- Volume:15 Issue: 58, Winter 2023
- تاریخ انتشار: 1401/10/11
- تعداد عناوین: 14
People with diabetes mellitus (DM) represent a population group that is at high risk of developing a poor prognosis for Covid-19. Having diabetes increases the risk of serious illness, ICU stay, and death from Covid-19. The present study aimed to determine RETN gene polymorphisms as a risk factor in diabetic patients with Covid-19 infection.
Instruments & Methods:
The current study included 150 participants with diabetes, 100 patients of whom had Covid-19 (46 male, 54 female), and 50 had diabetes only (28 male, 22 female). Five ml of venous blood was collected from participants, then used for examining the blood sugar and HbA1c levels and molecular study.Findings
There was a significant increase in random blood sugar and HbA1C concentrations in diabetic patients infected with Covid-19 compared to diabetic patients only. Regarding the molecular study of the gene encoding the protein resistin, diabetic patients with Covid-19 had a high frequency of single nucleotide polymorphisms compared to diabetic patients only. Polymorphisms of X494T.C, X663A.C, X494T.C, and X663A.C recorded significant differences, while the polymorphisms of rs3219177, X542A.C, and rs3745367 did not show a significant difference.Conclusion
Diabetic parameters increase in diabetic patients with covid-19 compared to diabetic patients without Covid-19. In addition, diabetic patients with Covid-19 have a high frequency of single nucleotide polymorphisms of the RETN gene.Keywords: Diabetes Mellitus, RETN gene, Covid-19
Comparison of Visfatin and Leptin Levels in Type 2 Diabetic Patients with and without AtherosclerosisPages 11-15Aims
Medical evidence shows that Visfatin and Leptin are related to multiple metabolic Problems, including obesity, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. The present study aimed to assess Visfatin and Leptin levels in type 2 diabetic patients with and without atherosclerosis.
Instruments & Methods:
This descriptive study was conducted on 30 diabetic patients, 30 patients with diabetes mellitus and atherosclerosis, and 30 seemingly healthy persons (as a control group) in Babylon Province, Iraq, and their serum Visfatin and Leptin levels were assessed by ELISA procedure. The statistical analysis was done with SPSS 21 software.Findings
In diabetic patients and patients with diabetes and atherosclerosis, the level of Visfatin was significantly higher than in the control group (p=0.0001). There was a significant increase in Leptin level in diabetic patients compared to the control group (p=0.0001), while Leptin level showed a significant decrease in patients with diabetes and atherosclerosis than in the control group (p=0.0001). Also, the mean body mass index in diabetic patients and patients with diabetes and atherosclerosis was significantly higher than in the control group (p=0.0001).Conclusion
Visfatin serum levels are significantly higher in atherosclerosis patients compared to healthy people, while low Leptin and high Visfatin expression are seen in patients with diabetes.Keywords: Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, Atherosclerosis, Leptin, Visfatin, Body Mass Index, Iraq
Effect of an 8-Weeks of Comprehensive Corrective Protocol on Postural control, low Back Pain, Gait Speed and Quality of Life on Unilateral Transtibial AmputeesPages 17-26Aims
Amputation makes a person susceptible to postural deviation and compensatory movements and causes reduced performance, biocompatibility, pain, and dissatisfaction. This study aimed to investigate the effect of eight weeks of a comprehensive rehabilitation protocol on indicators of postural control, back pain, quality of life, and gait speed in adults with unilateral lower limb amputation.
Materials & Methods:
This Quasi-experimental study was carried out on 23 subjects with transtibial amputations at K2 level and above who could walk with the help of a prosthesis. The subjects were selected by purposive sampling and were assigned into training and control groups. The training group received proper posture, correcting daily life activities, teaching the correct use of prosthesis, and mirror therapy for eight weeks. However, the control group followed their routine daily life activities. A dynamic computer posturography machine was used to evaluate the postural control indicators. Low back pain was measured by a visual analog scale. The quality of life was evaluated using TAPES and CLASS questionnaires. And the gait speed was checked by a 2-minute gait test.Findings
Eight weeks of the comprehensive corrective protocol had a significant effect on the indicators of postural control, low back pain, quality of life, and gait speed, in the training group (p≤0.05).Conclusion
Implementing a comprehensive program of correctional protocol leads to improvement of balance and postural control indicators, quality of life and gait speed, and reduction of low back pain intensity in unilateral lower limb amputees.Keywords: Unilateral Lower Limb Amputation, Corrective Exercise Protocol, Postural control, Low back Pain, Quality of Life, Gait Speed
Amputation is a procedure in which an unhealthy limb or a part of it is cut because it is dangerous, or useless or disrupts life. This procedure in itself is considered a crippling procedure, yet it is also a life-saving procedure. This study aimed to compare the causes of amputation in Iraqi subjects for five years (2016-2020).Instruments & Methods:
In this retrospective cross-sectional study, 758 amputated patients were investigated from 1st day of 2016 to the last day of 2020 at Al-Hariri Hospital for Surgical Specialty.Findings
The rate of amputation in 2020, 2019, 2018, 2017, and 2016 was 6%, 6%, 4%, 3%, and 2% of total admitted cases, respectively. The highest cause of amputation in 2020 was diabetes mellitus (18%) and mostly in males. Diabetes mellitus and vascular ischemia in both sexes were 18% of total amputated cases in 2019. Trauma was 23% of total amputated cases in 2018, 57% in 2017, and 64% in 2016.Conclusion
The rate of amputation is not so high. There is a significant association between amputation and gender, age, occupation, and the cause of amputation. There is no significant relationship between amputation and the hospital stay, the parts are either lower or upper, and the side is either left or right. Regarding the indications of amputation, the highest cause of amputations changes every year.Keywords: Amputation, Covid-19, Diabetes Mellitus, Iraq
Endotoxemia is the most common condition in patients treated in critical care units. This study aimed to investigate if dulaglutide may help to protect the lungs during endotoxemia by modulating the inflammatory and oxidative stress pathways. This study is self-funded. All authors contributed to the costs.
