- Volume:1 Issue: 1, Jul 2022
- تاریخ انتشار: 1402/03/01
- تعداد عناوین: 13
The supreme life of an academic movement is dependent on knowledge production. If this knowledge can present new, innovative, and practical knowledge, it will be welcomed. However, if the previous knowledge is just repeated, its scientific framework is debated, or it is merely considered as theoretical, it will be less welcomed by the elite. Based on this premise, knowledge production will help the growth of science and will lead to fruit in human life as well that will be of great value and significance. “Religion, Management, & Governance” journal aims to provide a space for discourse in the field of religion and management studies and also aims to open a horizon by providing practical articles, expert discussions, notes, criticisms, and information on new topics in this field of knowledge for a dialogue at the international level between thinkers and experts so that it contributes in the field of international scientific interactions in the near future through making the required foundation and wise expansion of debate among individuals.
This address opens with stewardship, a central theme relating theistic religions to ethics. This theme is central to modern Christianity and Judaism, and increasingly to contemporary Islam. It is accepted by Islamic scholars such as Azizan Baharuddin. While it is not itself an ethic, it is a model of the role of humanity within the created order, and one with ethical implications. The most relevant field of science is ecological science. This science embodies widely accepted teachings about ecosystems. Climate science is an off-shoot, and is influencing international climate negotiations. We all need to accept and act on its findings. But ecology is grounded in Darwinism. Darwinism encountered resistance from some, as well as a welcome from other religious leaders. I have argued elsewhere that Darwinism and theism are compatible. One apparent problem concerned whether humans could have non-human ancestors. Another problem concerned pre-human suffering, which is a genuine problem for theologians. But we cannot discard Darwinism to solve this problem, as many Christians recognised. For there are many strands of strong evidence for Darwinism.
As the axiom and presupposition, we accept that personality of each individual has four dimensions: Body, Mind, Spirit and Soul (Malekian, 1996, pp. 75-76). Also, we believe that there is a relationship between behavior with body, knowledge with mind, characteristics with spirit, and finally, beliefs with soul (Baqeri, 1995, pp. 55-58). Moreover, we accept that the culture of a society is as the characteristics of an individual. Proving the mentioned claims shall be remained for another appropriate time and accepting the above mentioned statements, we go through the explanation of culture’s bases. Culture or the personality of a society has four bases: 1.1.First Base: Common Behaviors (For example, daily donation); 1.2.Second Base: Attitudes, desirables and undesirables (For example, tendency to assisting poor people); 1.3.Third Base: Belief (For example, belief that donation brings blessing to our properties); 1.4.Fourth Base: Knowledge and Information (like Information about charities). We accept as an assumption that there is an interaction among all the four bases.
What can be deduced from the study of well-known and cited sources in the common knowledge of human resource management, reaching this stage of "maturity" is in the cycle of one's life. So that one can clearly reach a consensus among experts in this field, regarding the main systems and branches of this knowledge. This means that over the decades, a wealth of knowledge literature has been accumulated by researchers in this field to be able to promote this knowledge to a specific and coincidental framework. These main systems in human resource management include "job analysis and design", "human resource planning", "recruitment, selection and employment", "performance management", "payroll management", "training and development" and “End of service. In the field of organizational behavior management, we can also mention the major areas such as "employee motivation management", "leadership", "conflict management", "diversity management" and "teamwork".
Explaining the Implications of Jurisprudence Knowledge for the Concept of Border Processing in the Rule of Cyberspace of the Islamic Republic of IranPages 39-50
With the spread of information and communication technology and the halfcentury experience of the World Wide Web, the field of ICT has gone beyond the technological dimension and by combining different social elements, today, it has become the bedrock of the many and varied relationships and interactions of human beings along the real space. These different interactions have gradually created different social systems in the context of information and communication networks. In these new social systems, the virtual biodiversity of human beings has presented them with new legal, sociocultural, economic, political, security, etc. issues, and consequently has profoundly changed the governance of societies. One of the fundamental issues in cyberspace governance is the issue of the territory and borders of nations - governments in cyberspace. In the pre-privatization period, the will of governments and states (3) was prevalent in their territory, and the people of that territory generally obeyed that dominant will. Following the inefficiencies and failures of governments in addressing the social affairs of the people on the one hand and the design of a mechanism to increase the profits of the capitalist stream on the other hand, the private sector was strengthened domestically, and part of the will and authority of governments, especially in the economic and productive spheres, was left to the private sector, and indeed to the capitalist movement.
