نشریه بازیابی دانش و نظام های معنایی
پیاپی 34 (بهار 1402)
- تاریخ انتشار: 1402/03/30
- تعداد عناوین: 7
امروزه تجاری شدن پژوهش های دانشگاهی می تواند سهم بسیار زیادی در رشد اقتصادی کشورها ایفا نماید، لذا اغلب کشورها با تدوین سیاست هایی سعی در کمک به فرایند تجاری سازی تولیدات پژوهشی در نظام دانشگاهی خود، در راستای تسریع و تسهیل این مهم کرده اند؛ بنابراین، پژوهش حاضر بر آن بود تا با استفاده از رویکرد کیفی مبتنی بر روش نظریه برخاسته از داده ها و از طریق مصاحبه با متخصصان حوزه تجاری سازی در آموزش عالی، ضمن شناسایی آسیب ها و موانع بازدارنده سیاست گذاری تجاری سازی پژوهش ها در نظام دانشگاهی ایران، رویکردی که در این سیاست به کار گرفته شده را شناسایی کند. براین اساس، پژوهشگران با تکیه بر طرح نوظهور به عنوان یکی از طرح های مورداستفاده در روش نظریه برخاسته از داده ها و با استفاده از روش نمونه گیری نظری و در نظر گرفتن اشباع نظری در داده ها، تعداد 9 نفر از صاحب نظران حوزه تجاری سازی را جهت مصاحبه بدون ساختار انتخاب نمودند. برای اعتبار یابی داده های پژوهش، پژوهشگران از بازخورد مشارکت کننده استفاده کردند. یافته ها نشان از آن داشت که اجرای سیاست تجاری سازی پژوهش با آسیب ها و بازدارنده هایی از قبیل، فرهنگی، اقتصادی، رشته دانشگاهی، آموزشی، فرایندی، بافتاری و فردی مواجه است؛ بنابراین، با توجه به ماهیت و جنس موانع پیش روی، می توان نتیجه گرفت که چرخه شوم فرم گرایی در سیاست تجاری سازی پژوهش های دانشگاهی در ایران ریشه دوانده است.کلیدواژگان: تجاری سازی پژوهش، آسیب ها، چرخه تکاملی راهبردی، فرم گرایی، رویکردهای راهبردی
هدف این پژوهش ترسیم نقشه موضوعی کووید 19 در ایران در شبکه اجتماعی اینستاگرام است. این پژوهش کاربردی و از نوع علم سنجی است. برای ترسیم نقشه از سنجه های تحلیل شبکه ها اجتماعی مرکزیت، بینابینی، رتبه و روش تحلیل محتوا استفاده شده است. جامعه پژوهش اطلاعات منتشرشده در بازه زمانی یک ماه مرداد 1399 در شبکه اجتماعی اینستاگرام با محوریت موضوعی ویروس کرونا بود که با استفاده از نرم افزار سیوتولز و افزونه فانتوم، داده های مرتبط با نام کاربری، تعداد پست ها، میانگین تعداد لایک ها، هشتگ های مورداستفاده برای یک پست خاص استخراج شد. سپس با استفاده از روش مشاهده مستقیم از میان یک میلیون پست بازیابی شده، هزار پست مرتبط انتخاب و دسته بندی شد. در گام بعدی با استفاده از شاخص های مرکزیت شبکه و نرم افزار یوسی نت، داده های استخراج شده تحلیل شده و با نرم افزار وی.ا. اس. ویور نقشه موضوعی ویروس کرونا ترسیم گردید. یافته ها حاکی از آن بود که هشتگ هایی با موضوع علایم کرونا؛ بیماری کرونا، تجهیزات پزشکی، تغذیه در دوران کرونا، کادر درمان، درمان کرونا، استان های درگیر بیماری و شکست کرونا جزء محبوب ترین و پراستفاده ترین هشتگ ها بوده اند. با توجه به سنجه های مرکزیت رتبه، بینابینی و نزدیکی، هشتگ های کرونا، کرونا در ایران، کرونا را شکست می دهیم، کرونا را جدی بگیریم، ماسک می زنیم و ماسک جزء پربحث ترین و داغ ترین هشتگ های مورداستفاده بوده است. در پایان می توان نتیجه گرفت برخلاف تاکید مردم بر اطلاع رسانی و بازنشر محتوا و اطلاعات مرتبط با کووید 19 باهدف پیشگیری و مراقبت، میزان ابتلا به بیماری افزایش یافته است؛ کاربران از اینستاگرام به عنوان یک مجرای اطلاعاتی استفاده کرده اند؛ و میزان مشارکت و فعالیت سازمان ها و مراکز بهداشتی و درمانی و متخصصان در انتشار اطلاعات و اخبار ناچیز بوده است.کلیدواژگان: تحلیل شبکه اجتماعی، ترسیم نقشه موضوعی، اینستاگرام، ویروس کووید19
شناسایی الگوی ساختاری رابطه فرهنگ سازمانی و سبک های رهبری با مدیریت دانش دربین اعضای هئیت علمی دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد اصفهان (خوراسگان)صفحات 59-98
هدف این پژوهش شناسایی الگوی ساختاری رابطه بین فرهنگ سازمانی(مدل هافستد) و سبک های رهبری(مدل هرسی و بلانچارد) با مدیریت دانش در بین اعضای هیات علمی دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد اصفهان (خوراسگان) بود. روش تحقیق از نظر هدف کاربردی و از نظر نحوه گردآوری داده ها توصیفی از نوع همبستگی بود. جامعه آماری تحقیق حاضر را کلیه اعضای هیات علمی دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد اصفهان (خوراسگان) به تعداد نفر380 تشکیل دادند که از طریق فرمول کوکران تعداد 180 نفر به عنوان نمونه از طریق روش طبقه ای متناسب با حجم انتخاب شدند و ابزار پژوهش پرسشنامه استاندارد فرهنگ سازمانی هافستد (2001) ، پرسش نامه استاندارد سبک های رهبری (مدل هرسی و بلانچارد) (1986) و پرسش نامه استاندارد مدیریت دانش لاوسون (2003) بود . روایی پرسشنامه ها بر اساس روایی محتوایی با استفاده از نظر صاحب نظران،صوری بر مبنای دیدگاه تعدادی از جامعه آماری و سازه با روش تحلیل عاملی مورد بررسی قرار گرفتند و پس از اصطلاحات لازم روایی مورد تایید قرار گرفت و از سوی دیگرپایایی پرسش نامه ها با روش آلفای کرونباخ به ترتیب برای فرهنگ سازمانی 89/0 و سبک های رهبری 88/0 وپرسش نامه مدیریت دانش90/0 برآورد شد و تجزیه و تحلیل داده ها در دو سطح توصیفی و استنباطی مشتمل بر ضریب همبستگی پیرسون و الگوسازی معادله ساختاری (SEM)انجام گرفت. نتایج تحقیق نشان داد که فرهنگ سازمانی و سبک های رهبری با مدیریت دانش دربین اعضای هیات علمی دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد اصفهان (خوراسگان) رابطه معنی دار دارد(p <0/05)کلیدواژگان: فرهنگ سازمانی، سبک های رهبری، مدیریت دانش، اعضای هیات علمی، دانشگاه آزاداسلامی واحد اصفهان (خوراسگان)
رابطه عوامل شناختی با خلاقیت انتخاب موضوع پژوهشی با میانجی گری شدت و کیفیت اشتراک دانش در بین دانشجویان تحصیلات تکمیلیصفحات 99-147هدف
هدف اصلی پژوهش حاضر رابطه عوامل شناختی با خلاقیت انتخاب موضوع پژوهشی با میانجی گری شدت و کیفیت اشتراک دانش در بین دانشجویان تحصیلات تکمیلی شهر کرمانشاه بود.
