فهرست مطالب

Basic and Clinical Neuroscience
Volume:13 Issue: 4, Jul-Aug 2022

  • Special Issue on Cognitive Sciences 2022
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1401/05/31
  • تعداد عناوین: 13
  • Hamed Aliyari, Hedayat Sahraei, Sahar Gholabi, Mohammad Bagher Menhaj, Masoomeh Kazemi, Seyed Hossein Hosseinian* Pages 433-442

    Living near high-voltage power lines and exposure to high-frequency electromagnetic fields (EMFs) is a potential serious hazard to animal and human health. The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of high-frequency EMFs from simulated high-voltage electric towers on cognitive, anatomical, and biological changes in male Macaque. In this study, two Rhesus Macaque were recruited, one experimental and one control. The experimental subject was exposed to EMFs from simulated 3kV/m electric towers with a given protocol, and the control subject was tested without irradiation (4h a day, for 30 days). All required tests were performed before and after the intervention on both experimental and control monkeys. The anatomical alternation of the prefrontal area (PFA) was measured by MRI images. All tests were performed on irradiated and control animals before and after the intervention, and results were compared between irradiated and control animals. the findings of the present study indicated increased white blood cell counts, after high-frequency EMFs irradiation. Also, the red blood cell counts showed a decreasing trend after irradiation. The plasma levels of adrenaline increased after irradiation. Besides, the blood glucose levels increased after irradiation. The PFA was different before and after the irradiation. Moreover, some behavioral disorders such as fatigue, drowsiness, anorexia and insomnia were observed after irradiation. Results from biological tests and MRI showed elevated risk of immunodeficiency disorders, weakness, and behavioral disorders. A warning is given to people who live or work near high-voltage electric towers with high-frequency EMFs.

    Keywords: MRI, Rhesus macaque, EMFs, High-voltage transmission line, Adrenaline hormone
  • Leila Rezaeian, Mehdi Khaksari, Raheleh Rafaiee, Hamid Kalalian Moghaddam* Pages 443-454

    Methamphetamine (MA) as an addictive psychostimulant drug affects the central nervous system. The present research aimed at evaluating the impact of Berberine-hydrochloride on cognitive function Improvement and neuroprotective effects in MA Addicted Rats.


    In this study, 27 Male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to three groups, including Control, MA addiction and MA addiction with Berberine Hydrochloride (100 mg/kg/day) per oral during the three-week period of withdrawal. Two groups received inhaled MA self-administration for two weeks (up to 10 mg/kg). Following the experimental procedures, Morris Water Maze (MWM) and shuttle box were used to assess memory and hippocampal sections from the animals were examined for caspase-3, ki-67 and GFAP expression.


    The obtained results from MWM showed that Berberine Hydrochloride decreases (p<0.01) the distance moved and spent time to reach the hidden platform in four-day learning trails phase and there were significant differences in the distance moved, spent time and frequency of motion in target quadrant on probe test day between groups. Berberine Hydrochloride reduced also the latency to enter animals into the dark chamber in the treated group in comparison with the control group (p<0.05). A significant decrease in activation of caspases-3, higher percentages of Ki67 expression and increase in GFAP expression of cells in Addicted group was found to compare with Berberine-treated and control groups (p<0.05).


    Berberine Hydrochloride administration for 3 weeks improves cognition function in MA addiction and it has a potential for neuroprotective efficacy.

    Keywords: Methamphetamine, Berberine hydrochloride, Cognitive function, Neuroprotective effects, Rat
  • Seyed Davood Mirtorabi, Sharif Saleki, Mohammad Sadegh Rahmanian, Hadi Hadizadeh, Reza Rostami, Ali Yoonessi* Pages 455-464

    This study aims to investigate the attentional bias toward drug-related stimuli along with subjective craving after encountering such stimuli in methamphetamine users. Studies of cue reactivity have confirmed bias in attention and gaze to drug-related stimuli for most substances, but methamphetamine drugs are less studied by a direct measure such as eye tracking.


