فهرست مطالب

Caspian Journal of Environmental Sciences - Volume:21 Issue: 4, Autumn 2023

Caspian Journal of Environmental Sciences
Volume:21 Issue: 4, Autumn 2023

  • تاریخ انتشار: 1402/07/09
  • تعداد عناوین: 24
  • Pedram Attarod *, Samira Beiranvand, Thomas Grant Pypker, Vilma Bayramzadeh, Jalil Helali, Zahra Mashayekhi, Jafar Fathi, Hamid Soofi Mariv Pages 753-765
    The objective was to investigate if changes in annual, monthly, and seasonal precipitation are associated with emergence of declining oak trees in Iran. Daily precipitation data were obtained from 20 synoptic stations distributed over the Zagros area from 1988-2019. Non-parametric Mann-Kendall (MK) test and Sen's Slope estimator (Qmed value) were applied to identify significant trends in the precipitation data. ‘‘De Martonne’’ climate classification (i.e., De Martonne aridity index (IDM) was used for climate classification. Although most stations showed decreasing trends in annual precipitation during the studied period (1988-2019), these trends were statistically significant at only two stations. The mean number of events per year pre- and post- oak decline was not significantly different (68 events before against 71 events after decline). Most of the annual precipitation in the Zagros region falls in winter and spring (80% in total). However, this ratio decreased after the year 2000 by 6% (not significant) compared with before. The difference between the average annual precipitation, before (1988-2000) and after (2000-2019) the emergence of the oak decline phenomenon, were not statistically significant in any of the climate types (semi-arid: 406 mm vs. 378 mm), Mediterranean (530 mm vs. 489 mm), and humid (924 mm vs. 912 mm) as well as in whole Zagros region (537 mm vs. 508 mm). Although our data suggested insignificant trends in precipitation for most stations, future research should investigate if rising temperature in the Zagros area has resulted in higher evaporation and drier soil thereby accelerating the oak tree decline.
    Keywords: Climate Change, Mann–Kendall test, Quercus brantii
  • Nasibeh Lohrasbi, Babak Tavakoli *, Mehdi Aalipour Pages 767-777
    Tourism industry growth in many regions of the world, along with the positive and negative economic and social consequences, has environmental impacts leading to irreversible damage. The present study aimed to investigate the impact of the tourism industry on municipal solid waste amounts especially plastics in Nowshahr City, Northern Iran. The physical components of solid waste were determined based on a simple random sampling method. The samples were collected during a one-year study period (from spring 2015 to winter 2016). The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was performed to determine the normality of data distribution. Also, the One-Way ANOVA and Tukey tests were implemented to investigate significant differences between the seasons. The Delphi-AHP method was used to find the main criteria of solid waste increasing or the tourism effects reducing. The result showed that plastic (15.98%) and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles (11.42%) constituted the highest physical components of solid wastes in the study period. The highest amounts of PET and plastic wastes were observed in the summer, exhibiting significant difference than in the winter (p < 0.05). The results showed that amount of waste in Nowshahr is completely influenced by the number of tourists, irregular presence of tourists throughout the year and season. Also, the lack of environmental awareness in the region has led to the accumulation of significant amounts of recyclable waste such as plastic. The result indicated that the importance of knowledge about the amount of produced wastes in managing and reducing environmental effects in tourism areas. Therefore, special attention should be paid to the public education and culture regarding to the separation of wstes from the source and also recycling the solid wastes as well as the public participation in study area.
    Keywords: Tourism industry, Plastic generation, Waste management
  • Khuat Hong Thuan, Dinh Tran Ngoc Huy *, Nguyen Trong Diep Pages 779-786

    The purpose of this study was to present several environmental case studies in Vietnam and public (state) administration for environment protection. Authors also evaluated environment protection in industrial parks under the governed law. Theoretical framework was in accordance with applicable regulations/law and practices. Issues related to environmental management will make best use of opportunities (or all potentials) to achieve/set best objectives. This study used qualitative and analytical methods, descriptive method, while combined with case studies, historical and synthesis methods. This study also presented some cases of environmental pollutions, which authorities resolutely organized the implementation of measures to handle violations of the law on environmental protection. In conclusion, It would suggest that relevant ministries and branches need to review and amend a number of relevant laws, such as the Law on Sanctions of Administrative, the Law on Inspection, the Law on Water Resources, the Law on Science and Technology, etc. State management of the environment is understood as the process by which the State, through the performance of its responsibilities, duties and powers to issue measures, laws, economic, technical and social policies appropriate society in order to protect living environment and to develop the country's socio-economic sustainability.