روش پژوهش حاضر کاربردی از نوع پیمایشی- تحلیلی بود. جامعه آماری پژوهش شامل تقریبا 9000 نفر از دانشجویان تحصیلات تکمیلی دانشگاه های بزرگ شهر کرمانشاه شامل دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، دانشگاه رازی، دانشگاه پیام نور و دانشگاه علوم پزشکی کرمانشاه بود. حجم نمونه برابر 368 نفر و روش نمونه گیری به صورت نمونه گیری در دسترس که با توجه به شیوع کووید-19 افراد به صورت هدفمند و با توجه به هدف پژوهش انتخاب گردید. ابزار گردآوری داده ها با استفاده از پرسشنامه 32 سوالی در هفت خرده مقیاس شامل متغیرهای نگرش، انگیزش، آگاهی و دانش به عنوان متغیرهای شناختی و خلاقیت در انتخاب موضوع پژوهش به صورت محقق ساخته و متغیر هنجارهای ذهنی از پژوهش جیمز، تینگ و راجا (2012) مولفه های شدت به اشتراک گذاری دانش و کیفیت اشتراک دانش از پژوهش چیو، هسو و وانگ (2006) با تغییرات کلی انجام شد. به منظور تعیین روایی، از روایی محتوایی استفاده شد برای منظور تعداد چهار نفر از اعضای هییت علمی علوم انسانی و دو نفر در حوزه فنی و مهندسی و سه نفر در حوزه علوم پزشکی و کشاورزی خواسته شد نظرات خود را درباره پرسشنامه بیان کنند. در این پژوهش از پایایی پرسشنامه از آزمون آلفای کرونباخ استفاده شد که برابر 941/0 به دست آمد که نشان دهنده پایایی مطلوب پرسشنامه بود. تحلیل داده ها با استفاده از آزمون ضریب همبستگی پیرسون و رگرسیون چندگانه و با استفاده از نرم افزار SPSS نسخه 23 و نرم افزار Amos انجام شد.یافته ها
بین عوامل شناختی شامل (نگرش، انگیزش، آگاهی و دانش و هنجارهای ذهنی) با شدت (حجم) به اشتراک گذاری دانش و کیفیت اشتراک دانش به عنوان متغیر میانجی رابطه معناداری مشاهده شد. همچنین بین شدت به اشتراک گذاری دانش و کیفیت اشتراک دانش به عنوان متغیر میانجی با خلاقیت در انتخاب موضوع پژوهش رابطه معناداری وجود داشت. از طرفی نتایج رگرسیون چندگانه نشان داد که متغیرهای عوامل شناختی (نگرش، آگاهی و دانش و هنجارهای ذهنی) توانستند واریانس متغیر شدت به اشتراک گذاری دانش و کیفیت اشتراک دانش را تبیین کنند ولی متغیر انگیزش در این پژوهش نقشی نداشت. متغیرهای شدت به اشتراک گذاری دانش و کیفیت اشتراک دانش توانستند واریانس خلاقیت انتخاب موضوع پژوهشی را به صورت معنا داری تبیین کنند.نتیجه گیری
می توان چنین بیان کرد که اگر دانشجویان از خلاقیت انتخاب موضوعی پژوهشی برخوردار باشند، توانایی در خلق موضوع پژوهش موفق تر خواهند بود. این موفقیت زمانی میسر خواهد شد که دانش را به اشتراک بگذارند. از جهتی اشتراک گذاری دانش متاثر از عوامل شناختی بوده که از اهمیت خاصی برخوردار است.کلیدواژگان: عوامل شناختی، شدت به اشتراک گذاری دانش، کیفیت اشتراک دانش، انتخاب موضوع، خلاقیت پژوهشی
یکی از عواملی که منجر به موفقیت مدیریت دانش در سازمان می شود، ممیزی دانش است. در تحقیق حاضر هدف ارایه الگوی تحلیل عاملی ممیزی دانش در کتابخانه های دانشگاهی ایران بود.روش اجرای پژوهش حاضر پیمایشی-توصیفی بود و جهت بررسی روابط بین متغیرها از الگوی معادلات ساختاری بهره گرفته شده است. جامعه آماری تحقیق در بخش کمی شامل مدیران نهایی و مدیران بخش های کتابخانه های مرکزی دانشگاه های وابسته به وزارت علوم تحقیقات و فناوری بود. روش نمونه گیری کتابخانه ها، با توجه به پراکندگی آن ها در کل کشور ابتدا به روش نمونه گیری تصادفی خوشه ای و سپس به روش هدفمند کتابخانه مرکزی بزرگترین دانشگاه مرکز استان انتخاب شدند. تعداد 300 پرسشنامه در بین آنان توزیع شد که از این تعداد به 279 پرسشنامه پاسخ داده شد. برای جمع آوری داده ها در این پژوهش از مطالعات کتابخانه ای به منظور جمع آوری ادبیات نظری و پژوهشی استفاده گردید و همچنین به منظور جمع آوری داده های آماری از روش میدانی با ابزار پرسشنامه استفاده گردید.براساس یافته ها بیشترین درصد به متغیر تحلیل جریان دانش (83/47) و کمترین درصد به ترسیم نقشه دانش (57/18) اختصاص دارد.استفاده از ممیزی دانش در کتابخانه های دانشگاهی منجر به جریان دانش می شود و مدل مناسب برای این سازمان ها شامل ابعاد و مولفه های ممیزی دانش است که باید راهنمای عمل مدیران کتابخانه های دانشگاهی قرار گیرد.کلیدواژگان: مدیریت دانش، ممیزی دانش، کتابخانه دانشگاهی، الگوی تحلیل عامل
شناسایی عوامل هم کنش پذیری سیستم های اطلاعات دانشگاهی در ایران (پژوهشی آمیخته در دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی)صفحات 179-224
هدف پژوهش حاضر شناسایی عوامل هم کنش پذیری سیستم های اطلاعات دانشگاهی در دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی بوده است. روش پژوهش بر اساس هدف از نوع کاربردی و بر اساس روش گردآوری داده ها آمیخته با رویکرد اکتشافی است. ابتدا از روش کیفی با استفاده از مطالعات کتابخانه ای و مرور پیشینه های در حوزه هم کنش پذیری نسبت به استخراج شاخص های مختلف و بررسی شده در مطالعات گذشته پرداخته شده است. در مرحله دوم بر اساس داده های گردآوری شده از مرحله کیفی، مطالعه ای کمی انجام گرفت تا به تایید و تصدیق یافته های به دست آمده از مرحله کیفی بپردازد. برای مطالعه اکتشافی و استخراج مقوله های مربوطه به عوامل هم کنش پذیری سیستم های اطلاعات دانشگاهی از روش فراترکیب (الگوی سندلوسکی و باروسو) استفاده شد. روش پژوهش در قسمت کمی توصیفی -پیمایشی است. جامعه آماری پژوهش کلیه اساتید فناوری اطلاعات، مدیران و خبرگان حوزه سیستم های اطلاعاتی در دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی بودند. حجم نمونه با روش نمونه گیری تصادفی ساده با فرمول کوکران 151 نفر انتخاب شد. به منظور گردآوری داده های کیفی از روش کتابخانه ای و برای داده های کمی نیز از پرسشنامه محقق ساخته (50 گویه ای) استفاده شد که گویه های آن برگرفته از نتایج تحلیل فراترکیب در مرحله اول بود. جهت تحلیل دادهها در قسمت فراترکیب از روش سندلوسکی و باروسوکه و در قسمت کمی از روشهای تحلیل عاملی اکتشافی، تحلیل توصیفی، آزمون آماری t تک متغیره با استفاده از نرم افزارهای SPSS و لیزرل استفاده شده است.کلیدواژگان: سیستم های اطلاعاتی، سیستم های اطلاعاتی دانشگاهی، هم کنش پذیری فنی، هم کنش پذیری معنایی، هم کنش پذیری سازمانی
پژوهش حاضر با هدف تحلیل کیفی و کمی مطالعات مربوط به کاربرد هستی شناسی ها در مدیریت دانش به منظور شناسایی این کاربردها و همچنین محورهای موضوعی عمده و ابعاد آنها انجام شده است. مطالعه پیش رو توصیفی- تحلیلی است که با استفاده از روش مرور نظام مند پتیگرو و رابرت (2008) انجام شده و در آن برای تحلیل متون و مصورسازی یافته ها از روش تحلیل محتوا با نرم افزار مکس کیو دی ای و دیتارپر استفاده شده است. یافته ها تحلیل مطالعات حوزه کاربرد هستی شناسی ها در مدیریت دانش ضمن ارایه فراوانی موضوعات، وضعیت استنادی مطالعات و روند تغییر موضوعات در بازه زمانی بررسی شده؛ نشان داد این پژوهش ها شامل پنج محور موضوعی اصلی به این شرح هستند: ساخت و ایجاد هستی شناسی در حوزه مدیریت دانش، طراحی سیستم های مدیریت دانش براساس هستی شناسی، استفاده از هستی شناسی در فرایند مدیریت دانش، نقش و هم افزایی هستی شناسی ها در مدیریت دانش و چالش ها و رهنمودهای استفاده از هستی شناسی در مدیریت دانش.اگرچه پژوهش ها به ابعاد مختلف کاربرد هستی شناسی در مدیریت دانش بعنوان یک ابزار کمک کننده برای تسهیل مراحل مختلف فرایندهای مدیریت دانش پرداخته اند، اما تمرکز اغلب مطالعات بر ابعاد نظری باعث فقدان پیوند و درک واقعی و عملی از استفاده از ظرفیت های هستی شناسی در این حوزه شده است.این مطالعه نخستین پژوهشی است که به تحلیل کیفی وکمی مطالعات حوزه کاربرد هستی شناسی در مدیریت دانش پرداخته است. نتایج آن می تواند به منظور توسعه هستی شناسی خاص این دامنه مورد استفاده قرار گیرد و با ارایه کاربردهای متصور برای هستی شناسی در دامنه مدیریت دانش، رهنمون محققان جهت استفاده از این پتاسیل ها باشد.کلیدواژگان: مدیریت دانش، هستی شناسی، مرور نظام یافته، فرایندهای مدیریت دانش
Commercialization of academic research has become a popular interest in most countries of the world. Because the process of commercialization of academic research plays a significant role in the economic development of societies, Thus, universities and higher education institutions are expected not to limit their functions only to teaching and research but also to take a part in production and economic value creation. This function is called the commercialization of research products (CRP). Some studies have shown that on the one hand, cultural and social factors and on the other hand, organizational, financial, and economic factors have a close relationship with the CRP. This evidence shows that it is not enough to formulate policies for CRP, but also providing internal and external infrastructures is a crucial factor.Research Question(s)