    Thirty male subjects in the case group (methamphetamine-users) and 36 subjects in control group (no prior drug use) participated in this study. Eye movement data were collected while subjects viewed pairs of drug-related and non-drug images in a dot-probe paradigm. Craving was assessed via a self-report questionnaire on the scale of 0 to 10 before and after the psychophysical task.


    Analysis of eye-movement data showed meaningful gaze bias toward cue images (drug-related) for the case group. Additionally, the gaze duration on cue-images was significantly higher in the case group, while the opposite held true for the control group. The same effect was observed in the analysis of the dot probe task, that is, the mean reaction time to a probe which replaced a cue-image was significantly lower. The mean of the first-fixation measure in control group was not significantly better than chance but the percentage of first-fixation on cue images in the drug-users was meaningfully biased. Reported craving was reported as significantly greater after performing the task compared to before.


    Altogether, our results indicate an attentional bias toward drug-related cues in methamphetamine users as well as subjective craving after encountering such cues.

    Keywords: Attentional bias, Methamphetamine, Craving, Substance addiction, Eye movement measurements
  • Zahra Rabiei, Manouchehr Shirchi, Mahmoud Rafieian-Kopaei*, Samira Asgharzadeh Pages 465-476

    Epilepsy is a group of chronic neurological disorders characterized by seizures. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of pretreatment with Satureja bachtiarica essential oil in preventing epilepsy.


    In this experimental study, 50 mice were randomly assigned to five groups of 10 each. The control group received normal saline plus tween80 and, 30 min later, PTZ. Groups 2 and 3 were treated with S. bachtiarica essential oil at 50 and 100 mg/kg and 30 min later received PTZ, respectively. Group 4 received diazepam and 30 min later received PTZ. Group 5 received flumazenil and 30 min later received PTZ. After the last injection of PTZ, the time of seizure onset, seizure severity and score, the completion time of each seizure (attack episode), and mortality rate in different groups were recorded and compared.


    The administration of S. bachtiarica essential oil at 50 and 100 mg/kg to PTZ-treated mice caused significant increase in latency to first seizure and survival, and significant decrease in the frequency of the head and upper limbs seizure, total body seizures, tonic seizures, and jumping. S. bachtiarica essential oil at 100 mg/kg caused a significant decrease in the head ticks frequency. The administration of flumazenil significantly inhibited S. bachtiarica essential oil induced effects and increased the head and upper limbs seizures, tonic seizures, and jumping.


    The present study demonstrated that S. bachtiarica essential oil can prevent PTZ-induced seizure and these findings authenticate the traditional claims about use of Satureja bachtiarica in treatment of epilepsy.

    Keywords: Satureja bachtiarica, Epilepsy, GABAergic activity, PTZ – kindled
  • Mahsa Roozrokh Arshadi Montazer, Rooholla Zahediannasb, Mohammad Nami, Mahshid Tahamtan, Roxana Sharifian*, Mahdi Nasiri Pages 477-488

    Mild Cognitive impairment (MCI) is a primary disorder intensifies by aging. Rapid diagnosis of MCI can prevent its progression towards the development of dementia. Thus, the present study was conducted to evaluate the psychometric features of the self-assessment Persian version of Alzheimer's questionnaire (AQ) in the elderly to detect MCI. 


    First, the Alzheimer's questionnaire was translated into the Persian language; then, content validity was evaluated by CVI and CVR method, face validity was determined by two checklists for expert panel and the elderly. Convergent validity of the MCI test with MoCA was assessed using Pearson correlation. Test-retest and internal consistency reliability using Intra-Class Correlation (ICC) and Kuder-Richardson coefficients, respectively, were evaluated; moreover, the receiver operating characteristic curve was used to determine the optimal cut-off point of self-assessment MCI test. Among 148 older people took part, 93 of them meet our inclusion criteria (aged 60 years old or older, had reading and writing skills and able to speak and communicate).


