فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:9 Issue: 3, Summer 2023
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1401/12/10
  • تعداد عناوین: 31
  • Samuel Huaquisto-Caceres *, Darwin Quenta-Flores, Eduardo Luis Flores-Quispe Pages 856-869
    Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) is one of the most common types of plastic waste found in municipal waste and has a negative impact on the environment, recycling and its use in concrete is an alternative solution to address these problems. The objective of the study was to evaluate the physical-mechanical behavior of hydraulic concrete with additions of PET plastic bottle fibers and natural river aggregates. The concrete was evaluated in its fresh state by means of the Slump and in its hardened state by means of density and compressive and flexural strengths, for which cylindrical and prismatic specimens were prepared with PET fibers at proportions of 2%, 4%, 6% and 8% by weight of cement plus the standard concrete designed for 21 MPa. It was found that the slump and density of the concrete decreased with additions of PET fibers. The 28-day compressive and flexural strengths increased to optimum values of 22.79 MPa and 3.19 MPa at 2% and 6% PET fibers, respectively. It is concluded that the viable application of 2 mm by 30 mm PET fibers in concrete is at 4% with dosages of 15.78 kg/m3 added to the standard concrete for structural elements subjected to compression and flexure with sustainable production at low cost.
    Keywords: Concrete, plastic, Slump, strength, waste
  • Ahmad Akhavan *, Ahmad Golchin Pages 870-889
    The aim of this research was to use a variety of leaching methods to see how different parameters affected the amount of lead leaching from tailings. Synthetic precipitation leaching procedure, toxicity characteristic leaching procedure, leachate extraction procedure, and field leach test protocols were utilized to assess the toxicity of the tailings. The impact of the liquid-solid ratio, particle size, contact time, and pH on lead release from tailings was also investigated. According to the findings, pH entirely effects on the release of lead from the tailings, and amphoteric leaching behavior was observed. The tailings were classified as hazardous material as a result of the TCLP leaching protocol's findings. S1 and S2 samples had lead mobility indexes of 51% and 5.6%, respectively. The solubility process influenced the discharge of lead from the tailings. In the particle size ranges of 0.3-0.5 mm and 0.6-1.0 mm, respectively, the maximum amount of lead was released from S1 and S2 samples. Various experiments have shown that the interaction between different factors will have complex and strong effects on the leaching process. To that end, managing of tailings and preventing lead emission into the environment necessitates a unique technique. Leachability is affected by a number of factors and often multiple factors can produce synergistically different releases than would be predicted by each factor alone. However, validation of the leaching approaches to field-collected and monitored cases indicates that combined effects are either captured by the test data or can be considered through fate and transport modeling.
    Keywords: Pollution, Leachability, Perspective, Assessment ramework, Release behavior
  • Khadija Lachguer *, Imane Boudadi, Lahbib Fayzi, Soumaya El Merzougui, Mehdi El Bouchti, Omar Cherkaoui, Mohammed Amine Serghini Pages 890-906
    The production of saffron, the spice obtained from the dried stigmas of Crocus sativus L. (Iridaceae family) flowers, generates, after pruning, considerable quantities of waste containing natural dyes. Saffron flower waste could be a source of extraction of natural dyes with antioxidant activity. In this study, we investigate the possibility of using saffron flower waste for dyeing cotton and evaluating the antioxidant effect of this dye by the DPPH free radical, reducing power and β-carotene bleaching assay. The dye has been evaluated for the composition of the color by the UV-visible spectrum and tested for the dyeing of cotton. The results indicate the presence of polyphenols and flavonoids. The dyeing conditions have been optimized at 6% dye concentration, dye bath pH of 3, dyeing temperature at 98 °C and dyeing time of 60 min. 2% dye concentration with 5 to 10% mordant concentration remains sufficient for dyeing with pre-mordanting. The exhaustion of the bath after dyeing has been improved by a rate of 20% in the case of addition of mordants which have produced a shade of green color. The dye contributes to the significant antioxidant activities with more DPPH scavenging capacity, FRAP reducing power, and β-carotene bleaching inhibition. Cotton fabrics dyed with bio-dyes obtained from saffron flower waste show good color fastness properties and could be a potential source of natural antioxidant agent. It presents an important eco-friendly alternative to synthetic dyes for large-scale application in textile and food industries.
    Keywords: Saffron waste, Natural dye, Cotton, Mordant, Antioxidant
  • Aicha Abdellaoui *, Kais Baouia, Sofiane Saggai Pages 907-917
    In the eastern region of the Algerian Northern Sahara, the groundwater is the only resource for drinking water supply and irrigation. This study aimed to assess the physical-chemical quality of groundwater with exposition of the fluoride distribution in the eastern region of Algeria taking as case study Ouargla area. The sampling campaign was carried out in such a way to cover the exploited aquifers (Miopliocene and Senonian).  Water temperature, pH, conductivity, hardness, alkalinity, principal ions (Sodium, Potassium Calcium, Magnesium, Bicarbonates, Nitrates, Sulfates, and Chlorides) and the fluoride content in the groundwater were measured and determined. Examination and validation of obtained results were by the use ionic balance method and the hydrochemical analysis by Piper, Stabler and Richards diagrams. The obtained results of our study show that the groundwater of the Ouargla area presents a chlorinated sodium and potassium facies. Moreover, the groundwater quality in the study area is of poor quality; it is hard and characterized by very high mineralization, The Richards' diagram indicates that the groundwater of the study area are unsuitable for irrigation. The spatial distribution of fluoride ions in groundwater of the terminal complex shows that fluoride levels in Ouargla exceed the World Health Organization standard.