What are the obstacles which are preventing CRP in Iran’s academic system?Literature Review
2.1 Policy-making Approaches in Organizations
Nowadays, what differentiates successful and unsuccessful organizations is not necessarily a quantitative issue. Rather, is a qualitative one, so the nature of the obstacles which the organizations are confronted is the main issue. To clarify the kind of obstacles that hinder CRP, we used Okumus’s conceptual model of Implementing a strategy. The model has four variables: content, context, process, and outcome. The meaning of the content is the strategic orientation that the organization chooses and seeks to follow. Context factors include all the physical, social, and cultural contexts of the organization in which strategies are implemented. The process also includes all the ways and methods that the organization undertakes to implement and operationalize its strategic plans. Finally, the outcome includes all the achievements that the organization achieves after implementing the strategy. In general, we are facing two approaches, the first approach is the strategic evolutionary cycle and the second is the vicious cycle of formalism.Methodology
In the present study, the researchers used a qualitative approach and an emergent design, which is one of the designs used in the grounded theory method. The study population included all the key informants in the field of CRP. A total of 9 key informants were selected through the theoretical sampling method and by relying on the theoretical saturation. An unstructured interview method was also used to collect data. Member check was also used to credibility the research data. To analyze the research data, first, open codes were extracted from the interviews and then summarized and reduced to axial codes. After conceptualizing and reducing the axial codes, a selective theme was extracted.Results
The findings of this study showed that the cultural, economic, academic major, educational, process, contextual, and individual barriers are obstacles to the commercialization policy of research in Iran's academic system.Discussion
Instead of taking the strategic evolutionary cycle, the Iranian academic system has taken the vicious cycle of formalism. Thus, most of the policymakers of Iran's higher education system also have a transformational desire in their mind. This view is caused problems in Iran's academic system; because the main strategic path is ignored.Conclusion
Only economic and social institutions can be comprehensive that provide the necessary platforms and fields for the linkage of universities with the industry and the commercialization of research. Inclusive institutions are institutions that allow wide participation of individuals in their economic and political spheres and encourage individuals to use their talents and have creative ideas and thoughts. Such institutions need to protect private property, and legal systems without bias and provide social services. In such conditions, universities can undertake a strategic evolutionary cycle. It is not surprising that the capabilities that have been proposed for the commercialization of research include factors such as evaluating technological innovations, protecting intellectual property rights, identifying business partners, and creating a platform for creating ideas and producing new technologies. All of these find meaning in inclusive institutions; hence societies that have monopolistic economic and social institutions are unable to provide such platforms, and this is the reason why industry-related projects also face failure in those societies. For this reason, academic research in such societies does not turn into actions or cannot achieve social achievements.Acknowledgments
The authors appreciate all the faculty members who participated in the research.Keywords: Commercialization of research, Problems, Strategic evolutionary cycle, Formalism, Strategic approaches
Instagram can play a vital and effective role in managing natural and social disasters by publishing the necessary and correct information. This social media can be a useful and effective source for disseminating information due to its popularity, as well as its easy access to the public. With the outbreak of Covid 19 in the last days of 2019 and the unknown nature of this virus, the methods of its spread and treatment made it more important to have access to accurate information about this virus. One of the ways to identify people, channels and intellectual structure of people is social network analysis. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to analyze the social network and draw a topic map of Instagram with a thematic focus on Corona. This research is applied and has used the characteristics of social network analysis to achieve the objectives of the research. For this purpose, the information published in the period of August 1399 in the social network Instagram with the thematic focus of Corona virus has been collected and using Seotools software and Phantom plugin, data related to username, number of posts, average Number of likes, hashtags used for a particular post were extracted. Then, using direct observation method, out of one million retrieved posts, one thousand related posts were selected and categorized. In the next step, using the indicators of network centrality and Ucinet software, the extracted data were analyzed. results of the study indicated that hashtags on the subject of corona symptoms; Corona disease, medical equipment, nutrition during the corona, medical staff, corona treatment, provinces affected by the disease and corona failure have been among the most popular and widely used hashtags. According to the criteria of centrality of degree, betweeness and closness, Corona hashtags, Corona in Iran, we defeat Corona, take Corona seriously, wear a mask, and the mask has been one of the most controversial and hottest hashtags that used. Finally, it can be concluded that despite the people's emphasis on informing and republishing content and information related to Covid19 with the aim of prevention and care, the incidence of the disease has increased; Users have used Instagram as an information channel; And the level of participation and activity of organizations and health centers and specialists in disseminating information and news has been insignificant.Introduction
Instagram can play a vital and effective role in managing natural and social disasters by publishing the necessary and correct information. This social media can be a useful and effective source for disseminating information due to its popularity, as well as its easy access to the public. With the outbreak of Covid 19 in the last days of 2019 and the unknown nature of this virus, the methods of its spread and treatment made it more important to have access to accurate information about this virus. One of the ways to identify people, channels and intellectual structure of people is social network analysis. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to analyze the social network and draw a topic map of Instagram with a thematic focus on Corona.