    A translated version of the questionnaire was named “M-check”. The developed test showed good content and face validity. Statistically significant correlations were found between M-check and MoCA (r= -0.83, p < 0.05). Kuder–Richardson and ICC coefficient were obtained as 0.84 and 0.92, respectively. Area under the curve presented satisfactory values (AUC =0.852, sensitivity =0.62, specificity =0.94).


    M-check is a reliable tool that can be used as a valid and reliable instrument for assessing cognitive state and screening dementia in the elderly.

    Keywords: Aging, Elderly, Mild Cognitive Impairment, Self-Assessment, Psychometrics, Persian
  • Mohsen Shabani*, Javad Salehi, Reza Khosrowabadi Pages 489-500

    Consumers’ prior experiences shape an episodic memory which largely influences their decision-making process. This episodic memory is mainly linked to cognitive and emotional perception and we know that a brand image influences our cognitive and emotional perception. Nevertheless, it has not been well described how autobiographical memories of brand images differ from those of other types of images.  In this study, we hypothesized that brand pictures have a higher chance to create false memories as compared to neutral ones. We investigated this hypothesis using the Deese–Roediger–McDermott paradigm with lists of brand pictures from the local market and associated neutral images from the international affective picture system. Thirty graduate students were exposed to image stimuli followed by a distractor task and a recognition task. After the test of normality, reaction times, and false recognition rates of brands and neutral images were statistically compared using a pairwise t-test. The results showed a significant decrease in reaction times and an increase in false recognition rates of brand pictures as compared to neutral ones. Interestingly, the effect of gender on the creation of false memory by autobiographical brand images was not significant. We hope these findings could pave the way for a better understanding of the false memory mechanism.

    Keywords: Brand autobiographical memory, False memory, Deese-Roediger-McDermott paradigm (DRM)
  • Ali Mandegary, Fariba Sharififar*, Vahid Sheibani, Naghme Nasehi, Amir Asadi, Mansour Mirtadzadini, Navid Hassanabadi Pages 501-510

    Textured soy protein (TSP) and nuts are two processed forms of soybean (Glycine max L.) that are widely consumed for nutritional purposes in Iran. Recently, we have reported the antioxidant and anticholinesterase effects of raw soybean (RS) attributed to isoflavones, such as genistein. In this work, we aimed to compare in vitro antioxidant and anticholinesterase effects of TSP, nuts, and RS to select the most effective one for learning capacity and spatial memory studies.


    Genistein content was determined using high-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC), while diphenylpicrylhydrazil (DPPH) radical scavenging and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) were used to study antioxidant evaluation and Ellman’s colorimetric method was used to measure anticholinesterase. TSP extract (TSPE) was administered to male rats (100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg, intraperitoneally [i.p] for 7 days) before scopolamine injection (1 mg/kg). Learning capacity and spatial memory were evaluated using passive avoidance test (PAT) and Morris water maze (MWM) methods compared to physostigmine and piracetam.


    The greatest antioxidant and anticholinesterase effect was observed for TSPE, which significantly prolonged initially latency in PTA (P<0.05) and improved all indicators in the MWM test at 200 mg/kg.


    The memory-improving effect of TSPE may be due to its antioxidant and anticholinesterase effect as well as neuroprotective effects of its isoflavones.

    Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease, Dementia, Textured soy protein, Morris water maze, Antioxidant, Scopolamine
  • Maryam Malekian, Yalda Kazemi, Talieh Zarifian* Pages 511-518

    According to the declarative/procedural model, the semantic aspect of language depends on the brain structures responsible for declarative memory. The word pairs task is a common tool for evaluating declarative memory. The current study aimed to design a valid and reliable task for evaluating declarative memory in Persian children at learning and retention stages and to investigate its relationship with the semantic aspect of language.