    Keywords: Public management, Environmental law, Regulations, Environmental pollutions, Urban wastes
  • A.A. Kalashnikov *, N.A. Abduramanov, P.A. Kalashnikov, A.E. Baizakova, N.V. Denisyuk Pages 787-799
    The reliability of drip irrigation systems depends on the quality of water purification of the water sources used. The degree of its purification is a particularly important factor affecting the performance of all components of irrigation systems, including droppers. The purpose of the study was to assess the applicability of a hydrocyclone with adjustable parameters to improve the quality of water purification in drip irrigation systems. The research was carried out using the method of comparative tests of various configurations of sections of the inlet pipe of the hydrocyclone, considering changes in their angle of inclination along the vertical plane and changes in the depth of immersion of the drain pipe. By changing the configuration of the inlet pipe of the hydrocyclone, the angle of deviation along the vertical (θº) and horizontal (φº) planes, as well as the depth of immersion of the drain pipe (ac), the effect on the distribution of the flow rates between the discharge holes required for the quality of cleaning has been established. It has been found that the greatest clarification of water is provided with the semicircular shape of the inlet pipe, with the inclination of the inlet pipe along the vertical plane θº = 20 ... 40, with the immersion of the drain pipe to the interface plane of the cylindrical and conical parts of the hydrocyclone.
    Keywords: Drip irrigation system, Hydrocyclone, Cleaning quality
  • N Nurdin *, Echan Adam, Rival Rahman, Ramlan Mustapa, Wawan Pembengo, Agustinus Moonti Pages 801-814

    Porang is becoming recognized as a strategic commodity due to its high demand and substantial economic value. However, the lack of a standardized set of site-specific land suitability criteria for porang presents challenges in conducting land suitability assessments and planning for its use. Therefore, this study addressed the knowledge gap by evaluating land suitability classes and the implications of land management for porang cultivation, using different parametric methods. A comprehensive survey of 32 land units was conducted, followed by soil analysis in the laboratory. The square root (SRM) and the Rabia and Terribile (RTM) parametric methods were employed for the land suitability assessment. Subsequently, the land management priorities were determined based on the results of the land suitability class analysis derived from both methods. The results showed that land suitability for porang plants with SRM and RTM was dominated by the very suitable class (S1), however, the distribution of S1 was wider with RTM. The remaining classes with SRM consisted of moderately suitable (S2), marginally suitable (S3), currently not suitable (N1), and permanently not suitable (N2), while the remaining classes with RTM only consisted of S1, S2, and S3 classes without class N. The priority of land management for porang plants for both parametric methods is dominated by priority I, however, in SRM there are priorities II, III, and NP (not priority), while in RTM, there are only II and III. Based on land suitability class and land management priority, RTM was still better than SRM.