What are the thematic clusters about the corona virus in the Instagram?
What are the most popular and selected hashtags related to the corona virus?
Which hashtags are more capable of transmitting information about the corona virus?
What are the most important and effective hashtags related to the corona virus?
What posts and topics have had the most visits?
So far, many researches have been conducted on the topic of analyzing social networks such as Instagram, Twitter, Facebook, etc. Riesmeyer, Hauswald & Mergen (2019) investigated the relationship between information literacy and nutritional behavior of Instagram users in research. Van Den Ende’s research (2016) showed that in recent years, with the advancement of technology and the emergence of social networks, terrorist organizations have also significantly used social networks such as Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, and blogs. They have started writing. By using social media and analyzing social networks, it is possible to recognize the growing terrorist presence in social media and provide valuable views on the social networks of terrorist organizations. Traces of social network analysis can also be seen in the field of tourism. Indonesia used Instagram account @explorejogja in December 2016 to introduce its tourism destinations. Using the network analysis approach, they identify popular tourist spots, cluster tourist destinations and the popularity of tourist destinations.
Researchers have pointed out the importance of the role of social networks after natural disasters. Social networks can play a role in producing and disseminating information and making people aware of what happened. Sometimes, after a disaster, social media can prevent it from happening again by investigating the causes and finding problems and informing about the incident. Social networks can contribute to crisis management by introducing associations, organizations and competent authorities who are responsible for investigating matters related to natural events and also providing the possibility of communication and connection between people and such groups. Help after unexpected events.Methodology
This research is applied and has used the characteristics of social network analysis to achieve the objectives of the research. For this purpose, the information published in the period of August 1399 in the social network Instagram with the thematic focus of Corona virus has been collected and using Seotools software and Phantom plugin, data related to username, number of posts, average Number of likes, hashtags used for a particular post were extracted. Then, using direct observation method, out of one million retrieved posts, one thousand related posts were selected and categorized. In the next step, using the indicators of network centrality and Ucinet software, the extracted data were analyzed.Results
results of the study indicated that hashtags on the subject of corona symptoms; Corona disease, medical equipment, nutrition during the corona, medical staff, corona treatment, provinces affected by the disease and corona failure have been among the most popular and widely used hashtags. According to the criteria of centrality of degree, betweennes and closeness, Corona hashtags, Corona in Iran, we defeat Corona, take Corona seriously, wear a mask, and the mask has been one of the most controversial and hottest hashtags that used.Conclusion
Finally, it can be concluded that despite the people's emphasis on informing and republishing content and information related to Covid19 with the aim of prevention and care, the incidence of the disease has increased; Users have used Instagram as an information channel; And the level of participation and activity of organizations and health centers and specialists in disseminating information and news has been insignificant.Keywords: social analysis network, mapping, topic map, Instagram, covid19
Identifying the Structural Model of the Relationship between Organizational Culture (Hofstede Model) and Leadership Styles (Hersey and Blanchard Model) with Knowledge Management in Faculty Members of Isfahan Islamic Azad University (Khorasgan)Pages 59-98Introduction
One of the main challenges facing today's management is the development of organizational culture and leadership styles in which knowledge management is valued. Therefore, it is important to know the factors affecting knowledge management. Undoubtedly, knowledge management will have a great impact on the organization and employees. Knowledge management tries to introduce or strengthen knowledge as a high value in organizational culture, and knowledge management tries to introduce and strengthen knowledge in management styles, and the knowledge of managers and employees creates efficiency, effectiveness and productivity in On the other hand, the cultural dimensions of Hofstede's model have been used in various researches in the field of management and culture, and considering the role that cultural differences at the national and organizational level have on the capacity to absorb knowledge, the importance of Cultural factors affect the processes of knowledge absorption and transfer, and despite the research done, two theoretical deficiencies can be seen in this section, firstly, the role of organizational culture and leadership styles on knowledge management in Iran has not been thoroughly investigated, and secondly, in Most of the conducted researches, the organizational culture factor of Hofstede's model has not been investigated in detail, and thirdly, the subject of this research has not been done in cultural organizations, therefore, the main goal of this research is to investigate the effect of leadership style (Hersey and Blanchard's model) and organizational culture. Hofstede's model) is based on knowledge management. As the statistics show, 50% of the problems of implementing knowledge management are related to culture and human resources (Jalali et al., 2014) and in order to change and share knowledge among their members, organizations must have a capable leader to change the culture. (Heidari et al., 2013). Many researchers have examined knowledge management in organizations from different perspectives. For example, the influence of organizational culture (Park et al., 2010. Kumar, 2011. Voivora, 2013) and leadership style (Birouznoff, 2013, Bryant, 2003. Crawford, 2005) (knowledge management) has been investigated, but little research on organizational culture (Hofstede's model) and leadership style (Hersey and Blanchard model) has been conducted on knowledge management and in addition, most of the researches have been conducted in western countries and none of them have been conducted among the faculty members of universities, which doubles the necessity of conducting this research. Therefore, this research is conducted with the aim of determining the relationship between organizational culture (Hofstede's model) and leadership styles (Hersey and Blanchard's model) with knowledge management among the faculty members of Isfahan Islamic Azad University (Khorasgan).