    Keywords: Groundwater, fluoride, Water quality, Ouargla
  • Isiaka Adio Hassan *, Wahabi Olaitan Abdul Raheem, Aishat Adejoke Obalola, Ishaq Oluwole Bello Pages 918-928
    Human developmental activities always result to waste generation; that invariably pollute the environment, if not properly managed. The aim of this study is to determine soil quality around Odo Iya-Alaro at Ojota, Lagos. A total of 12 soil samples were collected from 0 -15 cm and 15- 30 cm at three different spots of 100 and 500 m (control) away from the bank of the river. Samples were analysed for pH, EC, NO3, TOC; Zn, Na, K, Ca, Mg, Cu, Fe, Cd, Cr, Ni, and Pb using standard analytical methods. The results were subjected to both differential and inferential statistics using statistical package (SPSS 22.0 version). Subsequently, the data were compared with Earth crust values. The soil pollution was evaluated using pollution, ecological risk, and geo-accumulation index. Cr (50.43), Ni (29.47), and Cu (104.10) mg/kg at 100 m were higher than their controls; (12.09), (8.14), and (86.06) mg/kg respectively, but lower than their respective Earth crusts; (100), (80) except (50) mg/kg. The soil was moderately polluted with pH (1.15), Na (3.00), K (2.11), Mg (1.87), Ca (1.26) and Cu (1.21); considerably polluted with EC (3.82), TOC (3.39), and Ni (3.62); and very highly polluted with Fe (8.26). Fe (711.73) had a very high ecological risk.  The Geo – accumulation index was moderately - strongly polluted with Zn (2.61), and very strongly polluted with pH (5.37), EC (14.90), NO3 (9.66), Na (15.41), K (11.31), Mg (9.51), Ca (17.08), Fe (15.32), Cu (12.54), Cr (8.67), and Ni (7.32). The soil was polluted. and urgently needs reclamation for Garden Park (relaxation).
    Keywords: assessment, ecological risk, soil, Odo, Iya-Alaro, Pollution, waste
  • Hamza Badamasi *, Johnson Olusola, Solomon Durodola, Olaniran Akeremale, Odunayo Ore, Ajibola Bayode Pages 929-949
    Mining is one of the most environmentally damaging human activities, having long-term health effects on humans. In this research, the levels of contamination, source distribution, and health risks of heavy metals to residents from drinking surface water near Riruwai mining sites were investigated. The findings of the study indicated that the heavy metal levels ranged from As (0.00–0.04 mg/L), Cd (0.00–0.04 mg/L), Cr (0.02–0.06 mg/L), Mn (0.02–0.07 mg/L), and Pb (0.00–0.05 mg/L), with mean levels of 0.02, 0.013, 0.03, 0.02, and 0.04 mg/L, respectively. The concentrations of all metals, with the exception of Mn and Cr, are higher than acceptable limits. The values of the heavy metal pollution index (HPI) for all the metals, with the exception of Mn, exceed the threshold limit of 100, indicating serious pollution of the surface water. This was confirmed by the results of Nemerow’s pollution index (NPI). Multivariable analysis revealed anthropogenic and natural sources as the main sources of heavy metal contamination, with Cd, As, Cr, and Pb originating from mining activities and Mn possibly coming from parent materials. The total hazard index (HI) and non-cancer risk (HQ) values in children and adults are within acceptable limits. However, the total life cancer risks (TLCR) of As and Cd were higher than the tolerable limit of 1.00E-06. Therefore, heavy metals in surface water, particularly As, Cd, and Pb, should be properly monitored and a treatment program implemented to safeguard the health of local residents, especially children.
    Keywords: Cancer Risk, heavy metal pollution index, Multivariable analysis, Nemerow’ s pollution index, cancer, non-cancer risks
  • Naser Seifollahi * Pages 950-964
    Increasing the level of environmental knowledge of consumers and their level of concern towards the environment and green brands are among the important factors that have been considered in the discussion of consumer behavior in recent years. Marketing managers also try to attract customers' attention to their green products and brands in order to succeed in selling and marketing their products. Therefore, the present study was conducted with the aim of investigating the effect of green packaging on attracting and retaining environmentally friendly customers with the mediating role of green brand image. In terms of the purpose of the research, the type of applied research, the method of collecting descriptive data is of the correlation type. The statistical population of this research is the students of University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, 373 of them were selected as a sample by referring to Morgan's table and using the available sampling method. The required data were collected using a questionnaire and analyzed based on the structural equation modeling method and using SPSS and Smart PLS software. The results of the research showed that green packaging has a positive and significant effect on attracting and retaining environmentally friendly customers as well as the image of the green brand. On the other hand, the image of the green brand has a positive and significant effect on attracting and retaining environmentally friendly customers. Finally, green brand image acts as a mediating factor in the relationship between green packaging and attracting and retaining environmentally friendly customers.
