فهرست مطالب

Reviews in Clinical Medicine
Volume:9 Issue: 2, Spring 2022

  • تاریخ انتشار: 1401/10/11
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
  • Lahya Afsharisaleh, Nasrin Anvari, Maliheh Dadgarmoghaddam, Bita Kiafar, Farzaneh Rahimpour * Pages 49-54
    Work related dermatitis is one of the most prevalent diseases, which its economic and social effects on the individual and the society is considerable. The Nordic Occupational Skin Questionnaire (NOSQ-2002) is known as a comprehensive and standardized tools for screening the occupational skin diseases.The main purpose of this study was to translate and cross-culturally adapt the NOSQ-2002/SHORT into Persian.
    Materials and methods
    A survey cultural translation carried out during 2018 in Mashhad, Iran. The NOSQ-2002/SHORT adaptation process included the forward translation and reconciliation, back translation and an expert panel assessment. The content validity ratio (CVR) and content validity index (CVI) were calculated according the to Lawshe formula. The Persian version of the questionnaire was tested in 30 workers attended the training courses for health ID card confirmation as a pilot study and were confirmed by physical examination. Base on the participants’ opinion, the ambiguous questions were modified by the expert panel.
    All the 15 questions had a CVR of 0.6 and higher. The overall content validity index of the questionnaire was equal to 0.80. Some obscure words not good understood by the pilot study participants were revised. The results of the questionnaire declaration was matched with the physical examination for each worker.
    The Persian version of the NOSQ-2002/SHORT questionnaire is now available for researchers for assessment hand eczema in the work settings. Further research is suggested to evaluate the validity of the Persian version of NOSQ-2002.
    Keywords: Contact Dermatitis, Occupational Dermatitis, eczema
  • Fatemeh Sadat Hashemi Javaheri, Hamidreza Kianifar, Pegah Rahbarinejad, Saeedeh Talebi * Pages 55-58
    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by difficulties with social interaction and communication, and by restricted and repetitive behavior. Children with ASD are at risk of nutritional problems that could impact growth and anthropometric indices over both the short and long term. The aim of present study was to determine prevalence of malnutrition and other factors related to the malnutrition among children and adolescent with autism disorder.
    Material and method
    To assess the prevalence of malnutrition indicators among preschool children with ASD, a cross-sectional study was conducted among 81 children and adolescents who referred to subspecialized and specialized Autism Akbar Children‘s Hospital, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran. Weight and height measurements were assessed based on standard protocols. The z-score of anthropometric indices was determined for all participants. Participants were asked about nutritional problems by the interview from their parents.
    In the current study, the mean ± SD of age was 10.1±3.7 years old. Among participants 3.7% were with Diarrhea, 33.3% with Constipation, 4.9% with Reflux, 3.7% with Flatulence, and 1.2% with Steatorrhea. The prevalence of both of food neophobia and food Allergy was 16%. Furthermore, 18.5% had poor appetite, 23.5% had moderate and 58% had good appetite. Based on standardized z-scores, the overall prevalence of under-weight, risk of overweight, overweight, and obese was 1.2%, 22.2%, 12.3%, and 7.4%, respectively. Among participants 4.9% was stunting.
    Based on aforementioned prevalence, improving nutritional problems and anthropometric indices among ASD children and adolescents are crucial issue.