    Keywords: Class, Land, Management, Porang, Parametric, Suitability
  • Qays Assi Ahmed *, Sami Ibrahim Abdullah, Huda Mawlood Taher Pages 815-826
    Scientists have been interested in human reproduction for a long time, since on the one hand, it is related to human life, and on the other hand, it ensures the transmission of genetic traits from parents to children, as low fertility is considered one of the social problems leading to psychological disorders in couples who are unable to have children or what is called infertile. Therefore, this study aimed to find out the protective effects of the alcoholic extract of ginseng roots and carob fruits on the level of oxidative balance in semen and improving reproductive efficiency by examining the histological parameters of testes in albino male rabbits, and comparing these effects with the effects of vitamin E known for its antioxidant properties. This study included using forty adult albino male rabbits in eight groups, with five rabbits in each group and convergent weights. All groups were fed a standard diet throughout the five-month experimental period. The treatments were as follows: The first group (T1) were gavaged by distilled water, the second (T2) by 200 mg kg-1 alcoholic extract of ginseng roots, the third (T3) by 400 mg kg-1 alcoholic extract of ginseng roots , the fourth (T4) by 200 mg kg-1 alcoholic extract of carob fruits, the fifth (T5) by 400 mg kg-1 alcoholic extract of carob fruits, the sixth (T6) by 100 mg kg-1 alcoholic extract of ginseng roots + 100 mg kg-1 carob fruits, the seventh (T7) by 200 mg kg-1 alcoholic extract of ginseng roots + 200 mg kg-1 carob fruits, and finally, the eighth (T8) by 400 mg kg-1 vitamin E. Our results showed a significant drop (p < 0.05) in the level of MDA concentration and a significant upraise in the level of CAT, GSH and TAC concentration in the semen. The results also revealed the normal shape of the seminiferous tubules and an improvement in reproductive efficiency through the elevation in spermatogenesis percentage (SP), primary spermatocytes percentage (PSP), secondary spermatocytes percentage (SSP), spermatozoa percentage (SpP) and mature sperm percentage (MSP) for groups dosed by ginseng root extract + carob fruits and by vitamin E compared to the normal control group. Ginseng roots extract at a dose of 200 mg kg-1 + carob fruits at a dose of 200 mg kg-1 (T7) were superior to all treatments, followed by vitamin E (T8). Thus, we concluded from the current study that the effect of T7 reduces the level of free radicals and raises the level of antioxidants in the semen, and increases reproductive efficiency through the high percentage of sperm in the semen.
    Keywords: Ginseng, Carob, Vitamin E, Oxidation balance, Testes
  • A.S. Kochorov, Y.A. Utelbayev *, A.K. Tuleeva, A.S. Kharitonova, B.B. Bazarbayev, V.N. Davydova, T.B. Nelis, A.S. Aldabergenov Pages 827-839
    The study was carried out in 2021-2022 in the dry steppe zone of Northern Kazakhstan. The object of the study was the Kustanaysky yantar oilseed flax variety. Flax is a promising crop for this zone and requires an in-depth study of the diseases affecting it. The study aimed to evaluate the effect of Seedspor W and Olymp SC protectants on the seed infection pathogens, Fusarium ssp. and Colletotrichum ssp. against the background of different technologies of flax cultivation. Studies showed the high effectiveness of the complex use of protectants, where the degree of seed contamination decreased by two to three times compared to the control variant. By this variant, the authors obtained the lowest indicator of the degree of seed contamination (2-6%), high laboratory germination (90-95%), germination energy (79-89%), and field germination (70-87%). When restraining and suppressing the spread and development of root rot of Fusarium ssp. and Colletotrichum ssp., Seedsport W bioprotectant was inferior in efficiency to the Olymp SC chemical protectant. During the plant vegetation period, the prevalence and development of Fusarium wilt and anthracnose were more intense with no tillage, while less intense by traditional tillage. Over the years of the study, high yields were obtained in the variant with the integrated use of protectants (Olymp SC + Seedspor W + Akiba WSC) and averaged 7.1 c/ha, which was 3.9 c/ha more than the control variant.
    Keywords: Oilseed flax, flax diseases, seed protectants, Yield
  • Pimchutha Pigunthong *, Nirat Soodsang Pages 841-852
    The purpose of this research was to study the physical properties of Nipa palm fibers and test the properties of the fibers obtained from the yarn-spinning process. In visiting community groups that produced Nipa palm products in many provinces in Thailand, it was found that the interesting part of Nipa palms that could be brought to develop, build a career, and add value to this plant was Nipa palm fibers, which are tough, strong, and suitable for making wicker products. Interestingly, Kan Mhong Jak (stalks of empty Nipa palm bunches) could be developed into fabrics for use in the design of various products. Additionally, the Nipa palm fibers were mixed with polyester fibers in two different proportions. They were then tested until getting suitable for weaving into the fabrics. The obtained woven fabrics were beautiful, strong, and suitable for further development and creation of other textile products. This can add value to the Nipa palm, a plan that occurs naturally in the community to maximize its benefits and become more well-known.