    A panel of experts agreed on the content validity of the proposed task.  The reliability of the task was determined using internal consistency and test-retest reliability. A total of 31 typically developing children aged 7-9 years of age participated in this study.


    The content validity of all the 42 word pairs calculated as one. The test-retest reliability showed a correlation coefficient of .825 (P < 0.001). The task showed acceptable internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha 0.880). The results of correlation analysis showed no significant relationship between declarative memory and semantic aspect. The regression analysis, however, showed that the retention stage could explain 24.2% of the variation of semantic aspect.


    It seems that the word pairs task has good validity and reliability for evaluating declarative memory. The task applied to evaluate the semantic aspect can be one of the potential causes for the lack of a relationship between semantic aspect and declarative memory. The participant score in the retention stage can be predicted concerning his/her performance at the semantic aspect.

    Keywords: Declarative memory, Word pairs task, Semantic, Content validity
  • Elnaz Azizi, Fatemeh Ayoobi, Ali Shamsizadeh, Amir Moghadam-Ahmadi, Seyed Ali Shafiei*, Ali Reza Khoshdel, Mohammad Reza Mirzaei Pages 519-530

    Lack of high-quality sleep causes serious side effects like anxiety and changes in plasma concentration of oxalate. The current study aimed to investigate the impact of local extremely low frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MFs) on inducing sleep (sleepiness) and anxiety in male rats.


    In this experimental study, 40 male rats were allocated in four groups (n=10). The ELF-MFs exposure (0, 10 and 18 Hz) was applied with intensity 200µT for three days (10 min/day). Sham-treated animal did not receive ELF-MF. Serum level of oxalic acid (OA) and sleepiness were measured both before first and after last exposure to ELF-MF or sham. Anxiety, sleepiness and OA were measured by using elevated plus maze, open-field test (OFT) and ELISA test, respectively.


    Comparison of oxalate levels between before and after exposure to ELF-MF revealed that ELF-MF (10 Hz) decreased the serum level of oxalate (p<0.05). Comparison of the percent of open:closed arm entry (in elevated plus maze) between before and after exposure to ELF-MF revealed significant differences. Also, frequency, velocity and distance moved were decreased in the open-field test.


    Results of the present study demonstrated that ELF-MF with short time exposure may modulate the metabolism of OA and may modulate anxiety-like behavior or kind of induction of sleepiness in male rats.

    Keywords: Magnetic field, ELF-MFs, Oxalic acid, Anxiety, Sleepiness
  • Mahdi Hoodgar, Reza Khosrowabadi*, Keivan Navi, Ebrahim Mahdipour Pages 531-550

    The human brain is a complex system consist of connected nerve cells that adapts with and learn from the environment by changing its regional activities. Synchrony between these regional activities called functional network changes during the life, and with learning of new skills. Time perception and interval discrimination are among the most necessary skills for the human being to perceive motions, coordinate the motor functions, speak and perform lots of cognitive functions. Despite its importance, the underlying mechanism of changes in brain functional connectivity pattern during learning of time intervals still needs to be well understood. In this study, we aimed to show how the changes of EEG functional connectivity associate with the learning of temporal intervals. In this regard, twelve healthy volunteers trained with an auditory time-interval discrimination task over six days while their brain activities were recorded via EEG signals during the first and the last sessions. Then, changes in regional phase synchronies were calculated using the weighted/phase lag index approach. The most effective EEG functional connections at the temporal and prefrontal regions  and in the theta and beta bands frequency. In addition, the wpli index reported more accurate values. The results showed functional connectivity at the prefrontal and the temporal regions were significantly changed by learning of interval discrimination. These findings could shed a light on better understanding of brain mechanism involved in time perception.

