فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:5 Issue: 1, Mar 2023
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1402/03/30
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
  • Abdellahi Samba Bilal*, Moulaye Mohamed Wagne, Abdoulaye Wagué, Abdoul Dia, Koen Van Waerebeek Pages 1-35

    The exact number of cetacean species present in Mauritanian waters is unknown. A first overview was published only in 1980, the latest in 1998. Yet, published information remains modest compared to, e.g., neighboring Senegal (first review in 1947). The complex oceanography of Mauritanian waters permits a mixed assemblage of cetacean fauna, with the distribution of both cool temperate and (sub) tropical species. In this review, we use our own observations from strandings, bycatches and vessel-based surveys, as well as published and grey literature, to support an updated inventory of cetaceans of Mauritania. This checklist includes two new authenticated species records: Kogia sima (Owen) (Kogiidae) and Lagenodelphis hosei Fraser (Delphinidae). Stenella coeruleoalba (Meyen) (Delphinidae) is verifiably documented for the first time. Further, a first specimen record of Stenella longirostris (Gray) (Delphinidae) is described, as well as second specimen records of Mesoplodon europaeus (Gervais) (Ziphiidae), Steno bredanensis (G. Cuvier) (Delphinidae) and Megaptera novaeangliae (Borowski) (Balaenopteridae). Of 30 reported species, 27 (of six families) are fully supported, while three species lack (accessible) voucher material though probably (P) occur in Mauritania: Balaenopteridae: Megaptera novaeangliae (Borowski), Balaenoptera musculus (Linnaeus), B. borealis Lesson, B. omurai Wada, Oishi and Yamada, B. acutorostrata Lacépède, B. physalus (Linnaeus) and B. brydei Olsen (P); Physeteridae: Physeter macrocephalus Linnaeus; Kogiidae: Kogia sima (Owen) and K. breviceps (Blainville); Delphinidae: Sousa teuszii (Kükenthal), Tursiops truncatus (Montague), Delphinus delphis Linnaeus, Stenella frontalis (G. Cuvier), Stenella attenuata (Gray), Stenella coeruleoalba (Meyen), Stenella longirostris (Gray), Stenella clymene (Gray), Steno bredanensis (G. Cuvier), Peponocephala electra (Gray) (P), Lagenodelphis hosei (Fraser), Grampus griseus (G. Cuvier), Globicephala macrorhynchus Gray, Globicephala melas (Traill) (P), Orcinus orca (Linnaeus) and Pseudorca crassidens (Owen); Ziphiidae: Ziphius cavirostris G. Cuvier, Mesoplodon europaeus and Mesoplodon densirostris (de Blainville); Phocoenidae: Phocoena phocoena (Linnaeus). Finally, we report the first case for continental northwest Africa of tattoo skin disease in a stranded D. delphis.

    Keywords: Bycatches, Canary Current, Cetacea, Mauritania, Northwest Africa, sightings, strandings
  • Bhaskar Saikia, Bikramjit Sinha, A. Shabnam, K. P. Dinesh* Pages 36-54

    Seventeen nominal species of the ranid frog genus Amolops, some of which are based on unverified historical records, are reported from India. Herein, we describe a new species of Amolops of the marmoratus group from a cave ecosystem. This is an uncommon habitat for this group offrogs, which is commonly found around cascades. The Siju Cave, from which four specimens of the new species were collected is a natural limestone cave located in the South Garo Hills District of Meghalaya, Northeast India. The new species is separated from other congeners based on morphological and genetic differences and is also geographically isolated from it ssister species.

    Keywords: Amolops siju sp. nov., cryptic species, Garo Hills, Siju Cave, subterranean frog
  • Pema Dendup*, Ugyen Ugyen, Rinzin Dorji, Choki Lham Pages 55-64