    Keywords: Development, Nipa palm fibers, Textiles
  • Bolat Mukhambetov, Beybit Nasiyev, Rauan Abdinov *, Zhanar Kadasheva, Latipa Mamyrova Pages 853-863
    The forage kochia, Kochia prostrata is used in agriculture as a high-quality pasture plant, however, it has not shown itself to be a stable pasture-haymaking plant. Therefore, in this study, a new direction was chosen for using forage kochia as fodder, i.e., using it for the production of fruit and fodder products that are more nutritious than its hay. The study aimed to determine the influence of soil and climatic conditions on the alteration in the chemical composition and nutritional value of fruit and fodder products, hay, and straw of the forage kochia. The study was carried out in the desert zone of the Atyrau region, Western Kazakhstan with annual precipitation of 130.2 mm. Experiments in 2016 and 2017 were established on meadow-brown soils, and in 2020 on alluvial-meadow soils. The conducted studies have shown that the content of fodder units and protein in fruit and fodder products is much higher than that of hay (0.88 versus 0.65 fodder units and 21.80 g versus 17.25 g protein), and also much higher than those of its straw, which are 0.39 fodder units and 11.21 g, respectively. Natural forage plants of the desert of Western Kazakhstan are unproductive (2-3 kg ha-1) and nutritionally poor. As an alternative, it is proposed to produce fruit-based fodder of forage kochia, a new type of high-quality, nutritionally balanced feed, 10 or more times (39 kg ha-1) superior in productivity to natural hayfields and pastures.
    Keywords: plant, Semi-shrubby, Pastures, Straw, Fruit-based fodder, Hay
  • Lubna A. Al-Shik, Abbas N. Alshirifi, Ayad F. Alkaim Pages 865-874

    The present study used a free radical copolymerization approach to synthesize hydrogel of new poly sodium alginate (acrylic acid-co-acrylamide) grafted ZnO/CNT hydrogel nanocomposite. SA-g-P(Ac-co-AM)/ZnO-CNT hydrogel nanocomposite was characterized via X-ray diffraction (XRD), Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and Field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM). In the adsorption experiments, Clonazepam (CLZ) drug was used. In this study absorption process was carried out in shaker water batch for the drug   and an equilibrium system to investigate the adsorption of drug onto SA-g-P(Ac-co-AM)/ZnO-CNT hydrogel nanocomposite. The parameter influenced the adsorption capacities, like equilibrium time, initial of drug concentrations, pH solution temperature of solution and adsorbent dosage. The maximum adsorption capacities and removal percentage of CLZ were 95.14 mg g-1 (85.56%). The adsorption thermodynamics for drug were in accordance with isotherm Freundlich model. It is shown that adsorption of the drug is spontaneous and endothermic presses.

    Keywords: Adsorption, Removal, Clonazepam (CLZ), Drug, hydrogel, Isotherm, Thermodynamic
  • Marat Ongayev, Serik Denizbayev *, Gali Ozhanov, Bayan Yesmagulova, Nurlan Umbetkaliyev, Talap Shadyarov Pages 875-883
    In pasture animal husbandry, the most accessible types of watering are surface water sources, which is limited by the degree of mineralization of water in them permissible for the livestock. The purpose of the study is to analyze the hydrochemical indicators of water sources used for watering pastures in the West Kazakhstan region to improve water quality. This region is distinguished by a wide variety of natural landscapes. Its considerable extension from north to south has led to a consistent change in the natural and geographical zones with varying degrees of availability to the surface water resources. The greatest density of these sources is observed in the steppe and dry steppe zones of the region. There are about 54 rivers of various lengths in the region, which can be used as water sources. Hydrochemical analysis of water was carried out by chemical and physicochemical methods. The absolute majority of surface water sources had weak mineralization, and the chemical composition of the water was dominated by magnesium/sodium chloride, magnesium/calcium sulfate/chloride, magnesium/calcium/sodium sulfate/chloride, and calcium/sodium chloride/sulfate types of salt composition. The conducted studies show the importance of surface water sources in the irrigation of pasture lands in the West Kazakhstan region. The presence of a small number of surface water sources on a regional scale requires careful and rational use of available water resources, as well as the development of special measures to improve water quality.