Torabi and Alden (2017) in a research called the effect of knowledge management on the productivity of the organization: a case study they conducted in Kausar Bank of Iran concluded that the willingness of employees to share knowledge and, accordingly, the sharing of implicit knowledge had a direct effect on productivity. Shujahat et al. (2016) in a research entitled the effect of knowledge management on innovation with the mediating role of knowledge workers' productivity reached the conclusion that knowledge management had a positive effect on innovation with the mediating role of knowledge workers' productivity. Mohammad Zaki et al. (2016) in a research entitled The relationship between the leadership style of managers and the level of organizational learning among the employees of the National Accounts Court and with a descriptive method of correlation, they concluded that there was a significant relationship between the leadership style of managers and the level of organizational learning among the employees of the National Accounts Court and also The results showed that the amount of organizational learning of employees increases the closer they get from the authoritarian-exploitative leadership style to the collaborative style. The study conducted in America concluded that the leadership style and knowledge management had an effect on the acceptance of technology. Qurbani Azar et al. They made a correlation and concluded that there was a significant relationship between organizational culture and knowledge management. And among the components of organizational culture, individual creativity was more related to knowledge management. Crawford (2010) in a research entitled the relationship between knowledge management and transformational leadership, which he conducted with a correlational descriptive method, concluded that in this research, there was a meaningful relationship between transformational leadership, functional leadership, and freedom leadership with knowledge management.Methodology
The current research is practical in terms of its purpose, because it deals with the application of the proposed variables to help knowledge management. On the other hand, the mentioned research is descriptive in terms of the method of collecting information, because it examines the effects of organizational culture and leadership styles on deals with knowledge management and examines the relationships between the mentioned variables in the form of structural equation modeling. The statistical population in the present study includes all the employees working in the faculty members of Islamic Azad University, Isfahan branch (Khorasgan) numbering 380 people. Including the sample size from Cochran's formula, 180 people have been estimated. In this research, a stratified sampling method proportional to the volume has been used.Results
That the research hypothesis is confirmed at 95% confidence level. In the explanation of the hypothesis test, it should be said that according to the critical value of CR, which is more than 1.96 for the hypothesis, and the P value, which is less than the error level of 0.05, the research hypothesis is confirmed at the 95% confidence level. Therefore, organizational culture has a positive and significant effect on leadership styles, and organizational culture has a positive and significant effect on knowledge management, and leadership styles have a positive and significant effect on knowledge management.Discussion
This research, which was conducted with the aim of investigating the relationship between organizational culture (Hofstede's model) and leadership styles (Hersey and Blanchard's model) with knowledge management among the academic staff members of Isfahan Islamic Azad University (Khorasgan), provides evidence of the role of organizational culture (model Hofstede's) and leadership styles (Hersey and Blanchard's model) were obtained by knowledge management among the academic staff members of Islamic Azad University, Isfahan branch (Khorasgan). Hersi and Blanchard) it was confirmed that there is a relationship with knowledge management among the academic staff members of Isfahan branch of Islamic Azad University (Khorasgan).Conclusion
Findings from the present study are aligned with Hoshangi et al.'s research (2014) that organizational culture and leadership styles had an effect on knowledge management, and also with Mashbaki et al.'s research (2015) that leadership styles had an effect on knowledge management. It is direct and also with the research of Crawford (2010) that there was a meaningful relationship between transformational leadership, functional leadership and freedom leadership with knowledge management, and Boersox (2012) that leadership style and knowledge management had an impact on technology acceptance, and Mohammad Zaki et al. (2016) stating that there is an indirect alignment between the leadership style of managers and the level of organizational learning among the employees of the National Audit Office, and to explain this finding, it can be said that by strengthening and strengthening the organizational culture On the one hand, employees accept knowledge management more easily, and on the other hand, knowledge creation, knowledge sharing, knowledge application and knowledge storage are done more effectively in organizations. And on the other hand, they expressed leadership styles as agents of change. Because the organization must have a capable leader to change the culture in order to be able to change and to be able to accept and share knowledge in the organization among the members.Keywords: Organizational Culture, Leadership Styles, Knowledge Management, faculty members, Isfahan Islamic Azad University (Khorasgan)
Relationship between cognitive factors and creativity in choosing a research topic: Exploring the mediating role of intensity and quality of knowledge sharing among graduate studentsPages 99-147Aim
The main purpose of this study was the role of cognitive factors on the creativity of choosing a research topic mediated by intensity and quality of knowledge sharing among graduate students in Kermanshah.Methodology
The method of the present study was an applied survey-analytical type. The statistical population of the study included about 9000 graduate students of major universities in Kermanshah. The sample size was 368 people. Sampling method was available sampling. Based on the prevalence of Covid-19 and according to the purpose of the study the subjects were selected purposefully. Data collection tool was a 32-item questionnaire. To determine the reliability of the questionnaire, Cronbach's alpha test of 0.941 was obtained, which indicates the optimal reliability of the questionnaire. Data analysis was performed using Pearson correlation coefficient test and multiple regression.Finding
finding showed that the variables of cognitive factors were able to explain the variance of the variables of knowledge sharing intensity and knowledge sharing quality. But motivation variable had no role in this study. The variables of intensity and quality of knowledge sharing were able to explain the variance of creativity in choosing a research topic in a meaningful way. In general, the proposed model was suitable.Conclusion
It can be said that if students are creative in choosing a research topic, their ability to create a research topic will be more successful. This success will only be possible when they share information.Introduction
One of the concerns of graduate students is choosing a research topic is writing a thesis. Factors that indirectly affect the creativity of choosing the research topic and directly affect the sharing of knowledge are cognitive factors such as attitude, motivation, awareness and knowledge and mental norms. It seems that cognitive factors have a key role in knowledge sharing among graduate students and that knowledge sharing is a factor in the transfer of thoughts and ideas. Therefore, it is likely that it plays a mediating role due to the nature of knowledge sharing. Accordingly, by conducting the present study, the researcher aimed to explore the relationship between cognitive factors mediating the intensity and quality of knowledge sharing with the creativity of choosing a research topic among graduate students of universities in Kermanshah.
Based on the theoretical foundations, several hypotheses will be answered in this research.
Variables of cognitive factors can predict the intensity of knowledge sharing.
Variables of cognitive factors can predict the quality of knowledge sharing.
Knowledge sharing variables (intensity and quality of knowledge sharing) can predict creativity in choosing the research topic.