    Keywords: Electroencephalography (EEG), Functional connectivity, Time perception, Interval discrimination, Phase lag index
  • Farnaz Faridi, Ashkan Alvand, Reza Khosrowabadi * Pages 551-572

    Neuroimaging evidences have shown the association of intelligence with several structural brain properties in normal individuals. However, this association for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is need to be investigated. we estimated grey matter density of the brain using MRI scanning on 56 ADHD individuals comprising 30 combined (age=10.44±2.41, IQ=112.13±13.15, male, 24 right hand) and 26 inattentive (age=11.39±2.1, IQ=107.44±13.98, male, 28 right hand) as well as 30 IQ matched healthy control (age=11.08±2.15, IQ=115±13.56,male, 23 right hand). In this study, two statistical approaches were used. At the first approach, region based as well as whole pattern of association between full scale IQ and grey matter were computed and compared between groups. The second approach was to look at the differential pattern of grey matter density whithout considering IQ in three groups. Results showed significant differences between ADHD group and control. This finding could suggest that intelligence is not purely grounded on the density of grey matter in certain brain regions; it is a dynamic phenomenon and drastically changes in the neurodevelopmental disorders.

    Keywords: ADHD, MRI, Intelligence, Grey matter density
  • Abdolvahed Narmashiri, Javad Hatami*, Reza Khosrowabadi, Ahmad Sohrabi Pages 573-584

    Paranormal beliefs are defined as believing in extrasensory perception, precognition, witchcraft, and telekinesis, magical thinking, psychokinesis, superstitions. Previous studies corroborate that executive brain functions underpin paranormal beliefs. To test causal hypotheses, neurophysiological studies of brain activity are required.


    A sample of 20 students (10 females, age: 22.50 ± 4.07 years) were included for the current study. The absolute power of resting-state EEG in intrahemispheric and interhemispheric coherence was analyzed with eyes opened. The paranormal beliefs were determined based on the total score of the Revised Paranormal Belief Scale (RPBS).


    The results of this study demonstrated that there was a significant negative relationship between paranormal beliefs and EEG resting state in alpha band activity in the frontal lobe (left hemisphere), EEG coherence of alpha and beta1, beta2, and gamma band activities in the frontal lobe (right hemisphere) and coherence of alpha and beta1, beta2 and gamma band activities between frontal regions (two hemispheres). In addition, the results showed that coherence of alpha, alpha1, beta, and beta2 band activities between frontal lobe (right hemispheres) and EEG coherence of delta, alpha1, and band activities in the frontal lobe (two hemispheres) predicted paranormal beliefs.


    This study confirms connecting executive brain functions to paranormal beliefs, and determines that frontal brain functioning may contribute to paranormal beliefs.

    Keywords: Paranormal beliefs, Resting state, Frontal regions, Coherence, Executive brain functions, EEG
  • Fatemeh Shahrabifarahani, Reza Khosrowabadi, Gholamreza Jaafari* Pages 585-594

    Risk-taking has an important role in human’s life, either positive or negative. Thus, finding a method to control or drive this in a particular way could affect individuals and communities’ health by discouraging negative risks such as reckless driving or encouraging positive risks. Emotion induction is one of the methods that can enhance or reinforce risk-taking according to the perceived emotion. Among the studies which had taken, most of them focus on adolescents’ which is known as the peaked age of risk-taking behavior, while from a developmental learning point of view if there is a way to control or educate people’s behavior childhood could be the best time. Thus, this study along with the introduction of a new risk-taking task, aims to investigate two less studied groups (children and adults) risk-taking behavior, and also their behavioral response after they influence by positive or negative emotional pictures, to test whether these affect their risk-taking or not. 21 children and 20 adults participate in this experiment. Their risk-taking behavior is obtained using a new version of game of dice task combined with emotional stimuli. Results show that children have higher tendency to choose riskier options while they affected by positive emotion while adults are more risk-averse after primed by negative emotion. These findings could be helpful for policy makers and tutoring planners to control risk-taking behavior over different ages using priming effect of positive and negative emotions.

    Keywords: Risk-taking behavior, Emotional priming, dual system theory, Development