One of the most important issues and the point of contention between theorists and scientists of the humanities and social sciences is control in my opinion and discipline; and over the years, various opinions and some texts of the judge have been raised about this. What is discipline and who creates it maintains and develops it. And questions such as discipline can be addressed from various dimensions such as philosophical, legal ones in addition to which should be looked at the scope of the individual, family, community organization or the wider horizons. What Dr. Meysam Latifi has proposed in the book Basics and Principles of Discipline and Order is order in the organization. He has tried to give a comprehensive view on this issue by examining this concept in management, science and social sciences, although this research is still valuable and commendable in its kind. But the author's work does not end here, and by trying to identify and explain the controversies and disputes of theorists, he has tried to present the related issues in an orderly and disciplined manner in the form of a novel typology. Entering the field of Islamic and Quranic studies, he has formulated a new concept of employee discipline called transcendental discipline. Having ontological, epistemological and anthropological Islamic principles has caused the irreplaceable innovation of the respected researcher in this work.
Summary of Book "The Image of the Organization from the Islamic Point of view in the Light of the Metaphor of Trust"Pages 59-64
The book "The image of the organization from the Islamic point of view in the light of the metaphor of trust" written by Dr. Morteza Javanali Azar was published in 2012 by Imam Sadiq University Press. This book has seven chapters. The first chapter of the book, entitled "Metaphor and Metaphorical Cognition", deals with the definition and history of metaphor and explains the place of metaphorical studies in science and the way metaphors are presented, and expresses the flaws of metaphors. The second chapter of the book, entitled "Metaphors in texts and religious sciences", examines the possibility of metaphors in the field of religion and explains the place of using allegory and metaphorical knowledge in religious texts. It also examines whether there is a possibility of dysfunction in religious metaphors. The third chapter, entitled "Metaphors in Management and Humanities Literature", reviews the role of metaphorical recognition and metaphorical research in the field of organization and management and examines the various divisions that can be made about metaphors. In the fourth chapter of the book entitled "Trust; Metaphors from verses and narrations" The concept of trust is explained and deals with the position of trust in terms of reason and narration. In this chapter, the evidence that suggests that Islam views the organization as trustworthy is presented and examined. The title of the fifth chapter is "Trustworthiness conditions and trustworthy characteristics", which discusses the network of concepts related to trustworthiness in the Qur'an and hadiths. The sixth chapter of the book, entitled "Effects and results of the metaphor of trust", explains the effects of trust and the effects of betrayal and explains their differences. The seventh chapter of the book is a summary of the previous six chapters. At the end of the book, there is an appendix entitled "Metaphors in Action" which provides an overview of strategic schools and provides metaphors appropriate to each of the strategic schools.
Qarz al-Hasna is not only one of the contracts approved by Islamic law; but also is a laudable social tradition. Qarz al-Hasna has a special place in the Islamic financial system, and in the financial system of the Islamic Republic of Iran, extensive financial institutions exploit the capacity of this contract. In the country banking network, along with commercial banks that receive deposits and pay facilities under the loan agreement, two banks, Qarz al-Hasna Mehr Iran and Resalat, have completely organized their operations based on the Qarz al-Hasna contract. Moreover, Qarz al-Hasna funds in the unorganized monetary market, are in charge of managing a part of Qarz Al-Hasna resources.
Investigating of Mechanisms for Changing Public Behavior from the Perspective of Shahid Motahhari: Implications for Designing Public Policy ToolsPages 71-76
Governments use public policies to promote valuable goals such as protecting the environment, saving for retirement, reducing pollution, maintaining public health, etc., and try to direct people's behaviour in line with their views on the public interest. This view of policy can also be seen in the words of scholars such as Schneider and Ingram: "Public policy has almost always tried to get people to do things they would not otherwise do, or to enable them to do things that might be done in otherwise they do not” (Schneider & Ingram, 1990, p. 5). The issue of changing people's behavior is a concern that governments have taken various approaches to address over time. Behavioral approach is one of the approaches that has recently grown and expanded in the knowledge of behavioural economics and is known as the choice architecture, nudge and behavioural public policy. Behavioural public policy is a policy intervention that is directly inspired by behavioural insights and is designed based on the principles of behavioural research (Galizzi 2014, p. 27). In this approach, policy makers use behavioural insights at all stages of the policy cycle (from problem definition to policy development and implementation) and have a more realistic view of human behaviour (Behavioural Insights Team, 2014, p. 8; OECD, 2019, pp. 45-48). Nudge-based and behavioural interventions, due to their high impact and very low cost, have been able to attract the attention of many policymakers around the world; Today, the use of this approach to change the behaviour of people around the world is widespread, and many governments use the choice architecture by establishing an institution called "nudge unit". By emphasizing external factors, both environmental and social, nudge tools try to influence people's choices and behaviours and change people's behaviour without major changes in their minds and insights. Scholars such as Thaler, Sunstein, Ariely, Kahneman, and Tversky argue that in this approach, governments do not use rules to force citizens to change their decisions, but instead use libertarian paternalism approach (Thaler and Sunstein, 2008, p. 5) and more subtle forms and methods to influence and guide people's behaviour. In this approach, choices and options are not eliminated but are influenced by different tools (Smith and Larimer, 2009, p. 210).