The change in the subscales of cognitive factors can explain the variance of the intensity and quality of knowledge sharing on creativity in choosing a research topic among master's and doctoral students.
During the research conducted in databases, no study was found that directly addressed the relationship between cognitive factors and creativity in choosing a research topic with the mediation of knowledge sharing. But research has been done regarding cognitive factors with knowledge sharing. Therefore, the researcher refers to some of the previous studies that were aligned with some of the variables examined in the present study:The results of the Akhavan and Rahimi (2013) showed that internal motivational factors have a higher priority than external motivational factors among employees. In addition, motivational factors including friendly and intimate communication, and career promotion were recognized as the most important internal and external motivational factors affecting knowledge sharing. The results of the study by Hajianand and Sardar (2017) showed that external and internal motivational factors had an effect on the attitude towards knowledge sharing. In this regard, Nouri Koohani and Nadi (2019) found that that internal and external motivation, attitude about knowledge sharing, perceived behavioral control, mental norms and intention to share knowledge are effective in increasing teachers' knowledge sharing behavior. The results of the research carried out by Martini (2006) revealed that extrinsic motivation has no effect on a person's attitude towards knowledge sharing. Moshref Javadi et al. (2012) also found that motivation and trust factors are effective factors onin sharing knowledge. Shahzadi, Hameed and Kashif (2015) indicate that all individual motivational factors are positively and strongly related to the optimistic knowledge sharing behavior of academics. The research results of Bilginoglu and Yozgat (2018) showed that between the relationship between perceived training intensity and observed knowledge sharing, and internal motivation and self-efficacy as moderating variables had a positive effect on knowledge sharing. Based on Mohammad, Alajmi and Ahmed (2018) extrinsic motivation has a positive effect on knowledge sharing intentions and attitudes, but intrinsic motivation only has a positive effect on knowledge sharing attitudes..Methodology
The method of the current research was applied, survey-analytical. The statistical population of the research included approximately 9000 graduate students of major universities in Kermanshah in 2019. The sample size was 368 students. The sampling method was available sampling due to the COVID-19 crisis. The data collection tool was done using a 32-item questionnaire. The method of formulating the questions of attitude, motivation, awareness and knowledge variables as cognitive variables and creativity in choosing the research topic as a researcher-made and variable of mental norms using the research of Chennamaneni et al. (2012) the components of the intensity of knowledge sharing and the quality of knowledge sharing from The research of Chiu et al. (2006) was used with general changes. Cronbach's alpha test was used to determine the reliability of the questionnaire. The results of this test showed a total of 32 questions were obtained equal to 0.941, which indicated the acceptable reliability of the scale. Data analysis was done using Pearson's correlation coefficient test, multiple regression, and path analysis based on determining the relationships between independent variables and using SPSS 23 and Amos software.Results
This research seeks the relationship of cognitive factors with the creativity of choosing a research topic with regard to the mediating role of the intensity and quality of knowledge sharing among graduate students of Universities of Kermanshah city. Accordingly, the present study attempts to show that cognitive factors by mediating the intensity and quality of knowledge sharing immediately lead to the creativity of research topic selection among graduate students. The results of the first and second hypothesis showed that all cognitive variables had a positive relationship with the mediator variable, i.e. the intensity of knowledge sharing and the quality of knowledge sharing, but in the regression analysis of the motivation subscale, it did not contribute to this research. However, the findings of the research confirmed the first and second hypothesis with three subscales of cognitive factors (attitude, awareness and knowledge and mental norms).The answer to the third hypothesis of the research is that knowledge sharing variables (intensity and quality of knowledge sharing) have the ability to predict creativity in choosing the research topic. The findings of this research also confirmed this hypothesis. The answer to the fourth hypothesis showed that the relationship between cognitive factors and the intensity of knowledge sharing among master's students was better. But in relation to cognitive factors with the quality of knowledge sharing, PhD students were in a better situation. It seems that the quality of knowledge sharing among Ph.D students is very important in choosing the topic of a research thesis. Also, there is a difference between the prediction of the dependent variables of the mediator and the dependent variable of the criterion among master's and doctoral students. In other words, the relationship between the variables of intensity and quality of knowledge sharing with the creativity of choosing a research topic among master's students is in a better condition.Conclusion
In general, the results of this research showed that cognitive factors including attitude, awareness and knowledge, and mental norms can indirectly realize the creativity of postgraduate students' research topic selection by mediating the intensity and quality of shared knowledge. In other words, research creativity will reduce or eliminate the concerns of choosing a research topic for graduate students. Because these students face a big challenge when choosing thesis or dissertation topics. Furthermore, choosing the subject by students requires sharing knowledge among people and spending time on the part of supervisors and advisors. This article has a key contribution. It is one of few studies that have been conducted on the relationship between cognitive factors on knowledge sharing and creativity in choosing a research topic.Keywords: cognitive factors, Knowledge sharing intensity, Knowledge sharing quality, Select a topic research creativity
The increasing increase of knowledge as the most important source of competitive advantage in the current era in various scientific fields, especially in the field of business, on the one hand, and the selection of appropriate knowledge management strategies to achieve the goals of organizations, on the other hand, has doubled the importance of knowledge audit in today's competitive world. The goal of knowledge audit is to evaluate the knowledge management processes to match them with the organization's goals. So that they can organize their own obvious and existing knowledge well and extract the hidden knowledge of their employees and provide the necessary grounds to discover and identify gaps in the creation, organization, sharing and application of knowledge and the process of knowledge sharing and transfer. Accelerate in organizations. In academic environments, the understanding of the importance of knowledge as a critical source of knowledge audit for organizations is increasing. Knowledge creates a competitive advantage, and organizations that are not able to audit knowledge and use it correctly are doomed to failure in the field of competition. One of the tools that can help organizations in achieving these goals is knowledge audit. Academic libraries also use innovations, philosophies, strategies and techniques used in different sectors in search of achieving a sustainable competitive advantage and in the direction of creating strategic knowledge for strategic academic purposes. In this regard, university libraries can rely on knowledge audit strategies not only to be able to face changes, but also to have a preventive approach or to be the agent of change
the problem of the present research is, what are the dimensions, components and indicators of knowledge audit in Iranian academic libraries?
Knowledge audit is a review, review, measurement and evaluation of the organization's intellectual assets that identifies how these assets are used. Knowledge audit specifies the organization's knowledge needs, the location of the organization's knowledge, how to use it, identifying the organization's knowledge obstacles and problems and providing methods to improve the organization's knowledge, which includes the following processes:Planning: In this stage, the goals, missions, missions, strategies, limitations and scope of the knowledge audit are determined.
Data collection: In this stage, data is collected based on the information of the previous stage through interviews, questionnaires, etc.
Data processing: In this step, valid and invalid data are identified and the accuracy and validity of the data is determined.
Data analysis: In this stage, after quantitative and qualitative data analysis, the value of knowledge capital, effectiveness and efficiency of knowledge management are evaluated.
Reporting: In this step, a report is presented on how the organization's knowledge flows, knowledge resources, problems and related limitations.
