فهرست مطالب

Applied Research on English Language - Volume:12 Issue: 1, Jan 2023
  • Volume:12 Issue: 1, Jan 2023
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1402/02/11
  • تعداد عناوین: 7
  • Fatemeh Ghanavati Nasab, Moussa Ahmadian * Pages 1-44
    This study set out to examine how stereotypes as social psychological phenomena are enacted in everyday discourse. Besides discussing how ingroups and outgroups are formed in mundane talk, it is argued that stereotypes are ideological constructs that are jointly achieved in social contexts. Moreover, it is assumed that the ways in which stereotypes are constructed and discussed in discourse are informed by a number of underlying moral conceptualizations which might justify the potential face-threatening acts and the impoliteness inherent in prejudiced talk targeted to a third party. The study is an ethnographic case study informed by an eclectic approach to the analysis of data so as to shed light on how the expression of thoughts and feelings are constructed as talk in ordinary social interactions unfolds and what these expressions achieve. The analyses revealed that the construction of outgroup stereotypes is a mutual accomplishment and possibly a face-threatening act moderated by mitigating discourse features
    Keywords: Stereotypes, Intergroup differentiation, Impoliteness, Morality, Discourse
  • Naser Rashidi *, Zahra Tavakkoli Pages 45-72
    During the twentieth century, the views of sustainability and its vital contribution to the refinement of education systems have become so momentous that many researchers have sought to remove barriers to achieving sustainability in the education system and across disciplines. Yet, such research has been less common in the humanities. Hence, the present study tried to depict a picture of the strengths and shortcomings of EFL and Social Sciences (SS) instructors in terms of sustainability literacy, sustainability implementation, and eventually Sustainability Education (SE). Moreover, it provides the readers with the status of SE in EFL and SS faculties in Iran and offers clear recommendations for how and in which specific areas to adopt interdisciplinary approaches for SE development. This comparative study can pave the way for further practical studies in these areas through a quantitative method using a researcher-developed questionnaire with 300 participants. It proved that SS instructors have the potential to make outstanding contributions to sustainability literacy enhancement and EFL instructors are well aware of the strategies which work for sustainability implementation. It also came down in favor of the specific courses which should be incorporated into all-round teacher education policy. The study can be an important step towards teacher education reform and has implications for different fields of humanities. It has been implied that multidisciplinary approaches can bring about livelier and more effective teacher training programs.
    Keywords: Sustainability, sustainability literacy, sustainability implementation, sustainability education
  • Liqaa Habeb Al-Obaydi, Marcel Pikhart, Farzaneh Shakki * Pages 73-94
    The use of digital games has increased dramatically in the last two decades due to the augmentation in the number of Personal Computers (PCs) and mobile devices worldwide. Not only can digital games be played for entertainment, but also, they may have both positive and negative effects on their players. Various effects of digital games on individuals’ levels of attention span, concentration, and addiction have already been tested by numerous studies; however, their impact on incidental Second Language (L2) acquisition is still untouched by language researchers. To address this lacuna, this is a longitudinal observational study that lasted for three months to investigate the impact of digital games played by young learners for entertainment at home on their unintentional acquisition of English as an L2. The age of the participants ranged from 8 to 14 years old, and the experiment was conducted during the Covid-19 pandemic in 2021. Three main games were played by the sample; namely, Free Fire, Minecraft, and Among Us. The findings revealed that digital gaming significantly influenced the vocabulary development of the participants, and gaming was a clear asset for their L2 acquisition. It was also found that the players’ level of vocabulary retention was high; however, two drawbacks were identified in this regard, namely, the prolonged screen time and vocabulary items specifically related to a given area of a particular game. Overall, this study can be an impetus for further research into evaluating the benefits or drawbacks of using digital games for specific aspects of L2 acquisition such as the development of cognitive abilities or enhanced understanding.
    Keywords: Second Language (L2) acquisition, digital gaming, incidental learning, Vocabulary Learning, psycholinguistics
  • Rodalin Asenas, Mark Pabatang Doblas, Andrews Maquiling Pages 95-112