Materials & Methods:
20 adult male Swiss-albino mice aged 9–12 weeks, weighted 25–35g, were randomized into four equal groups (n=5), sham group (laparotomy without Cecal Ligation and Puncture (CLP), CLP group (laparotomy with CLP), vehicle group (normal saline 2 weeks before CLP), and dulaglutide group (0.6mg/kg twice weekly S.C for 2 weeks before CLP). After 24 hrs of sepsis, lung tissue was harvested and used to assess IL-6, Interleukin-IL-1β, TNF-α, MIF, TLR4, and 8-isoPGF2α, as well as histological examination.Findings
Lung tissue levels of IL-6, IL-1β, TNF-α, MIF, TLR4, and F2-isoprostane were significantly higher in the sepsis group compared to the sham group (p<0.05), while dulaglutide group showed significantly lower level in these inflammatory mediators and oxidative stress compared to sepsis group (p<0.05). Histologically, all mice in the sepsis group showed a significant lung tissue injury (p<0.05), but this injury was significantly reduced in the dulaglutide pre-treated group (p<0.05).Conclusion
Dulaglutide can attenuate acute lung injury during CLP-induced endotoxemia in mice through its modulating effects on TLR4 and oxidative stress, downstream signaling pathways, and subsequently decreased lung tissue levels of pro-inflammatory mediators.Keywords: Dulaglutide, Endotoxemia, Toll like Receptor 4, F2-Isoprostane
Erythromycin Resistance Genes among Coagulase-negative Staphylococci Isolated from Humans in Basrah, IraqPages 43-48Aims
In recent years, the global incidence of infections caused by gram-negative bacteria resistant to antibiotics has increased. This study aimed to investigate the presence and frequency of coagulase-negative Staphylococci in contact between animals and people and determine the phenotypic antimicrobial resistance profiles of coagulase-negative Staphylococci isolates from these sources.
Materials & Methods:
80 samples were collected from humans in different areas of Basrah Province, including 40 samples from human hand swabs and 40 from nasal swabs. The samples were inoculated onto mannitol salt agar and blood agar and then incubated at 37ºC for 24 hrs. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed using the disc diffusion method. A molecular study was done using the PCR technique.Findings
37 samples (46.25%) were positive for staphylococcal infection. Five species, including S. sciuri, S. lentus, S. gallinarum, S. chromogen, and S. haemolyticus were identified, according to Vitek 2 kit. Staphylococci were resistant to several different antibiotics. Out of 20 amplification samples, only 12 positive samples were purified for the ermA gene region with a PCR product of 190 bp. The results also showed the presence of an ermC band with a size of 299 bp, which represents the correct expected band in 8 isolates out of all isolates.Conclusion
Gram-positive organisms are increasingly identified as the source of acute clinical infection in animals and humans. Some isolates are resistant to several different antibiotics. The ermC gene, ermA gene, and both ermA and ermC genes are present in the genome of these bacteria.Keywords: Erythromycin, Antibiotic Resistance, Bacterial Genes, Staphylococcus, Human, PCR
The body composition and body mass index associated with mental health and sleepiness in chemical injured veterans: A cross sectional studyPages 1001-1009
Chemical injured veterans are very vulnerable, because of their especial situation, and they may confront numerous difficulties. Body composition is (BC) one of the effective factors on mental health in adults. So, this study were done to survey the BC and Body Mass Index (BMI) association with mental health and sleepiness in chemically injured veterans.