    Keywords: Green Packaging, Green Brand, green brand image, Customer Attraction, Retention
  • Elham Pournamdari * Pages 965-983
    The applicability of Polyetheretherketone/Polyvinylalcohol Nanocomposite Modified with Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles synthesized for eliminating humic acid rapidly from industrial wastewater. Identical techniques, including BET, FTIR, XRD, and SEM have been utilized to characterize this novel material. Also, the impacts of variables including initial humic acids (HAs) concentration (X1), pH (X2), adsorbent dosage (X3), and sonication time (X4) came under scrutiny using central composite design (CCD) under response surface methodology (RSM). The values of 10 mgL-1, 6.0, 0.025 g, and 5.0 min were investigated through batch experiments, considered as the ideal values for humic acids (HAs) concentration, pH, adsorbent dosage, and contact time, respectively. Adsorption equilibrium and kinetic data were fitted with the Langmuir monolayer isotherm model and pseudo-second-order kinetics (R2: 0.999) with maximum adsorption capacity (102.0 mgg-1), respectively.  The overall results confirmed that Polyetheretherketone/Polyvinylalcohol Nanocomposite Modified with Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles could be a promising adsorbent material for humic acids (HAs) removal from industrial wastewater.
    Keywords: humic acids (HAs), adsorption capacity, response surface methodology, Central composite design, Industrial Wastewater
  • Rim Bougassa *, Latifa Tahri, Ilham Nassri, Mohammed Fekhaoui Pages 984-993
    Olive mill wastewater is the main by-product derived from olive mills using the three-phase extraction process,displaying a serious environmental risk due to its notable content in organics and phenolics Olive oil production, an agro-industrial of vital economic particularly in Mediterranean countries, is unfortunately associated with the generation of large quantities of OMW (Olive Mill Wastewater) and solid wastes. The OMW is considered a major environmental problem, it is a powerful pollutant rejected in nature without any prior treatment. This research work aims to study the treatment of OMW by a new ecological and economic system, which consists of the use of the following components: gravel, sawdust, soil, activated carbon, bamboo, and the valorization of the solid residues. HPLC analysis showed that hydroxytyrosol is the most abundant biophenol. Many other biophenols were identified (Tyrosol, gallic acid, and eleonic acid). The comparison between before and after filtration by the new system showed an essential degradation of phenolic compounds after treatment and found a new compound resulting from their degradation.
    Keywords: New system, Phenolic-compounds, Wastewater, filtration, Olive mills
  • Ahmed Hamood, Inas Mohammed, Ahmed Majeed * Pages 994-1005
    cadmium usually enter the environment and water resources through wastewater, released by various industries, and may have adverse effects. The current study employs surface of bentonite clay available locally in order to remove cadmium In solutions contaminated with this type of ions, in order to research on a surface with a high ability to adsorption of cadmium (II) ions, study Some factors affect the adsorption process on bentonite clay, such as contact time, pH the solution, Adsorbent particle size, Initial concentration of solutions and temperature of the solution were examined in the a batch process mode. The amount of adsorbed Cd (II) increased with height temperature, the optimum adsorption pH was about 6.5. Under this condition, the percent removal was 95.17%. The adsorption  isotherms were studied and  the results of adsorption processes were more fitted with Friendlich model rather than Langmuir adsorption model. Thermodynamic study showed that,  ΔH was endothermic, ΔG is found to be negative That is, the process is automatic and  ΔS was found to be positive. The current study also involves  practical application using bentonite to get rid of Cd(II) ions  to  from wastewater of Hamdan's station of the Basra- iraq, The results indicate high affinity (97.84%) removal of Cd(II) ions.
    Keywords: Adsorption, Bentonite, Cd(II) ions, Langmuir, Freundlich models, thermodynamic
  • Ekaterina Skuratovskaya *, Artem Serbin Pages 1006-1014
    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are known amongst the most dangerous toxicants entering the coastal marine waters from various polluting sources. Even the smallest PCBs doses are capable to change physiological and biochemical processes exerting toxic, mutagenic and carcinogenic effects. So, the aim of this study was to analyze the impact of PCBs at 1, 100, 1000 µg/L on oxidative stress parameters (level of oxidized proteins (neutral aldehydes and ketones, basic aldehydes and ketones) and lipid peroxidation), antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT)) and cholinesterase (ChE) activity in the hepatopancreas of mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis during 5 days’ of the toxicological experiment. Level of all forms of the oxidized proteins was found significantly increased at 100 µg/L and 1000 µg/L (+50-78% and +150-282%, respectively) compared to the control (p<0.05). Level of lipid peroxidation was considerably higher at 1, 100, 1000 µg/L (+59%, +134%, +269%, respectively) compared to the control (p<0.05). SOD activity significantly raised at 1, 100, 1000 µg/L (+63%, +200%, +118%, respectively) compared to the control (p<0.05), while CAT activity reduced at 1000 µg/L compared to the control, 1 µg/L and 100 µg/L (-29%, -66%, -40%, respectively) (p<0.05). ChE activity was found lower at 1, 100, 1000 µg/L (-60%, -93%, -30%, respectively) compared to the control (p<0.05). Possible mechanisms of M. galloprovincialis biochemical response to PCBs are discussed. Studied biochemical parameters can be suitable biomarkers for evaluating the toxicity of PCBs and M. galloprovincialis can be used as a bioindicator in the monitoring of marine ecosystems contaminated with these pollutants.