    Keywords: Hydro-chemical indicators, Pasture, Surface water sources, Water availability, West Kazakhstan region
  • Nurul Komaria, Suratno Suratno *, Sudarti Sudarti, Dafik Dafik Pages 885-892

    Coffee is in high demand on the global market due to its distinctive scent. Part of the coffee is coffee waste which needs be processed to increase its economic worth. One of the efforts made is to vary the fermentation process with the ELF magnetic field on cascara. Thus, the purpose of this study was to optimize the effect of the ELF magnetic field fermentation process on cascara robusta coffee to reduce caffeine content. We utilized an experimental study. The results demonstrated that a magnetic field affected the levels of caffeine, trigonellin, and bacteria during the fermentation process. Caffeine and trigonelin test results for each treatment in the control and treatment groups.

    Keywords: Optimization of cascara fermentation, ELF Magnetic field, Effect of caffeine content
  • Vladislava Suchshikh *, Abdilkarim Karimov, Malik Yussupov, Batyrbek Aitzhanov, Aspen Abutalip, Assiya Mussayeva, Natalya Yegorova, Saltanat Mamanova, Begali Kanatov Pages 893-902
    There are over 2,000 anthrax-infected soil foci in Kazakhstan, posing a potential threat of infection with anthrax to the population. The anthrax soil foci are found in all regions of Kazakhstan, often located near residential buildings, interfering with the promising development of the region. Experimental work was carried out on the development of disinfection of the deep soil layers at a depth of up to 3.5 m using the drilling method. The experiments were carried out on a modular site measuring 210 cm by 280 cm with a natural occurrence of soil. The experimental site disinfection method included the complete filling of 12 prepared wells with BA-12 disinfectant. The soil in the wells had been previously contaminated with a vaccine culture of anthrax (Bacillus anthracis) pathogen 55-VNIIVViM. The total volume of the disinfectant solution required for complete disinfection of the entire volume of the soil (the experimental site, amounted to 1,635 L) was determined. According to the authors, the main practical conclusion of the study was the possibility to use the scheme of disinfection of soil foci of anthrax burials developed during the experiment for carrying out production and construction work at the site of existing burials.
    Keywords: Drilling method, formaldehyde, Morbidity, Soil
  • Ishraq T. Hasan, Aseel M. Aljeboree * Pages 903-909
    Hydrogels were prepared by the free radical polymerization method successfully to remove textile dyes from the aqueous solution, due to the good properties of the hydrogels as being environmentally friendly, having a high ability to swell, high adsorption efficiency and good chemical stability. These hydrogels include surface SA-g-(PAAc-co-AM) hydrogel and its nanocomposite. The properties of the prepared hydrogels were studied using several techniques, including FESEM, TEM and XRD. Adsorption tests for these surfaces were performed on textile dyes including Brilliant green (BG), Methyl violate (MV), Malachite green (MG), Rhodamine B (RhB) and Brose Bengal (RB). We compared the surfaces of SA-g-(PAAc-co-AM) hydrogel, its nanocomposite and activated carbon (AC) as adsorbents. The best results of the percentage of removal (E%) of textile dyes were in the order of BG, RB, MV, MG and RhB. Arranging in the increasing order are as follows: SA-g-(PAAc-co-AM)/AC, SA-g-(PAAc-co-AM) and activated carbon (AC). The good results of the percentage of removal (E%) of SA-g-(PAAc-co-AM)/AC were also as follows: BG = 98.91, MG = 93.43, MV = 90.98, RhB = 77.55, RB = 70.66.
    Keywords: hydrogel, Textile dyes, Acrylic acid, Acryl amide, Brilliant green, Brose Bengal, Methyl violate, Malachite green, Rhodamine B
  • Assiya Ansabayeva * Pages 911-919
    Pea, Pisum sativum L. is a popular legume crop, the advantage of which is that nitrogen accumulates in the soil after its cultivation. It requires less nitrogen fertilizers, since nodule nitrogen-fixing bacteria are found on the roots of the crop. The study aimed to evaluate the effect of biological and chemical preparations on the yield and content of heavy metals in peas. The Aksaisky Usatyi 55 pea variety was selected, characterized by the drought and heat resistance. In total, two experiments were conducted. Experiment 1 included sowing peas with the introduction of organic manure at a calculated dose of 10 ton ha-1. Biometric indicators of pea plants corresponding to the characteristics of the variety were recorded. On average the vegetation period took 94 days, and the height of the plants by the ripening phase was 50.9 cm. Boraginaceae, Asteraceae, Convolvulaceae, Poaceae, Amaranthaceae, Euphorbiaceae, and Plantaginaceae represented the weed families. According to the weed estimation scale, the weed infestation was slight or negligible. The yield of peas ranged from 12.5 to 17.0 c ha-1, the maximum yield was obtained in the variant using the Baikal EM-1 biological preparation (17.0 c ha-1), compared to the control variant (12.5 c ha-1). The pea quality ranged from 16.4 to 18.5%; the carbohydrate content from 67.7 to 69.5%; fiber from 3.8 to 4.9%; fat from 0.7 to 1.6%; and ash from 1.9 to 2.8%. The heavy metal content was within the maximum permissible concentration. The heavy metal content in peas ranged from 0.79 to 46.0 mg kg-1, in the control variant from 0.60 to 40.64 mg kg-1, with the use of chemicals from 1.20 to 46.0 mg kg-1, and with the use of biological preparations from 0.92 to 40.72 mg kg-1.