Summary: In this stage, the knowledge map of the organization is presented and solutions are suggested to improve the knowledge management of the organization (Jehani Freemani, 2015).Methodology
This research is of an applied type, which was carried out with the descriptive survey research method. The statistical population of this research includes the main managers and managers of central library departments of universities affiliated to the Ministry of Science, Research and Technology. The sampling method of the libraries was chosen according to their dispersion in the whole country, first by random cluster sampling and then by targeted sampling of the central library of the largest university in the capital of the province. 300 questionnaires were distributed among them, of which 279 questionnaires were answered.Results
Based on the findings of the organizational vision and goals research, data and knowledge analysis, explicit and implicit knowledge measurement, knowledge flow mapping, identifying strategic elements of the organization, analyzing the gap between existing and desirable knowledge, preparing the organization, identifying the knowledge audit process, forming Knowledge audit working group, knowledge flow analysis, identification of organization's valuable assets, information evaluation, current knowledge health measurement and knowledge application analysis are effective factors in knowledge audit. Based on the correlation matrix between research variables, there is a significant relationship between knowledge audit components at the level of 0.01.
The results of the structural equation model showed that the path coefficients are also positive and significant at the 0.01 level, which indicates their positive effect on knowledge audit in Iranian academic libraries.The tested model had an absolute fit index of GOF of 0.50, and the value obtained for this fit index indicates the appropriate fit of the tested model. Therefore, it can be said that the components of knowledge audit working group formation, knowledge flow analysis and current knowledge health measurement have a greater role in the knowledge audit of libraries.Discussion
The results showed that the status of knowledge audit components in the central library of Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman and the central library of Gilan University is higher than other libraries. In explaining the results of the research, it can be said that knowledge audit plays a very important role in supporting the knowledge needed by university libraries; Because it can examine how knowledge is transferred in libraries and its use inside and outside libraries, and after that, by identifying the weaknesses and strengths of libraries, it examines the gaps in them and by preventing Rework helps to manage and audit their knowledge effectively.Conclusion
The purpose of the present research is to analyze the audit of knowledge in Iranian university libraries. Based on the results of the research, it was found that managers can benefit from knowledge audit in improving the quality of university library services. By applying knowledge audit, managers review, examine, measure and evaluate the intellectual assets of the organization and evaluate the knowledge reserves and flow of the entire organization.Keywords: knowledge management, knowledge audit, University Libraries, Factor analysis model
Identifying the interoperability factors of academic information systems in Iran (a mixed research in Islamic Azad University)Pages 179-224Indtroduction
The aim of the current research was to identify the factors of interoperability of academic information systems in Islamic Azad University. This research is characterized by its applied and exploratory nature, aiming to achieve specific goals within the given context. To effectively accomplish these objectives, a mixed method and approach, combining qualitative and quantitative methodologies, has been employed.
The information system and information technologies have become an integral part of processes, systems and organizational culture, and information technology as an asset and resource for creating a competitive advantage is a requirement (NooshinFard et al, 1400). In fact, information systems and information and communication technology are the same processes that are embedded in business procedures in order to absorb and use knowledge with the aim of improving organizational performance (Lufman and Lewis, 2016). Factors such as the variety of common information systems in Iranian universities, the use and gradual evolution of these systems, the special characteristics of the academic operating environment, the need to exchange data between different systems and the integration of information require their investigation and study from Various dimensions, including interactivity, which was the focus of the present study (Omidian, 1401). In the age of knowledge explosion, the development of information technology is an essential requirement for the efficiency of the educational system, and the requirement for the effectiveness of new technologies is the transformation in the teaching-learning culture (Manzhuk and Eram, 2015). For educational institutions as well as other modern institutions, the use of information technology does not only mean supporting management; Rather, it is an empowering element that helps to promote and improve the decision-making process at different levels of university management (Indrajit and Jokopranuto, 2006).Methodology
The utilization of qualitative methods, specifically the Delphi method, allows for the extraction of essential components and indicators related to the research subject. This qualitative approach facilitates a deep and comprehensive understanding of the underlying factors at play. On the other hand, quantitative methods have been employed to validate the measurement models and examine the conceptual model. Through quantitative analysis, the researcher can assess the reliability and validity of the measurements used in the study. By conducting statistical tests and measurements, the researcher gains valuable insights into the relationships and associations between the variables outlined in the conceptual model. By employing a mixed method and approach, this research can harness the strengths of both qualitative and quantitative methodologies. This comprehensive approach provides a more robust and well-rounded understanding of the research subject, enabling the researcher to draw meaningful conclusions and make informed recommendations. The integration of qualitative and quantitative techniques enhances the validity and reliability of the research findings, ensuring a more comprehensive and impactful study. First, by using the meta-combination method, study resources including books, articles, and internet resources were studied in a structured manner in a seven-step process, and in this way, interoperability indicators were identified. Then, the indicators and components obtained from meta-combination analysis in the form of a structured questionnaire including indicators and components of interoperability. The questionnaire was submitted to the experts by using the Delphi method (qualitative approach) in order to explore their opinions in the stage. Then, based on the data collected from the qualitative stage and asking the opinions of the experts in three rounds, a questionnaire was finally compiled and in order to measure and evaluate using the analytical survey method (quantitative approach) and the use of modeling structural equations, which is actually a quantitative method and was examined in terms of the correspondence of the theoretical model with the real data (experimental data) obtained by sampling from the community. The research method in the quantitative part is descriptive-survey. The statistical population of the research in the meta-combined section includes printed and online sources and documents (such as the content of websites, databases such as Civilica, articles and scientific reports of specialized seminars and conferences, etc.) consisting of 100 sources in the form of books, articles, and scientific reports. In order to collect qualitative and quantitative data, a researcher-made questionnaire (50 items) was used, the items of which were taken from the results of the meta-composite analysis in the first stage and based on the Likert scale from 1 very little to 5 very much. In order to validate the meta-synthesis stage, the researcher returns to the previous steps to ensure that the quality is maintained in his study. In order to control the quality and review the articles to match the parameters of the study and to remove the articles that were not trusted in any way in terms of accuracy, validity and importance of its findings, all the articles and scientific reports were categorized, in several stages of study and review, a large number of sources were removed. And 24 sources were selected and exploited in the form of 12 internal sources (for the years 2005 to 1400) and 12 external sources (for the years 2002 to 2022). In the quantitative section, content validity was used from the beginning to measure the validity of the questionnaire, which had good validity, and Krobach's alpha coefficient was used to measure the reliability of the questionnaire, which was 91%, which is an acceptable coefficient for reliability. After studying and checking the details and features of the documents such as abstract, content and based on the goal setting, 24 sources (12 foreign sources and 12 Persian sources) were selected and through them the dimensions, components and interoperability idicators in the study process, were used. The statistical population in the qualitative part of the research are key informants and experts in the field of information systems and senior managers of information technology in Iranian universities. At this stage, 25 experts were selected in the field of the research topic. The statistical population in the quantitative section is made up of managers and employees of the information technology and information systems department at Islamic Azad University. The sample size was selected by simple random sampling with Cochran's formula of 151 people. In order to collect qualitative data, a library method was used, and for quantitative data, a researcher-made questionnaire (50 items) was used, the items of which were taken from the results of meta-composite analysis in the first stage. In order to analyze the data in the meta-composite part, the method of Sandelowski and Barosuke and in the quantitative part the methods of exploratory factor analysis, descriptive analysis, univariate t-test using SPSS and Lisrel software were used.Results