    Keywords: Polychlorinated biphenyls, mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis, Hepatopancreas, prooxidant-antioxidant system, cholinesterase activity
  • Abdul-Kareem Al-Rubaiee, Mohanad Al-Owaidi * Pages 1015-1027
    Random and unscientific disposal of municipal waste is an important factor affecting the geotechnical characteristics and concentrations of heavy metals in the soil. Unconfined compressive strength, Atterberg limit, and maximum dry density tests were included. These tests were designed to determine the effects of open waste dumps on geotechnical properties and the concentration of heavy metals in the underlying open dump soil. Soil samples collected from the landfill at Al-Sayyahia Village, Babylon Governorate, showed changes in the rates of geotechnical properties evaluation, as the value of the confined compressive strength decreased by high rates from 54 to 22 kN/m2. As well, when comparing the maximum values of dry density of samples from the control site, neighboring the landfill, the average value decreased from 1.91 to 1.74 gm/cm3. Chemical tests revealed that the pH and organic matter percentages in the open dump soil samples were significantly higher than in the control site. These percentages ranged from 9.67% and 2.542% to 7.4% and 0.215%, respectively. In addition, the average value of electrical conductivity was 5.6 mS/cm in the open dump soil, whereas in the control site was 3.6 mS/cm. Iron, lead, Copper, Nickel, Chrome, Zinc, Cadmium, and Arsenic have average concentrations of 4.64%, 14.02, 44.86, 236.36, 278.36, 95.26, 2.034, and 13.84 ppm, respectively. They are higher at open landfill sites than in control site samples.
    Keywords: Landfill, Control site, Al-Sayyahia, liquid limit, Geochemistry
  • Meena Yadav *, Poonam Sharma Pages 1028-1048
    Anthropogenic activities have polluted soil and aquatic ecosystems by introducing harmful heavy metals (HMs) such as cadmium, copper, mercury, lead, manganese, nickel, zinc, and others. These HMs lead to serious health conditions in humans like cancer, skin lesions, birth defects, liver and kidney damage, and mental retardation leading to other disabilities. Conventional methods of HM remediation of contaminated soil and water include physical, chemical, biological, and integrated methods. The use of physical and chemical methods, in isolation, has been reduced in practice, owing to their negative impacts, however, work on suitable integrated approaches, and the use of organisms for HM remediation has been in steady progress since past few decades. These approaches have proved to be eco-friendly, cost-effective, and show reduced negative impacts on the environment and biota. However, there is consistent increase in anthropogenic contribution to this problem, so, to keep pace with it, more recently work is in advancement on exploiting the biological system to increase the efficiency of bioremediation, using the latest technologies such as genetic engineering and nanotechnology. This paper provides an overview of the current methods deployed to address this problem, developments made in this field in past few decades, and evokes a research thrust that might lead to novel remediation approaches in the future.
    Keywords: bioremediation, gems, microbes, nanobioremediation, Phytoremediation
  • Zahra Soltanianzadeh, Mohsen Mirmohammadi *, Mohammad Ali Zahed Pages 1049-1058
    Chemical degradation-based methods including oxidation have shown great promise for controlling benzene, toluene, ethylbenzeneandxylene isomers (BTEX) in waste gas. This study presents an approach in which the emission of BTEX compounds in a bituminous waterproofing (BW) production unit located in the city of Delijan, Iran has been controlled through process modification. The process is modified by introducing a thermal oxidation unit using an incinerator design. The process simulation has been performed with Aspen Hysys software and, key parameters in the oxidation process are identifiedandoptimized. Finally, the environmentalandeconomic performances of the incinerator were assessed to provide a decision support tool for the selection of this approach. Finally, the environmentalandeconomic performances of the incinerator have been assessed to provide a decision support tool for the selection of this approach. The results indicated that the formation of the oxidation unit had prevented the release of BTEX pollutants up to 98.5%. Moreover, the economic analysis illustrated that the rate of return on investment in the proposed project is 0.27. Thus, the potential for attracting capital will have positive impacts on the environmentalandeconomic indicators of the region.