    Keywords: plant, Biometric indicators, Heavy metal content, Organic farming, Pea crop, Weed infestation
  • G.M. Duschanova *, D.K. Fakhriddinova, S.Kh. Abdinazarov, N.K. Aliyeva Pages 921-930
    In this study, we examined the morphoanatomical structure of the vegetative organs of Lophanthus anisatus, common in the conditions of introduction, the features of structural adaptation and localization of biologically active substances, i.e. pharmacological activity. Based on the study of the anatomical structure of assimilative and axial organs under the conditions of introduction (Tashkent and Jizzakh) of L. anisatus, species-specific diagnostic features were determined. According to a comparative analysis of the anatomical features of the vegetative organs, it was established that under the conditions of the introduction of the Tashkent Botanical Garden, mesomorphic signs predominate in the assimilation and axial organs, and in the conditions of the Jizzakh region - xeromorphic ones. The localization of biologically active substances in the assimilating and storage tissues of the main tissue was also determined. These identified diagnostic characters are considered permanent taxonomic characters and are used in taxonomy and in the process of identifying the raw material of the species.
    Keywords: plant, Morphology, anatomy, Vegetative organs, Lophanthus anisatus, Tashkent, Jizzakh
  • Abdrazak Babashev *, Mamataeva Aigul Tumaevna, Abdreshov Serik Nauryzbaevish, Kalekeshov Askar Maralovich, Raissa Utegaliyeva, Anar Yeshmukhanbet, Makpal Yessenova, Zheldybayeva Ainur Amangeldinovna Pages 931-938

    The global prevalence of obesity and overweight is increasing, with an estimated 750 million obese and 1.8 billion overweight adults worldwide. In light of this growing health concern, this paper aimed to examine the effects of a high-fat diet (HFD) on obesity using mice as an animal model. Adult male Swiss mice, aged 12-15 weeks and weighing between 27 and 31 g, were used in this study. The mice were divided into two groups: a treatment group that was fed HFD for six weeks, and a control group maintained on a normal feeding regimen for rodents. The mice were weighed on a weekly basis throughout the duration of the study. After six weeks, the mice were put under anaesthesia and blood samples were drawn directly from their hearts for testing purposes. It was discovered that the HFD group had a greater increase in body weight (61%) compared to the control group (46%). Additionally, the abdominal fat mass in the HFD group was twice as high as that of the control group (p < 0.005). Staining techniques revealed that the HFD mice accumulated significantly more abdominal fat relative to total body fat than the control group. Biochemical analysis of the blood samples showed that only triglyceride (TG) levels were appreciably augmented in the HFD group in contrast to the control group (p < 0.05). Other factors examined, including cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), did not show significant differences between the two groups. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that a six-week HFD induced early stages of obesity development in adult male Swiss mice. These data offer valuable insights into the effects of dietary interventions on obesity and may have implications for future research and treatment strategies.