Material & Methods:
This is a cross sectional study surveying. Recalling 1100 chemical veterans of Karaj province, 131 veterans were visited and their monitoring plan was carried out. After having breakfast and a group meeting, they became familiar with the process and objectives of the project. Two hours after breakfast with a BC device, the BC was detected by using a Bio impedance analyzer. The questionnaire consists of general health questionnaire and Epworth sleepiness scale questionnaire. BC is assayed by Tanita BC-418 Body Composition Analyzer. Descriptive test (mean, standard deviation) and Pearson correlation test were used for data analyzing.
Mean±SD was 26.3±6.4 for body mass index, common health 42.5±16.4, and sleepiness 11.4 ±5.6. There is a significant relation between body fat percent and fat mass with total general health (P=0.04). Association between BC and sleepiness was not significant. The other result showed that BMI is not associated with mental health and sleepiness.Conclusion
By these findings, we must essentially notice the BC especially fat percent and fat mass in common health and sleepiness of chemically injured veterans. Starting interventions and effective exercise programs to solve this problem can promote their health.Keywords: Body Composition, Mental health, Sleepiness, Chemical veterans
Hepato-protective effects of coenzyme Q10 against amoxiclav induced hepatotoxicity in rat modelPages 1001-1006Objective
Amoxiclav antibiotic is a commonly prescribed medication for many medical situations, it might be complicated by hepatic toxic effects that is either dose or duration related or an idiosyncratic reaction. Co q10 is a potent vitamin like material with an antioxidant properties, it can exerts a beneficial hepatocellular effects by reducing the drug toxicity.
Twenty four albino male rats weighting between 150-250 gwere separated randomly into four groups each consists of six animals maintained in the animal house of College of pharmacy, Kerbala University in which the control group were given normal saline,Amoxiclav group: were given 30 mg/Kg/day of amoxiclav orally for 30 days, Amoxiclav and Co-enzyme Q10 group: each animal was given orally 30 mg/Kg of amoxiclav, and 100 mg/Kg Co-enzyme Q10 orally daily for 30 days, and Co-enzyme Q10 group: Each rat in this group was given 100 mg/Kg Co-enzyme Q10 orally daily for 30 days. At the end of the experiment the animals were anesthetized then scarified for the assessment of serum liver enzymes as well as liver tissue samples were obtained for histopathological study.Results
Liver function parameters manifested by ALT, AST, ALP, and TSB were significantly elevated in the animal group treated with amoxicalv together with hepatocellular necrosis and congestion.Concomitant treatment of animal group with the anti-oxidant coq10 together with amoxiclav was significantly reduce the liver enzymes as well as improvement of hepatocellular congestion and inflammation.Conclusion
Coq10 is a potent anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant agent that can be used to reduce hepatotoxic effect of amoxiclav antibiotic.Keywords: Amoxiclv, Coq10, hepatotoxicity, rat model
Prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder among the healthcare workers involved with COVID-19 treatment and its effective factors in Military hospitals of the Islamic Republic of Iran - Tehran during the first two months of 2021 (fourth peak)Pages 1001-1008
Post-Traumatic Epilepsy 33 years following Traumatic Brain Injury: Iraq vs. Iran WarPages 1001-1007Introduction
Post-traumatic epilepsy is one of the most common and disabling sequela of traumatic brain injury, and defined as repeated unprovoked seizures seven days after TBI. The aim of this study was to determine the distribution of post-traumatic epilepsy among traumatic brain injury veterans who served during the eight-year war Iraq vs. Iran.Methods
This study was observational cohort research in 2022. The sample of the study included all living veterans with a history of Post-traumatic epilepsy who were covered by the services of the "Veterans Affairs Foundation" of Isfahan (IRAN).Results
Results shows, there was a significant difference between the veterans with and without Traumatic brain injuries in Age at PTE debut (P>0.05). the characteristics of epilepsy did not show any significant difference between the veterans with/without TBI (P>0.05). the mean score of MMSE was 22.33±2.06 in the veterans with Traumatic brain injuries, and 20.15±1.33 in veterans without TBI, and they were significantly different (P<0.05). On the research subscales, the veterans with/without Traumatic brain injuries were significantly different in terms of Recall and Registration subscales (P<0.05).Conclusions
Based on the results of our study on veterans with epilepsy who have decreased ability to perform daily activities and cognitive disorders, it is suggested that these patients receive regular rehabilitation programs and mental and physical support.Keywords: Post-traumatic epilepsy, Traumatic Brain Injury, war, veteran, Mini mental state examination, Activities of Daily Living scale
Molecular Detection of bla TEM and bla CTX-M encoding genes from Klebsiella oxytoca Isolates from TonsillitisPages 1001-1005
Tonsillitis is inflammation of the tonsils, a common clinical state caused by bacterial or viral infections. There are several types of tonsillitis including acute, sub-acute, chronic, and recurrent. Chronic tonsillitis is referred to enlargement of the tonsils along with recurrent infective attacks. It is the most common throat disease which is mainly observed in younger individuals. The aim of this study was the isolation and identification Klebsiella oxytoca (K. oxytoca) from tonsillitis based on diagnostic procedures. Polymerase chain reaction was performed to detect blaCTXM and blaTEM genes. A total of thirty-five specimens were recovered from tonsillitis using swab sampling, represented by 35 specimens which contained 30 bacterial growth. The 21 of bacteria were lactose fermentative onto the MacConkey agar. Twenty of 30 suspected isolates were confirmed as K. oxytoca using VITEK-2 compact system. In genotypic test, K. oxytoca isolates contained 11 (55%) blaCTXM 10 (50%) blaTEM being responsible for cephalosporines resistance.Keywords: Klebsiella oxytoca, blaTEM, blaCTXM, Tonsillitis
Ertugliflozin Attenuated Lung injury Caused by Endotoxemia Model in MicePages 1001-1013Background
Endotoxemic shock is characterized by multiple organs dysfunction, acute Lung Injury (ALI), acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and high mortality.Objectives
to investigate the protective effect of ertugliflozin against acute lung injury during endotoxemia.