The results showed that the indicators of technical interoperability of information systems are the ability to interact and exchange data with information systems, the possibility of connecting and using decision support systems, storing information in a standard format, central security, central monitoring, integrated processing, easy communication with other systems, ability to be used through distance education. Overall, the results of this research have shown that the architecture and structure of university information systems should be such that it provides the integrity and comprehensiveness of processes and information at the level of organizations and provides a smooth flow of information between different departments of the organization. The use of interoperable information systems that can cover all technical, process and semantic interoperability indicators and activities and tasks in an organization and provide necessary information to its users in a timely manner is one of the vital tools in today's organizations. Without the systems having these characteristics (technical, semantic and process) it is impossible to increase the capabilities of the organization, improve performance, make better decisions and achieve interactive, integrated and competitive advantage.Process interoperability indicators, notification mechanism about presentation and update, change and flexibility mechanism for service update, dynamic and flexible organization, change-oriented performance management, effectiveness measurement and feedback, expandable architecture, They are expandable according to new requirements, service-oriented architecture. Also, the results of the research showed that indicators of semantic interoperability, the ability to code educational signs, the ability to interact with various systems, the use of standard terms and codes, XML translation service, mapping service, providing a common message format for communication. Among the different systems, the content-based router, the use of terms and standard codes, paying attention to the understanding of users and systems in the use of vocabulary.Conclusion
Paying attention to the optimal use of information systems can make the university succeed in achieving organizational goals and achieving high effectiveness and efficiency. Therefore, the management should always consider the characteristics of these valuable and transformative resources, and with sufficient knowledge and the participation of specialized employees in the field of supply, use and placement of these items, it will improve the performance of the strategies. In order to reach more favorable levels in this field, the university should encourage innovation and creativity, and provide opportunities for job rotation for employees to develop their professional knowledge.Keywords: Information Technology, Information Systems, Academic Information Systems, Technical Interoperability, Semantic interoperability, Organizational Interoperability
Ontologies as tools for visualizing domain knowledge and improving information search and retrieval have attracted the attention of many researchers in different subject areas. One of the domains where the application of ontologies can be the subject of many researches is knowledge management, while it has been less discussed so far. The aim of this research is the qualitative and quantitative analysis of studies related to the application of ontologies in the knowledge management domain in order to identify these applications the main subject areas and their aspects.
Reasons for creating ontologies include the ability to reuse knowledge, sharing a common understanding of the structure of information between human and software (machines), analyzing domain knowledge, describing basic concepts in a subject domain, and the relationship between them (Montenegro et al. 2012). Therefore, considering the application of ontology in knowledge engineering and since access to knowledge has a major contribution to the progress of societies in today's world, the way of accessing and managing this knowledge among the large amount of information is very important and challenging. Knowledge management is also one of the topics that is of interest to researchers in various fields. Ontologies are one of the tools for organizing and managing knowledge. Despite the significant number context-based research on the use of these tools and the use of ontologies in knowledge management, lack of connection and understanding between researches in the field of ontology and applied knowledge management will cause knowledge management to be deprived of these tools. Therefore, the following research aims to analyze the studies in the field of ontology application in knowledge management. As it mentioned, most of the research in this field is context-based. The fields of education (Yang, Chen, & Shao, 2004), architecture (Anumba et al, 2008), agriculture (Zheng et al., 2012) and medicine (Zhou et al., 2020) are among the context-based researches in the field of application of ontology in knowledge management. Moreover, identifying the obstacles and challenges of using these tools in the context of knowledge management is another aspect that has not been addressed in the researches. Therefore, this study focuses on researches that are generally discussed applications and methods the use of ontology in knowledge management and research about the application of ontologies in different domains knowledge management or the construction and implementation of ontologies in the field of knowledge management have been ignored. This research can provide a comprehensive view of the applications and capacities that the use of ontologies provides for knowledge management.Methodology
The present study is a descriptive-analytical one. It was conducted using Pettigrew and Roberts 's (2008) systematic review method. In order to analyze the texts and visualize the findings, the content analysis method using MaxQDA and Data Trapper software was applied. Accordingly, after formulating research questions and search keywords, inclusion and exclusion criteria, selected databases were searched. At first stage, 419 studies were retrieved, after reviewing and considering the defined inclusion and exclusion criteria, 47 studies were selected for final analysis. The results of the analysis of the studies were presented in the form of tables and graphs.Results
In addition to presenting the frequency of subjects, the citation status
of studies and subject trends in this field over time, analysis of studies in the field of application of ontologies in knowledge management revealed that these researches include five main topics as follows: construction and creation of ontology in the field of knowledge management, design of knowledge management systems based on ontology, use of ontology in the process of knowledge management, role and synergy of ontologies in knowledge management and challenges and usage guidelines. From ontology in knowledge management.Discussion
Analysis of 47 selected studies showed that Chinese researchers have studied this issue more than others. In Iran, the number of studies was significant compared to other countries. Moreover, the analysis of the studies indicates that in most of the studies in this field, analytical-descriptive approach has been applied. In terms of the year of conducting the research, most of the studies in this field were conducted in 2009. In Iran the first study was conducted in 2008 and other studies were conducted since 2019. Accordingly, most of the research in the field of the application of ontologies in knowledge management are analytical-descriptive, and case and experimental studies and literature review are in the next in terms of frequency, which have used tools such as texts, questionnaires, and the Delphi technique. Thematic analysis of the studies shows that the most focus of these research is on presenting the methods, models, frameworks and approaches that are used to build ontologies in the field of knowledge management. A number of these studies also dealt with the construction and development of ontology in the field of knowledge management. Ontology based knowledge management systems, the application of ontology in different parts of the knowledge management process, the role and synergy of ontology in knowledge management, and the guides and challenges in the construction of ontologies in the context of knowledge management are other major topics in these studies. The combination of the results of keyword analysis and the identification of the changing process of subjects over the time can confirm the relative superiority of technical aspects in the design and construction of ontologies in the field of knowledge management.Conclusion
Although studies have addressed different dimensions of the application of ontology in knowledge management as a helpful tool to facilitate different stages of knowledge management processes, the focus of most studies on theoretical dimensions has caused a lack of connection and real practical understanding of applying ontology in this field. In this study, the emphasis is on the general ontologies of knowledge management, but the high importance of user-oriented studies, understanding the environment and the user community in design, construction and use of technologies, including ontology and their impact on the efficiency and effectiveness of knowledge management, require researchers to focus on these non-technical issues, and the results of this review show a significant lack of focus on these issues.Keywords: Knowledge management (KM), Ontology, systematic review, Information management process