    The Himalayan red panda Ailurus fulgens F. Cuvier (family Ailuridae) is a carnivore that feeds mainly on bamboo leaves and shoots. Habitat loss, fragmentation, degradation, and poaching are some of the major threats to the red panda population. In Bhutan, Ailurus fulgens is reported from within and outside protected areas; however, only a few studies (distribution, threats, and habitat correlates) have been carried out, and much remains unknown about this species. Herein, we report information on the updated distribution, habitat use, and activity pattern from by-catch images of A. fulgens occurrence from both systematic camera traps set for a country-wide tiger Panthera tigris (Linnaeus) survey (2014–2015) and other surveys during 2015–2021 from different parks and forest divisions. Ailurus fulgens was found to occur in 19 out of 20 districts in Bhutan. Regarding protected areas, they were found in eight out of eleven protected areas (Wangchuck Centennial, Jigme Dorji, Jigme Singye, Phrumsengla National Park, Bumdeling and Sakteng Wildlife Sanctuary, Jigme Kheser Strict Nature Reserve, and Royal Botanical Park) and five out of eight biological corridors (connecting Phibsoo Wildlife Sanctuary to Jigme Singye National Park, Wangchuck Centennial National Park to Jigme Singye National Park, Phrumsengla National Park to Jigme Singye National Park, Phrumsengla National Park to Bumdeling Wildlife Sanctuary, and Sakteng Wildlife Sanctuary to Jomotsangkha Wildlife Sanctuary). The majority of A. fulgens were recorded in broadleaf forest followed by mixed conifer forest and were found to be distributed at elevations between 1,520–4,331 m (mean 3,131 m). Red pandas displayed higher use of habitats including cool broadleaf and mixed conifer forests. The activity pattern of A. fulgens showed that they were mostly diurnal, with peak activities taking place between 10:00–11:00 hours.

    Keywords: Activity pattern, Ailurus fulgens, Bhutan, camera trapping, endangered, habitat use
  • Adarsha Mukherjee*, Arjun Kumar, Supriya Mahato, Supriya Samanta Pages 65-79

    To understand and update the account of the butterfly diversity in Ajodhya Hills, Purulia, West Bengal, India a study was carried out in two consecutive years from January 2020 to December 2021 with photographic documentation. A total of 143 butterflies from 6 families, 19 subfamilies and 95 genera were recorded. The highest richness was found in the families Nymphalidae with 45 species and Lycaenidae with 44 species, whereas Riodinidae had the lowest richness with only 1 species recorded. This study also reports the addition of one species, Black Angle Tapena thwaitesi (Moore), to the state butterfly fauna of West Bengal, as well as the addition of one species, Common Orange Awlet Burara jaina (Moore), to the butterfly fauna of southern West Bengal. In addition, three species, Plain Banded Awl Hasora vitta (Butler), Malabar Spotted Flat Celaenorrhinus ambareesa (Moore) and Common Acacia Blue Surendra quercetorum (Moore), were recorded with the first photographic documentation from southern West Bengal representing the rediscovery of Malabar Spotted Flat after 124 years from the Chotanagpur Plateau of West Bengal. The present study updates knowledge of the butterfly diversity of Ajodhya Hills and discusses the threats and conservation of the area, which may help in threat prevention, developing effective conservation strategies and to build awareness among the local people and government authorities to save the wildlife of Ajodhya Hills and its habitats.

    Keywords: Biodiversity, Chotanagpur Plateau, Eastern India, lepidoptera, pollinator, rediscovery
  • Raju Vyas*, Vishal Mistry, Pranav Vaghasiya, Devendra Chauhan Pages 80-91

    Railway lines, roadways, canals, and electricity cable networks, pose serious problems to wildlife, fragmenting habitats worldwide. These infrastructures are well-recognized as linear intrusions. Today it is a threat to wildlife, including the Mugger or Marsh Crocodile (Crocodylus palustris). The current study documents 15 crocodile-vehicle collisions (CVC) recorded in two years (2021 and 2022); 11 were on roads, and four were on railway tracks. Sex was determined for 11 individuals (five males, six females), and four unknown due to crushing). A total of 13 individuals were found dead at the various sites of collision, and two juvenile individuals were found injured, and one of them was treated successfully and returned to the wild. The high numbers (9) of CVCs occur in the Central Gujarat and follow 3 CVCs in Saurashtra, 2 CVC in the Kutch region, and one in north Gujarat. Mitigation measures would be required for the collision situationsin Gujarat are discussed. The literature survey shows totals of 75 CVCs were recorded within the last 18 years due to the state's road (n= 51, 68%) and railway (n= 24, 32%) networks, with the highest numbers of 56 CVCs observed in the Central Gujarat and lowest 2 CVC noted in north Gujarat, and no CVC was noted in south Gujarat. The high number of subadults and juvenile muggers victimized due to the CVC. The CVC site location in different regions of Gujarat state positively corresponds to crocodile populations. However, the Mugger crocodile (C. palustris) has been nationally protected under Indian Wildlife Act as Schedule I species, the IUCN criteria as ‘Vulnerable’, and the Appendix I of CITES, therefore conservation acts are essential. The CVC incidences were recorded widely in the entire species distribution range, from Iran, India, and Sri Lanka and can be classified as an emerging threat for mugger crocodiles.