    Keywords: Air pollution, BTEX, Thermal Oxidation, Incinerator, Cost Analysis
  • Heena Bisht, Narayan Kumar * Pages 1059-1073
    Heavy metal contamination poses grave risks to all kinds of life. The fastest growing automotive, electroplating, and battery industries release the most common heavy metal, Nickel, into the environment, which has lethal impacts on human health. Our research aims to find Ni-resistant bacteria in the metal-contaminated soil that have a great potential for removing Ni from the environment. Attempts have been made to extract and characterize Ni-resistant bacteria from automobile and electroplating industry waste-contaminated soil using serial dilution, streak plating, and various morphological, biochemical, and genetic techniques. The maximum tolerable concentration of Ni and other heavy elements, such as cadmium, lead, and aluminium for the selected isolate, was investigated using the UV-Vis spectrophotometric method. Additionally, the bacterial strain's ability to remove Ni was assessed using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer.  The current research reveals a novel strain of Kluyvera cryocrescens that could withstand Ni, Cd, Pb, Al, and combinations of these heavy metals. The maximum tolerance concentration of K. cryocrescens M7 for Ni, Cd, Pb, and Al was found to be 150 ppm, 200 ppm, 1000 ppm, and 150 ppm, respectively. Additionally, it was also observed that the bacterial strain could remove Ni by 29.57%, 35.36%, 48.41%, 46.91%, and 44.88% after 12, 24, 48, 72, and 96 hours, respectively. The strain has also exhibited resistance to vancomycin, ampicillin, carbenicillin, and streptomycin. This research discovered a novel bacterial strain, K. cryocrescens M7 that may be beneficial for removing heavy metals, particularly Ni, from metal-contaminated soil.
    Keywords: Antibiotic resistance, bioremediation, Kluyvera cryocrescens, Metal removal, Nickel resistance
  • Soheila Azordeh, Mehdi Asadi * Pages 1074-1081
    Radiology and photography films are mainly made of silver halides, which are very sensitive to light. The developer-fixing solution reduces silver salt crystals and turns them into black metallic silver on film and a stable and clear image appears on the film. After several uses of the fixing solution, its efficiency is reduced due to the decrease in the concentration of sodium thiosulfate and finally, it cannot be used since there is not enough awareness regarding its harm, so it enters the environment through wastewater. In this study, the recovery of fixing solution waste has been investigated. The recovery of the solution waste, silver extraction, and direct synthesis of nanoparticles have been performed by chemical reduction method from the waste. The obtained samples were analyzed and studied by EDX, XRD, and SEM techniques. The results showed that the fixing solution waste and silver metal were recovered properly with a purity of 99.81%. Also, AgNPs were synthesized by chemical reduction. Recovery of the fixing solution waste -for the first time- and metallic silver, as well as the synthesis of AgNPs by chemical reduction method, is an economical method and free of any contamination.
    Keywords: recovery, Silver nanoparticles, The fixing solution, Chemical reduction, Cementation
  • Bulent Tutmez *, Osamu Komori Pages 1082-1097
    An important practice in environmental risk management is assessing the consequences of heavy metal concentrations resulting from a mine dam tailing failure on soil, water, and trees. To appraise the extent of pollution, an effective classification is essential. In this study, trace element contamination is handled as a two-group classification problem and examined the performance of supervised regularization algorithms as spatial classifiers using imbalanced uncertain data. In addition to conventional shrinkage algorithms such as Ridge, the Lasso and Elastic-Net, the generalized t-statistic-based U-Lasso classifiers have been introduced and tested for mitigating such imbalances and adjusting weights for class distributions. The feature interpretation studies underlined that the most important indicator of the models is Zinc (Zn). The experimental studies revealed that the Ridge classifier (l2 penalty) outperforms the other models. Statistically, the U-Lasso models exhibited notable explanation capacity and their performances recorded close to the conventional shrinkage algorithms. The use of statistical learning-based classification approach to appraise geo-environmental contamination under the conditions of natural variability and spatial uncertainty provides useful meta-data and reliable classification models.
    Keywords: Contamination, Tailings Dam Failure, Regularization, U-Lasso
  • Andrey Puchkov *, Anna Druzhinina, Evgeny Yakovlev, Sergey Druzhinin Pages 1098-1116
    This scientific article presents the results of studies on the distribution of natural and artificial radionuclides in fish living in the rivers of the northwestern sector of the Arctic zone of the Russian Federation. Fish sampling (about 76 kg in total) was carried out in the White Sea, in the Northern Dvina and Mezen Rivers, and in the Sukhoe Sea Bay of the Arkhangelsk Region, as well as in the rivers of the Nenets Autonomous District: Pesha, Oma, Vizhas, Nes, and Pechora. The results showed the presence of artificial radionuclides Cs-137 and Sr-90 in fish only in the Nes River of the Nenets Autonomous District. The levels of radionuclides in whole bodies perch and pike in the Nes River range from 3.73 to 14.0 Bq/kg wet weight for Cs-137 and less than 3.72 to 23.1 Bq/kg wet weight for Sr-90. In addition to Cs-137 and Sr-90, the presence of the radionuclide K-40, which is the main dose-forming radionuclide, was noted in the fish of all the studied rivers and seas. K-40 activity was in the reached values 138 Bq/kg for whole fish bodies. The only assumption that can explain the presence of artificial radionuclides in the fish of the Nes River is a possible radioactive trace formed as a result of global nuclear tests, including in the Novaya Zemlya archipelago. At the same time, it is noted that the current levels of technogenic radioactivity in fish from the Nes River do not pose a radiological hazard to the local population.