    Keywords: High-fat diet, Obesity, Coronary heart disease, Biochemical analysis
  • Shoibekova Alima *, Nusipzhanov Nurdan, Jantassov Serik Pages 939-946
    We examined five pumpkin cultivars (including three selected by the Kazakh Institute of Fruit and Vegetable Growing) for resistance to Fusarium. Among resistant rootstocks to the Fusarium pathogen, we distinguished Mozoleevskaya 10, Stofuntovaya, and Karina cultivars for further work. The results showed that when grafting cucumber on pumpkin, the best rootstock options compared to the root-related standard of the cucumber hybrid Asylum were the pumpkin cultivars Karina and Stofuntovaya. Their early yield indicators were in the range of 3.46 and 3.39 kg m-2. It exceeded the standard by 36.7% and 33.9%, respectively. In terms of total productivity, the grafting varieties for the pumpkin cultivars, i.e., Karina and Stofuntovaya also showed high yields: 27.56 kg m-2 and 26.65 kg m-2 respectively, which significantly exceeded the rootstock standard by 42.38% and 36.68%, respectively.
    Keywords: Pumpkin, plant, Fusarium, cucumber, Cultivar
  • Karam Khadhim, Hazim Y. Al-Gubury * Pages 947-954
    This article uses a produced nanocomposite and a solar lamp to explore the photocatalytic breakdown process of the acid fuchsin dye. Hydrothermal techniques were used to create the Cr2O3/ZnO nanocomposite. The characteristics of nanocomposite were studied using various techniques such as “X-ray diffraction (XRD)”, “scanning electron microscopy (SEM)”, and diffuse reflectance spectra to calculate the band gap found to be 2.77eV. The particle size of synthesized Cr2O3/ZnO nanocomposite was calculated using the Scherer equation (47.62 nm). Using 0.13 g 100-1 mL of nanocomposite, dye degradation was carried out in irradiation aqueous suspension solutions with various dye concentrations. The influence of the mass of the nanocomposite, the concentration of Acid Fuchsin dye, and the effect of temperature were examined to determine their effects on the photocatalytic degradation process of this dye. Calculations showed that the activation energy is 31.67 kJ mole-1. Using a UV-Vis spectrophotometer, the irradiated solutions were investigated.
    Keywords: Degradation, Photocatalysis, Nanocomposite, Acid fuchsin dye, Zinc oxide, Chromium oxide
  • A. Shaldybayeva *, D. Sarsekova, S. Mukhtubayeva Pages 955-963
    In the course of the study, a comparative analysis was carried out on the various types of shrubs that may be potentially interesting for introduction in Astana, Kazakhstan. Their phenological and botanical features, such as height, shape of the bush, colour and size of flowers, seasonal flowering and decorative foliage, were studied. Special attention was paid to the adaptation of these species to local conditions, such as climate, soil and water availability. Observations of their growth and development over several years were carried out to determine their stability and suitability for acclimatization in an urban environment. The possibility of using these types of shrubs in the landscape design of Astana was also evaluated. The issues of combining them with other plants, creating compositions and also aesthetically attractive plant ensembles were considered. The results of the study allowed us to identify the most promising local types of shrubs suitable for introduction in Astana, as well as to highlight recommendations for their use in landscaping the city. The obtained data and conclusions will be useful for specialists involved in the planning and creation of public and private spaces, as well as for local governments. Thus, this study will be a comprehensive analysis and the introduction of promising local species of shrubs in Astana, taking into account their suitability for local conditions and the possibility of use in the landscape design of the city.
    Keywords: plant, Shrub, Phenological, Botanical, Landscape design
  • Kiyosov Sherzod Uralovich *, Tulakov Ulugbek Toshmamatovich, Kholmamatov Farkhodjon Kubayevich, I.B. Sapaev, Saytbekova Svetlana Saylaubaevna, Z.F. Beknazarova, Azizbek Khurramov Pages 965-975
    Nowadays we are witnessing the consequences of humanity's negative attitudes toward nature. Over the years, natural balance has been undermined by the impact on nature. To date, however, it is the fate of mankind, its fate the next day, that dictates to solve just such issues. Efforts to implement cost-effective, environmentally friendly technologies, consistently conduct conservation activities, or improve industry-wide legislation in addressing environmental issues are not enough to address them. Raising the ecological culture of the population, rational treatment of the environment, and the formation of a sense of preservation of the benefits of nature for future generations are key factors in the prevention of anthropogenic influences. The importance of environmental education is also extremely high. This, in turn, plays an important role in the country's financial and economic growth. The sustainable development goals (SDGs) are a blueprint for a better and more sustainable future for all. In order to eradicate poverty, safeguard the world from natural disasters, and guarantee that everyone lives in peace and prosperity, SDGs have been established.