    Keywords: Crocodile-Vehicle Collision, habitat, linear intrusions, transport networks, threat
  • Tanuj Suryan, Gauraangi Raghav, Aniruddha Majumdar*, Ravindra Mani Tripathi Pages 92-107

    The big cats are of paramount importance for the sustenance of ecosystems and their interaction with humans is critical for their conservation. Coexistence and tolerance of the people involved will be crucial in the conservation of these cats in the growing human-dominated landscapes. The literature review on humans and big cats' conflicts and their coexistence indicates socio-economic factors are the main driving forces in shaping human attitudes toward these cats. In contrast to the mainstream view, conflict frequency does not directly affect the tolerance capacity of stakeholders; instead, coalitions of many factors like livelihood status, religious and cultural beliefs and government intervention are involved. The review provides an evaluation of the prevalent mitigation measures and other principles that govern human-big cats conflict and sheds light on the potential of coexistence as a pro-conservation strategy.

    Keywords: Big cat, conflict, Felidae, human-wildlife interactions, predator, species
  • Mohammad Amin Tollab, Mohsen Rezaie-Atagholipour*, Haleh Ali Abedi, Majid Askari Hesni, Ehsan Abedi, Farideh Ahmadi, Koen Van Waerebeek Pages 108-112

    The world's second-largest dugong, Dugong dugon (Müller), population after that of Australia forages among rich seagrass meadows along the Arabian coast of the Persian Gulf; however, the relatively seagrass-poor Iranian coast is considered an exceptional habitat for the species. The last modern dugong records along the Iranian Persian Gulf occurred two decades ago, which, however, are unsupported. Here we present two new documented records of D. dugon from an area in the Iranian coastal waters of Bushehr Province, near the Mond River estuary (Mond Protected Area), northeastern Persian Gulf. These include one individual, probably female, of ca. 2.5–3 m body length found floating, in moderate decomposition, in offshore waters of the Motaf fishing ground on 30 April 2021, and one ca. 3 m female encountered entangled in a set gillnet in inshore waters of the same area on 29 December 2022, and which was successfully released alive. The potential of the area as a possible historical habitat for dugongs, and further implications, are discussed.

    Keywords: Bycatch, citizen science, conservation, gillnet, historical habitat, Indian Ocean
  • Dhanapal Sangavi, Padur Sankaranarayanan Anisha, Govindharaj Vinothini, Parthasarathy Thiruchenthil Nathan* Pages 113-126

    A detailed investigation of the spider diversity in Salem district, Tamil Nadu was carried out across different habitats for a period of five years. A total of 184 spider species belonging to 97 genera in 29 families were recorded, which represented nearly 10% of Indian and 65% of Tamil Nadu spider diversity. Among them 25 spider species are endemic to India. From the 29 families, the 3 most abundant families based on number of specimens sampled were Lycosidae (21%), Araneidae (18%), and Eresidae (17%), constituting 56% of the spider species. Simpson diversity indices ranged between 0.88 to 0.30 for all the studied habitats. The species richness was highest in bamboo fields (2.78), and the lowest was observed in grasslands (0.76). The highest abundance of spider species was observed in the sugarcane fields (0.83), followed by the grasslands (0.57) and paddy fields (0.53). Further, these spiders were categorized into nine types based on their foraging guilds. Among them, the highest species richness was observed in foliage runners. A maximum of nine spider guilds were observed in the shrub ecosystem. Natural ecosystems such as shrublands, treescapes, and grasslands had higher spider diversity than altered agricultural and domestic ecosystems. This is the first report on spider diversity in Salem District, Tamil Nadu revealing the varying spider diversity along with their guild types across different habitats.

    Keywords: Arachnida, ecosystem, guild, habitat, species diversity