    Keywords: Fish, Pike, perch, radioactivity
  • Mikhail Silakov, Elena Sibirtsova *, Alexandra Temnykh Pages 1117-1127
    The authors propose a methodology for assessing the sources of microplastic pollution (particles 0.5-5 mm in size), which makes it possible to differentiate coastal recreational areas according to the degree of vulnerability to microplastic accumulation. The methodology takes into account the sources of microplastics coming to the beach directly from vacationers - factors of recreational activities, as well as the influence of factors of the adjacent territory: the type of adjacent territory, saturation with transport infrastructure, etc. An analysis of the results of monitoring the microplastic concentration in beach and bottom sediments of seven beaches of the Sevastopol region with varying degrees of anthropogenic load during 2018–2020, as well as an assessment of the sources of microplastic pollution on these beaches using the proposed methodology, made it possible to differentiate these coastal recreational areas according to the degree of vulnerability to accumulation of microplastic pollution. The most vulnerable are the beaches that are actively visited by tourists and located in close proximity to large blocks of apartment buildings and extensive transport infrastructure (Pesochniy and Omega). The beaches Konstantinovsky and Goryachka (placed close tothe thermal power station), located in the zone of active navigation of ships of various tonnage, are confined to areas of low and moderate pollution. The main stream of vacationers on them are local residents with a high turnover rate. The least vulnerable are the beaches with park areas: Uchkuevka, Solnechny and Zolotoy. The source of microplastic pollution on these beaches is mainly vacationers.
    Keywords: microplastics, plastic waste, monitoring, Beaches, recreational load, Black Sea
  • Samira Hosseinzadeh, Ali Asghar Aliloo *, Saleh Shahabivand, Mohammad Ghaderi Pages 1128-1139
    Fungi are successful microorganisms in the bioremediation of environmental pollution. So, this study aimed to determine the potential of Trichoderma tomentosum to remediate cadmium, lead, and nickel contaminations from potato dextrose agar (PDA) and potato dextrose broth (PDB) media. Growth rates, toxicity tolerance sporulation, bio-sorption capacity, and bio-sorption efficiency of the fungus were evaluated under different concentrations of CdCl2, Pb(NO3)2, and NiCl2. The findings demonstrated that the growth rate of the fungus differed depending on concentration, metal type, and medium. More metals in PDA medium induced more inhibition on fungus growth rates; however, the rate was independent from the heavy metals concentrations in PDB medium. Cadmium was the most toxic metal tested against T. tomentosum, with a 72h LC50 of 37 ppm. It was about 3.16 and 4.24 times as toxic as nickel and lead, respectively. In the control condition, sporulation of the fungus began at 72 hours, but under the heavy metals, it began at 168, 168, and 192 hours, respectively, for Pb, Ni, and Cd. Both the bio-sorption capacity and efficacy of the fungus were significantly enhanced by an increase in metal content and the highest values were obtained at 200 ppm of the salts. The heavy metals total bio-sorption capacity order was Ni < Cd < Pb in the aqueous medium. The conclusion was that T. tomentosum has a greater potential for the biosorption of heavy metals; hence, the fungus may be employed for the bioremediation of heavy metals from polluted sites, particularly wastewater and industrial influents.
    Keywords: bioremediation, fungi, Heavy metals, Pollution
  • Ali Hussein, Rukia Dosh, Ali Abojassim * Pages 1140-1149
    AGIS method based on spatial autocorrelation analysis used to identification and ranking of thoron (220Rn)concentration. Spatial radiation patterns are analyzed using Moran's I statistic. Getis-Ord Gi* is utilized to locate clusters of high and low measurements and create a map of thoron hot spots. One hundred schools in the center of Najaf City were examined for thoron using CR-39 detectors (produced from Track Analysis Systems Ltd., UK)  for this research. Average thoron levels were 2.99 Bq/m3, with a range of 9.00 Bq/m3 to 0.22 Bq/m3. The radiation levels found in this investigation were significantly lower than the UNSCEAR 2000 safety standards of 40 Bq/m3. Moran's, I have used it to analyze the clustering of districts across a research region and to measure the spatial distribution of data. Getis-Ord Gi* statistics were used to identify cold and hot spots within the research area. Thoron concentrations were shown to have insignificant spatially random distribution patterns, as demonstrated by Global Moran's I. (Moran’s I =0.28, p-value=0.24).
    Keywords: Hot spot, GIS, CR-39, Thoron, Iraqi school
  • Mahmud Reza Abbasi * Pages 1150-1161
    Predicting the path of pollution in the marine area is one of the most important concerns for those involved in environmental studies. In this paper, we have discussed the capabilities of using the data assimilation method in the FVCOM numerical model in forecasting the movement path of a surface drifter in the Strait of Hormuz. Initially, the FVCOM model was implemented for particle tracking by using environmental data in the Strait of Hormuz. Then tidal gages data of the Strait of Hormuz were assimilated in the numerical model using the nudging method. The results of the two runs were compared with field measurements data using statistical parameters such as bias and correlation coefficient. Statistical analysis and visual comparisons depicted the ability of data assimilation in optimizing the model water level outputs and reducing the differences between drifter location and model results and also the rate of the distance between them.