    The present study aims to assess the effectiveness of remedial English courses in improving students’ English skills in terms of grammar, vocabulary, listening, and speaking. The study also aimed to identify the optimal number of contact hours spent in remedial courses to improve students’ post-test scores. The study utilized the pre and post-test scores of 37 students enrolled in the English remedial Programme at the University of Technology Bahrain during the second and third trimesters of the Academic Year 2020-2021. Using a non-parametric Wilcoxon Signed Ranked Test and Receiver Operating Characteristic curve, the study derived the following conclusions Remedial courses significantly increased the post-test scores of the students for both grammar and vocabulary and speaking and listening. This would suggest that the conduct of remedial courses effectively improves the overall English-speaking skills of the students who completed the remedial course despite being fully delivered online. Contact hours spent in remedial courses, both in ENGL301 for Speaking and Listening and ENGL302 for Grammar and Vocabulary, can significantly determine the students’ success in passing the post-test. The effect of the number of contact hours in the remedial course on passing post-tests, both for Grammar and Vocabulary and Speaking and Listening, is not linear. The optimum numbers of hours to be spent per trimester on directed learning to improve students’ post-test scores in grammar and vocabulary, and speaking and listening are 86.25 and 88.5 hours, respectively. This threshold maximizes the chance of predicting the students who passed at the level of sensitivity and specificity.

    Keywords: English Remedial Course, Grammar, Vocabulary, Speaking, Listening, ROC-curve
  • Karem Ahmed Mohamed * Pages 113-132
    The present study aimed to develop writing skills by using the blogging technique. This experimental research used a pre-post group design. The study had two groups; a control group (23 male students) and an experimental group (24 male students). The students in the control group were taught traditionally through paper-and-pencil assignments. On the other hand, blogging was taught in the experimental group. The topics focused on current global events, which were prepared and posted by the researcher. The learners were asked to search for photos, videos, or articles related to the assigned topic and write about these events in their own words. They also had to post comments and feedback on their classmates’ blog posts. The learners worked on their blog posts individually, in pairs, or in small groups. The researcher worked as a facilitator. Comparing the posttest scores using SPSS analysis of learners who blogged about current global events and those who only used paper-and-pencil tasks on the same topics showed significant differences in writing improvement in favor of the blog group. Moreover, students in the blog group showed positive attitudes toward the blogging activity. They enjoyed interacting and cooperating with their peers and reflecting on their performance in writing in response to the feedback and comments they got from other classmates’ blog posts. The study ended with some recommendations for intensifying the blogging activity of EFL students in writing courses. Also, blogging about current global events was confirmed to be efficient in raising students’ global awareness and promoting their writing skills.
    Keywords: EFL Writing skills, Blogging, Current Global Events, Collaboration, Global Awareness
  • Reza Ashraf Nia, Ali Roohani *, Mahmood Hashemian Pages 133-158
    Vocabulary learning can occur incidentally when explicit and implicit cognitive processes are at work. The present study investigated how frequently a set of (implicit/explicit) lexical strategies was used by Iranian learners of English while reading journalistic texts for comprehension, and how effective they were regarding vocabulary retention in incidental vocabulary learning. Also, it examined the role of gender in lexical strategy use in such a context. To this end, 40 upper-intermediate learners of English, including 20 males and 20 females, were selected and asked to read journalistic texts. To collect the data, think-aloud and a retention test (Vocabulary Knowledge Scale) were used. Descriptive and chi-square data analyses revealed that the most frequent lexical strategy was consulting a dictionary (particularly a bilingual dictionary), followed by inferring (particularly contextual strategies) and ignoring strategies. The male participants were found to use inferring strategies more frequently whereas the female participants were found to use the ignoring strategy more frequently. Moreover, significant differences were observed between explicit and implicit strategy types with higher lexical use and retention effect for explicit ones. Findings provide implications for L2 vocabulary learning.
    Keywords: Lexical Strategies, L2 Learning, Vocabulary, gender
  • Hakimeh Ayoobiyan, Alireza Ahmadi Pages 159-176

    This study applied multi-faceted Rasch measurement to investigate the halo effect in the performance-based assessment of writing across rubric criteria. Five raters who had received specialized training applied a four-criteria rating rubric to analytically rate writing scripts on two argumentative topics. Facets, a Rasch computer program, was utilized to pinpoint the halo effect by analyzing rater and rubric criteria interactions. After examining the appropriateness of the rubric in terms of functionality, the results showed that except for one rater, the raters did not exhibit any sign of the halo effect across rubric criteria. Generally, the severity hierarchies for raters and difficulty levels for rubric criteria suggested that raters’ training and their perceptions of the importance of criteria were associated with their manifestation of the halo effect. Pedagogically, through a detailed facet analysis of interactions between raters and rubric criteria, rater trainers may better realize how to design effective training programs to minimize raters’ variance including the halo effect and improve the overall objectivity of human rating.

    Keywords: Halo Effect, Rubric Criteria, Rater Variance, Many-facet Rasch Measurement (MFRM)