Maintaining the red lines of religion: doctrinal, moral, legal jurisprudence, the purpose of preserving the religion is to guarantee and enforce the red lines of the definitive values of Islam in the three areas of Islamic beliefs, ethics and rules based on monotheism. These definite values, in religious terms, are the necessities of religion, which in no way can be reconsidered in the two areas of Islam and Imami Shi'ism. Otherwise, legally, the ruling will be to remove the scholar and the intentional appellant from the circle of Islam (Shiism and Sunnah) or Imami Shiism. And such a person will not be qualified to hold jobs and positions conditional on Islam or Shiism.
The discussion of the relationship between human knowledge and religion is one of the common and long-standing concerns of religious scholars and scientists. This is not really a simple matter: at some point in history, there has been talk of the relationship between reason and religion. At other times, the debate over the relationship between philosophy and religion has been hot. At other times, the question of the relationship between mysticism and religion has been raised, and in recent times, there has been more controversy over the relationship between science (experimental sciences) and religion. The common denominator of these various issues is the concern that everyone wants to know between knowledge that has a heavenly and divine origin (the source of revelation) and knowledge that is rooted in ordinary human understanding and obtained through general perceptual channels (intellect, sensory experience, and intuition). They come, what is the ratio? This problem becomes more serious and occurs as a dilemma when there is a difference between the sciences resulting from revelation and the sciences resulting from science. For example, science claims that without bank interest, one cannot have a successful economy, and knowledge based on revelation considers exactly interest-based economy to be unsuccessful. Hence, sometimes this issue appears as a conflict between science and religion, and efforts are focused on resolving such real or illusory conflicts.
In the period it was assumed that the exact sciences are convincing and radical because of their precision - in the nineteenth century - and the use of inductive methods and the possibility of mathematics, and the humanities, on the other hand, are unconvinced because of the lack of such advantages. In the face of this erroneous assumption, the development of the "philosophy of the social sciences" sought to show the distinct innate of the humanities. In addition, with the field of some thinkers such as Weber and Delta, the humanities became particularly important; the fruit of these people's efforts led to the establishment of a school of interpretation; here is a brief overview of the idea of a school of interpretation. It is tried in the exact sciences by recognizing the relations of "cause and effect" to analyze, explain and predict natural phenomena, but the phenomena of the humanities are fundamentally different from those of the exact sciences; because the phenomena of exact sciences are reproducible phenomena that can be modelled using laboratory facilities and have a high coefficient of accuracy. While the phenomena of the humanities are absolutely not conquered and they do not completely diminish in fixed models so that we can have a good forecast of their future with high accuracy. These phenomena are usually unique and do not have the exact same repetition; the root of this can be considered in the will of human beings. It is generally assumed that the natural world works with known stimuli and responses, but in the human world, stimuli can have very different responses; therefore, in the humanities, we will encounter active and independent actors and humanities thinkers study the actions of human beings.
The implementation of Islamic social systems in society is essential for the realization of the new Islamic civilization. In this regard, financial systems play a crucial role. In Islamic finance, paying attention to jurisprudential rules has been instrumental in the process of discovering, designing, and implementing the Islamic economic system. One of the key jurisprudential rules that will have a great impact on the macro-designs of the economic system is the rule of “nahi an ribh la yodman 4”. Following the definition of this rule, we review its main applications in Sharia-based contracts in this paper. There have been controversies regarding the concept of the rule of nahi an ribh la yodman . Although differences in the interpretation of the concept of this rule will continue, a more precise definition of this rule means the prohibition of receiving profit on capital which is guaranteed by others. Some scholars have pointed out that the nahi (prohibition) of profit will imply the invalidity of the transaction , but what seems stronger is the word nahi does not imply the invalidity of the transaction . Also, according to the use of daman (liability) in some Islamic texts, it can be considered as bearing the risks of an asset . In other words, according to this rule, if a person has not liability of financial losses, the profit from that property will not be for him. The rule is used that it is not permissible to give a profit to an owner who has not accepted the risk of his property.The main evidence of this rule is a hadith with an admissible chain of narration that Ammar quotes from Imam Sadiq (PBuh): “The Messenger of God (PBuh) sent a man from among his companions to a governor, and he said to him: I have sent you to the people of Mecca … to forbid them earning a profit that is not guaranteed” . We will now discuss some of the main applications of this rule in Sharia-based contracts.