    Keywords: Strait of Hormuz, Particle tracking, FVCOM, Nudging
  • Mohamed Soliman *, Mohamed Rashed, Mohamed Soltan Pages 1162-1173
    Domestic and industrial wastewater contributed to some urban wastewater, which requires specific processing before being disposed into surface waters or reused for irrigation. This paper aimed to employ kaolin as an adsorbent to remove heavy metals from wastewater, as well as aeration and alum to remove nutrients. Experiment were conducted in three parts: first, involved using the aeration method to determine the ideal amount of time to remove or minimize the nutrients. Second, involves treating the solution with potassium alum using various alum doses at the obvious times to eliminate or minimize the nutrients, while third step involves treating the solution with kaolin ore with a size of < 63 µm at various doses, pH, and contact times to remove heavy metals. The findings showed that the aeration method completely removed CO3, OH, PO4, NO3, Ca, and Mn ions after contact time equal 120, 24, 192, 24, 120, and 48 hrs, respectively. Applaying alum treatment method can remove completely CO3, OH, PO4, NO3, and Mn, after contact time 120, 24, 120, 24, and 24 hrs, respectively. When Kaolin ore used as adsorbent, the removal efficiency of  Fe, Cd, Cr, Cu, Sr, Mn, and Zn were; 92, 100, 100, 100, 94, 100, and 88 % ,respectively in 24 hours contact time. The experiment succeeds in treatment of industrial wastewater that was within the range of specified limitations for disposing into surface water or reuse in irrigation field as stated by Egyptian standard code using the three successive treatment techniques.
    Keywords: Adsorption, Industrial Wastewater, Adsorbents, Isotherm, Langmiur
  • Harida Samudro, Ganjar Samudro, Sarwoko Mangkoedihardjo * Pages 1174-1189
    Efficiency of environmental resources is one of the goals of the sustainable development of a building and its sanitation. Sanitation efficiency was sought through hybrid offsite system, which was a decentralization of sanitation services. This study proposed a hybrid onsite system combining phytoarchitecture and phytosanitation, which empowers renewable building plants to improve resource efficiency, as well as sustainable building environmental health. Based on various empirical studies on sanitation management in rural and urban areas in many places, this retrospective study identified three wastewater disposal efficiencies. It was through quantity distribution, environmental media in which the greywater could be discharged, and quality treatment. The results marked the feasibility of wastewater services for greywater treatment, which served at least 75% of the wastewater quantity. Its main contribution was related to the distribution of discharge to all environmental media, and the improvement of the quality of greywater at its disposal. Building plants could be used for hybrid onsite system, thereby making these plants multifunctional to maintain the quality of the building environment. This hybrid onsite phytosanitation system covered various feasibility features compared to other existing systems. Implementation was flexible for new provisions and adaptation to existing systems for both urban and rural areas. Thus, the service maintained sustainable buildings and environmental health.
    Keywords: environment, plants, Renewable, Resources efficiency, Sanitation management
  • Hanye Jafari Vafa, Ahmad Ali Pourbabaee *, Hossein Ali Alikhani, Najmeh Yazdanfar, Majid Khanali Pages 1190-1207
    Petroleum contains carcinogens and toxic substances that can have an unfavorable impact on environmental quality and human health when the soil becomes contaminated with crude oil.  BBiostimulation and bioaugmentation are the main strategies in the bioremediation of oil-contaminated soils. To decompose old-aged petroleum pollution in saline soil, a full factorial experiment was utilized. The experiment was designed using a completely randomized design with four factors: bacterial inoculum, sugarcane bagasse, chemical fertilizer, and molasses. The application of these factors was conducted in four separate experiments: pretreatment of agricultural soil and spent mushroom compost, pretreatment of spent mushroom compost, pretreatment of agricultural soil, and no pretreatment. After a 60-day incubation period at 28 ˚C, the results showed that the organic wastes of molasses and spent mushroom compost in combination with bacterial inoculum reduced total petroleum hydrocarbons 38 and 33.3%, respectively. Molasses had a considerable impact on increasing the efficiency of bacterial inoculum 1 and bacterial inoculum 3. Similarly, spent mushroom compost was found to significantly affect bacterial inoculum 1. In addition, bagasse was observed to accelerate the bioremediation process by improving the physical conditions of the soil. In the pretreatment of agricultural soil, bagasse in combination with bacterial inoculum 1 and chemical fertilizer reduced the total petroleum hydrocarbons significantly (38%) compared to the control treatment. These results highlight the effectiveness of organic wastes as biostimulation agents in promoting the growth and reproduction of the soil microbial community, as well as establishing the bacterial inoculum.
