on anthropometric and insulin among women with PCOS.

    Methods

    In this meta-analysis, the databases of PubMed/Medline, Scopus, Cochran, and Web of Science were searched up to March 2019. The I-square (I2), a statistical measure of heterogeneity, was used to assess the heterogeneity. Egger's test was used for the assessment of publication bias.

    Results

    Green tea reduced weight -3.07 kg (-6.53 to -0.44, P = 0.03), fasting insulin -0.50 mIU/l -3.72 (-5.16 -2.28, P = 0.001), waist to hip ratio (WHR) -0.04 (-0.06 to -0.017, P = 0.001), body mass index -0.32 to kg/cm2 (-1.63 to 1, P = 0.09), and body fat percentage -1.13(-5.30 to 3.04, P = 0.51).

    Conclusion

    The green tea supplement has some mild decreasing effect on weight, WHR, and fasting insulin significantly. It seems green tea could improve weight and glycemic control in women with PCOS.

    Keywords: Green tea, Herbal tea, Catechin, PCOS, Polycystic ovary Syndrome