Materials & Methods:
Twenty adult Swiss-albino male mice, 9–13 weeks old, weighing 20–35 g, were divided into four groups (n=5) at random: the sham group (laparotomy without ceacal ligation and puncture (CLP), the sepsis group (CLP), the vehicle group (DMSO for 1 week), and the ertugliflozin group (20 mg/kg/day orally for 1 week prior to CLP).
After 24 hours of CLP, the lung tissue was removed and used for histological analysis, measurement of the inflammatory cytokines interleukin-1beta (IL-1), interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4), macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), and oxidative stress marker, 8-iso-prostaglandin F2-alpha (8-isoPGF2-alpha).Results
in Sepsis group, lung tissue levels of IL-6, IL-1, TNF-, MIF, TLR4 and F2-isoprostane were substantially greater than those in the sham group. In comparison to the sepsis group, the ertugliflozin treated mice exhibited significantly lower levels. Histologically, all of the mice in the sepsis group had considerable lung tissue injury, but in the ertugliflozin pre-treated group, there has been a significant reduction in lung tissue injury.Conclusion
ertugliflozin attenuated lung dysfunction during endotoxemia in male mice via downstream inflammatory and oxidative stress signalling pathways.Keywords: Ertugliflozin, IL-6, IL-1β, TNF-α, MIF
Causes and consequences of psychological distress among Iranian Military personnelPages 1001-1012Aims
Military personnel are likely to encounter mental health problems due to high-risk occupations associated with significant levels of psychological distress. The aim of the present study was to explore psychological distress experienced by Iranian military personnel.Participants & Methods
This study has two stage, a brief overview and deep interviews with 15 experts. Purposeful sampling was used to select the participants and continued until data saturation was reached. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews and analyzed through direct content analysis.Findings
In first stage, 24 studies were found and in second stage, 395 primary codes, 2 main categories, including demands and resources were developed based on opinion of experts. Findings of this study ascertained that different factors affected the military members’ psychological distress.Conclusion
Military organizations and leaders should consider the factors of psychological distress, raised by specialists, and assign policies to improve the mental health of the military staff members.Keywords: Psychological distress, military personnel, qualitative study
Quality of Life and Health of Rural Elderly; Determinants and policy requirementsPages 1001-1010Aims
This study investigates the quality of life and its determining factors among rural elderly in the southern counties of Fars province.Research Methodology
The present study is a survey research. The tool of data collection is a questionnaire that includes questions related to measuring the concepts of different dimensions of quality of life as well as its determinants. The study sample was selected from the elderly population of Lamard and Mohr counties. The sample size was 825 people who were selected by cluster sampling method.Findings
Findings show that children and spouse were the most important sponsors of rural elderly. About 80% of the elderly feel a little lonely and about three-quarters feel satisfied with their health. Levels of quality of life of the elderly show that, in terms of physical health and mental health, about 45% and, in terms of environmental and social status, about 48% have a high quality of life.Conclusion
The results of this research show that the rising cost of living, age and feeling of loneliness have a negative effect on the health and quality of life and having housing, spirituality, financial support for children, education and being a man have a positive effect on the quality of life and health of the rural elderly. Therefore, the most important policy areas regarding the quality of life and health of the rural elderly are paying attention to four important factors: loneliness, living expenses, financial support from children, and housing.Keywords: Quality of Life, Health of Elderly, Rural Area, Lamerd County, Mohr County