    Keywords: Malnutrition, Children, Autism Disorder, Obesity
  • Alireza Sedaghat, Ali Ahmadabadi, Seyed Hassan Tavousi, Benyamin Fazli *, Mahmood Khorsand, Bita Mirzaie Feyzabadi Pages 59-64
    Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) are rare, but potentially life-threatening reactions to medications. Both conditions have significant morbidity and mortality. This study aimed to document the epidemiological features, aetiologies, treatment and clinical outcomes of such patients.
    In this retrospective cross-sectional study the records of all patients with TEN treated for5 years in central Hospital, Mashhad, Iran were reviewed.
    Thirty-four patients were studied with a mean age of 26.5 years. Mean age in the mortality and survivors groups was 33.6 and 25.3 years, respectively. Drugs accounted for all 34 cases were including Anti-convulsants (52.9%) other the most common implicated drug followed by antibiotics (26.5%), allopurinol (5.9%) and multiple drugs (anticonvulsants plus antibiotics) (14.7%). Antibiotics had the shortest interval between ingestion time and onset of symptoms. The mean ICU length of stay was 12.7 days, with a range of 1 to 30 days. The mean of SCORTEN was 2.3; it was 3.3 and 2.1 in the mortality and survivors group, respectively (P=0.001).All 34 TEN cases were given intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIG). Six patients with TEN died (17.6%). The highest mortality was found in the allopurinol group with 50%, whereas anticonvulsants and antibiotics had a mortality rate of 16.6% and 15.3%, respectively.
    Anti-convulsants especially Lamotrigine were the most frequently implicated drug, followed by antibiotics and allopurinol. IVIG was shown beneficial effects in TEN syndrome.
    Keywords: Toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN), drug, Anticonvulsants, Mortality
  • Ziya Asan * Pages 65-69
    The aim of the study was to evaluate the clinical and radiological follow-up of cases who had a history of spine trauma and were being followed up for a diagnosis of post-traumatic syringomyelia and to discuss the existing theories in the literature and the vortex effect in pathogenesis.
    Records of 44 patients who had a history of high-energy spinal trauma and diagnosed post-traumatic syringomyelia after their follow-up were retrospectively evaluated. Cases were evaluated under two groups based on the type of trauma those affected by axial forces and those affected by vertical forces. Results from spinal MRI scans of the cases were recorded. Pathogenesis was aimed to be revealed by uncovering the relationship of trauma type with syringomyelia localization and size.
    The mean age was 39.8; 26 cases were male, and 18 were female. 10 (58.8%) cases presented cervical, 4 (23.5%) cervicothoracic, and 3 (17.6%) thoracic syringomyelias due to axial trauma. 6 (22.2%) cases presented cervical, 4 (14.8%) cases cervicothoracic, and 17 (62.9%) thoracic syringomyelias due to vertical forces. Segmental asymmetries were frequently encountered among their neurological findings.
    Syringomyelias appeared most frequently in the cervical and cervicothoracic junction due to the vertebral column being affected by axial forces, whereas in the case of vertical forces, it appeared most frequently in the thoracic segments. When considered along with the mechanisms of syringomyelia development, the appearance of syringomyelias can be explained by a vortex effect inside the central canal.
    Keywords: syringomyelia, Spinal trauma, spinal concussion, spinal imaging, Trauma, sciwora
  • Farhad Heydarian, Maryam Bagherian, Elham Bakhtiari, Elahe Heidari, Forough Rakhshanizadeh * Pages 70-76