    Keywords: Sustainable development, Bioeconomy, environmental issues, Natural Resource, Ecological economy
  • Doppy Roy Nendissa *, Iskakov Kairat Alimgozhaevich, I.B. Sapaev, Tadjibaeva Muyassar Karimbaevna, Suyunova Zulfiya Bakhtiyarovna, Dahlan Abdullah, Kurbonalijon Gaybullo Ugli Zokirov, Absalamova Gulmira Sharifovna Pages 977-988
    Livestock grazing is an integral part of Kazakhstan's agricultural sector, contributing significantly to the nation's economy and rural communities. The study explores both traditional and modern grazing practices utilized in the country. It emphasizes the importance of understanding livestock physiology, nutrition, and environmental needs to implement effective grazing management strategies. Environmental and socioeconomic impacts of livestock grazing are discussed, with a focus on pasture degradation, soil erosion, water resource utilization, and biodiversity conservation. Additionally, the paper addresses the role of livestock grazing in sustaining traditional nomadic practices and its significance for rural livelihoods. This paper delves into the practices, challenges, and impacts of livestock grazing in Kazakhstan, with a specific focus on sustainable modern management approaches. Grazing management practices, including rotational grazing, rest periods, and grazing intensity control, are examined in-depth. These practices aim to optimize pasture usage, prevent overgrazing, and promote healthier vegetation growth while ensuring animal welfare. Moreover, it analyses the existing policy and regulatory framework surrounding livestock grazing in Kazakhstan and evaluates its effectiveness in promoting sustainable practices. The current study also introduces dynamic forage rotation (DFR) as a new tool and technique which has privilege compared to the traditional management approach and improves the modern management approach. The obtained results show that the DFR has been improved averagely 55.77% and 42.52% compared to the traditional and modern management approaches, respectively.
    Keywords: Dynamic forage rotation, Kazakhstan, Livestock physiology, Modern management approach, Traditional management approach
  • Thanapop Soteyome *, Nopporn Sakulyunyongsuk Pages 989-996
    In this study, we improved different rice cooking methods to reduce the sugar in rice. The improvement of jasmine rice will lead to the development of products suitable for people suffered from diabetes. The aim of this investigation was to study the method of cooking rice to reduce sugar amount and study the sensory properties of jasmine rice. Jasmine Rice brand of Royal Umbrella were cooked with five different methods, then the Glucose Tolerance Test measured sugar content, and taste acceptance was measured. Jasmine rice was soaked before cooking and had the least sugar out of all five cooking methods at 0.04%. The soaking made the rice sticky and softer than cooking rice with a normal rice cooker (hot). The hardness was 19.71 ± 0.73 (N) and 23.73 ± 2.60. The difference was statistically significant (p < 0.05). Sensory quality tests and acceptance of jasmine rice cooking were found to be depending on soaking the rice before cooking. The sugar content, sensory qualities, and acceptance of jasmine rice cooking were found to be depending on soaking the rice before cooking. Soaking jasmine rice before cooking effectively decreased sugar levels while preserving its sensory properties and overall taste. This technique can be beneficial for individuals who have diabetes or are interested in reducing sugar intake. It is worth mentioning, however, that this method results in a stickier and softer texture than traditional rice cooking methods.
    Keywords: Jasmine rice, Cooking, Sugar amount
  • M.J. Parpieva, P. Mirkhamidova, M.K. Pozilov, R.A. Alimova * Pages 997-1000
    In this study, the effects of soforaflavonolonoside and narcissin flavonoids on the amount of malondialdehyde, a product of peroxidation of lipids in the liver mitochondria of rats poisoned with indoxacarb pesticide, and on the activity of the enzyme cytochrome-s-oxidase were studied depending on the dynamics of 10, 20, 30 and 40 days. The experimental group was injected with indoxacarb pesticide at a dose of 1/10 LD50 through a special probe. After administration of indoxacarb pesticide, animals were administered orally with soforaflavonolonoside and narcissin flavonoid at a dose of 10 mg kg-1 once a day for 10 days.
    Keywords: Pesticide, Indoxacarb, saphoroflavonoside, Flavonoid, Saphoroflavonoside (SFL), Narcissin, Lipid peroxidation (LPO)