    The present study aimed to determine the effect of training parents by film, poster or graphics, and verbal explanation, on the enhancement of their satisfaction with the performance of this procedure.

    Materials and Methods

    This cross-sectional quasi-experimental study was conducted on the children with febrile seizures referred to the Emergency and Pediatric Wards of hospitals affiliated with Mashhad University of Medical Sciences. They were LP candidates; nonetheless, their parents did not consent to the performance of this procedure. The children were randomly assigned to three groups. In the first group, videos of the location and method of LP were presented to the parents. The second group received this information via posters, and the parents in the third group were given a verbal explanation.


    The children included 49 (4.54%) females with a mean age of 15 months. There was a significant relationship between the reason for parental refusal of LP and their final satisfaction (P=0.022). There was a significant relationship between parents' satisfaction with the performance of LP and their education (P=0.029). The film method had the lowest chance of success, and the verbal explanation method enjoyed the most remarkable success in enhancing parental satisfaction (P= 0.013).


    Although the use of posters and videos was less effective than verbal explanation, it increased the satisfaction of LP in some parents. In fact, it is more beneficial to try to alter parental misperceptions of LP in non-emergency situations.

    Keywords: Cerebrospinal fluid, Lumbar puncture, parents, Satisfaction, Quasi-experimental studies
  • Maryam Emadzadeh, Seyed Mostafa Parizadeh, Reza Jafarzadeh-Esfehani, Reza Sahebi, Ramin Sadeghi, Gordon A. Ferns, Majid Ghayour-Mobarhan * Pages 77-87
    Various fortification strategies have been proposed to account to treat or prevent vitamin D deficiency. However, the optimum fortification approach, and the effect of these on health is not widely understood. There have been controversial reports regarding the effect of vitamin D fortification on the lipid profile. The aim of present review is the evaluation of administration of vitamin D fortified products on lipid profile.
    We used databases including PubMed/Medline, ISI Web of Knowledge, Science Direct, Scopus and Cochrane Library. A search was conducted until 2020 Randomized controlled trials that have assessed the relationship between consumption of vitamin D fortified products and serum lipid profile were included. The relationship between fortification dose, dairy or non-dairy fortification as well as duration of intervention and plasma lipid profiles evaluated in separate sub-groups.
    Among serum lipids including total cholesterol(TC), triglyceride(TG), low density lipoprotein(LDL) and high density lipoprotein(HDL), fortification of vitamin D was reported to have a significant effect on reducing total cholesterol (pooled estimate: -0.089 mmol/L, 95%CI: -0.134 to -0.044, p<0.001). Its effect on other lipid profiles were not significant (LDL pooled estimate:-0.115 mmol/L, 95%CI:-0.238 to 0.008; HDL pooled estimate:0.024 mmol/L, 95%CI:-0.024 to 0.071; TG pooled estimate:-0.176mmol/L, 95%CI:-0.499 to 0.148).
    This meta-analysis demonstrated that vitamin D fortification could significantly reduce TC both in long and short term interventions and in different products. However this reduction, whilst statistically significant, may not be clinically important. The effect of fortification on other lipid profile components vary depending on dose and duration.
    Keywords: Vitamin D, fortification, lipid profile, Cholesterol, Triglyceride, Low Density Lipoprotein
  • Fateme Nematishahri, Omid Pouresmaeil, Roghaieh Rahmani Bilandi, Alireza Mohammadzadeh, Jalal Mardaneh * Pages 88-92

    Amongst sexually transmitted infections in the world, Trichomonas vaginalis is of the most common. Most of the infections are asymptomatic. It can infect women more than men because of genital tracts condition. The mother’s birth canal and perineum are common sources of infants’ eye infection. Some studies noted the possibility of T. vaginalis transmission through the birth canal to infants. Such an event can lead to neonatal conjunctivitis. By following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews (PRISMA) guidelines, a systematic review conducted to assess the possibility of neonatal conjunctivitis caused by T. vaginalis. Several factors can play a role in T. vaginalis transmission, such as low sanitary level, physical contact by contaminated biological fluids and infant’s opened eyes during the delivery. Through the review of different studies, it is inferred, although the probability of neonatal conjunctivitis caused by T. vaginalis is low, but it is possible. Finally, metronidazole is an approved drug for treatment of trichomoniasis and needs to consider in neonatal conjunctivitis caused by T. vaginalis.

    Keywords: neonatal conjunctivitis, Trichomonas vaginalis, Sexually transmitted infections, Sexually Transmitted Diseases, infant’s eye infection, trichomoniasis
  • Saeedeh Talebi, Payam Sharifan, Andisheh Norouzian Ostad, Seyedeh-Elaheh Shariati, AmirAli Moodi Ghalibaf, Mehdi Barati, Malihe Aghasizadeh, Sahar ghoflchi, Hamideh Ghazizadeh, Niloofar Shabani, Gordon A. Ferns, HamidReza Rahimi, majid Ghayour Pages 93-104

    Chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.), as widely used as a medicinal herb and is brewed beverages, and has been used for the treatment of several conditions. The evidence from in vitro, in vivo, and clinical studies suggests that chamomile and its many flavonoid components have anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. This review aimed to provide an overview of the chemical constituents of chamomile and the effectiveness of the chamomile preparations and several of its constituents for the treatment of several medical conditions.


    The present comprehensive review study was conducted by searching electronic databases including Scopus, Web of Sciences, Embase, and PubMed, using relevant keywords.


    Both animal and human studies indicate the positive effects of chamomile on the antioxidant enzyme activity. However, the mechanisms involved in the action of chamomile against the production of ROS remain still unknown. When it comes to its anti-inflammatory properties, a number of in vitro, in vivo, and clinical investigations have been reported regarding to the selective inhibition of COX-2, suppression of NO production, prevention of IL-1β, IL-6 and TNFα-induced NO levels, reduction of iNOS mRNA and protein expression, impediment of leukocyte adhesion and adhesion protein up-regulation in human endothelial cells, and blockage of IL-1 α-induced prostaglandin production, TNF-α-induced IL-6 and IL-8 release.


    Current studies suggest that chamomile and its flavonoid components have anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. On the basis of the existing evidences, chamomile appears to ameliorate several diseases caused by oxidative stress as well as inflammatory reactions.

    Keywords: Chamomile, inflammatory reaction, oxidative stress, phytotherapy