    Keywords: Petroleum pollution, Biostimulation, Bioaugmentation, Organic Wastes, molasses
  • Kalpana Rajouriya, Stuti Dubey, Shailendra Singh, Tulika Tripathi, Rini John, Ajay Taneja * Pages 1208-1224
    Real-time monitoring of Black Carbon and Particulate Matter was done by Aerosol Black Carbon Detector (ABCD) and GRIMM portable aerosol Spectrometer in Agra at five different locations (R1, R2 traffic and R3, R4, R5 residential road sites). Major portion of PM mass was contributed by PM10 followed by PM2.5 and PM1.0. Major portion of PM in number mode is contributed by PM10=PM0.25 followed by PM5.0 =PM0.5, PM1.0, and PM2.5. All the PMs mass and number concentration was highly associated with the R1 site due to the vehicular and other anthropogenic activities and was least at R5 except for PM10. The highest concentration of BC was found at R2 site followed by R1 while During the sampling events NO2 and O3 was found highest at R2 site followed by R1. The source of BC, PMs, NO2, O3 at R1& R2 may be vehicular activities, population activities, crowded area, and industrial activities. BC contribution in PM1.0 was highest followed by PM2.5. The children category in the traffic site has high PM deposition mass visualization as compared to the residential road site so they are highly affected by lung diseases instead of the residential road site children category. From health risk assessment results, it was found that no population was at non-carcinogenic risk from chronic exposure to PM10 while children may be at possible risk from acute exposure. However, cancerous risk assessment showed that both children and adult were at risk from exposure of PM2.5 and may develop cancerous diseases.
    Keywords: particulate matter, Black Carbon, O3, MPPD, health risk assessment
  • Azadeh Nochalabadi, Hassan Morovvati *, Rahim Abdi Pages 1225-1235
    Most tilapias are microphytes, but some prefer higher plants. Ammonia is one of the most important toxic compounds of nitrogen, which is a serious problem in the environment and aquaculture industry. In the present study, juvenile Oreochromis niloticus were exposed to 10, 20, and 30% (96h LC50) of ammonia for two weeks, which are equivalent to 0.9, 1.8, and 2.7 mg / l, respectively. After this period, the fish were anesthetized and blood samples were taken from the caudal stalk with a heparin syringe for evaluating blood indicators. The tissue samples were taken 0.5 cm from the liver, fixed in 10% formalin buffer, and after dehydration with alcohol, clarification with xylol, blocking with paraffin, and cutting 4-6 microns thick with microtome were done. Finally, the stained slides were studied with a light microscope. The results showed phenomena such as hyperemia, nuclear hypertrophy, sinusoidal dilatation, increased melanomacrophage centers, nucleus margination, hepatocyte vacuolation, and cell necrosis in the liver. In the studies of blood serum factors with the increase of ammonia, it has been increased in  AST, ALT, and ALP compared to the control and other groups. Also, as the ammonia concentration increased, the severity of the lesions also increased. Therefore, ammonia causes changes in the structure and activity of metabolic enzymes of the liver, which must be controlled by creating the appropriate ammonia and management conditions in the aquatic environment.
    Keywords: histomorphometry, ammonia, Oreochromis niloticus, Liver, Concentrations
  • Tatiana Del Castillo De Loayza, Ingrid Maldonado, Franz Zirena Vilca * Pages 1236-1250
    The Huatanay River in Cusco-Peru, is affected by wastewater discharges along its course. In order to evaluate this impact, we evaluate antibiotic residues and their impact on the increase of bacterial resistance in the city of Cusco treatment plant. For this purpose, water samples from the influent and effluent of the treatment plant were analyzed by chromatographic methods; additionally, sensitivity tests were performed with three bacterial strains (Escherichia coli, Salmonella sp., and Klebsiella sp.), which were isolated from the same place. Six antibiotic residues were identified (ceftriaxone, amoxicillin, trimethoprim, sulfamethoxazole, dicloxacillin, and lincomycin). Those found in the highest concentration were: amoxicillin (91495 and 0 µg/L) and lincomycin (33970 and 10800 µg/L) in the influent and effluent, respectively. There is more resistance in the effluent than the influent in the case of E. coli shows resistance in the effluent to cephalexin (30 µg) and azithromycin (15 µg). Salmonella sp. is resistant to amoxicillin (15 µg), dicloxacillin (1 µg), lincomycin (2 µg), ceftriaxone (30 µg), cephalexin (30 µg), and ciprofloxacin (5 µg). Finally, Klebsiella sp. is sensitive to ceftriaxone (30 µg), amoxicillin (15 µg), and cephalexin (30 µg). This confirms that the antibiotic residues contained in the wastewater of Cusco generate resistance in the isolated bacteria.
    Keywords: Bacteria resistance, chromatography, Emerging pollutants, Environmental Health, Pollution, Solid phase xtraction, Wastewater
  • Naba Kumar Mondal *, Prateeti Roy, Kamalesh Sen, Arghadip Mondal, Priyanka Debnath Pages 1251-1272
    Elevated level of fluoride (> 1.0 mg/L) in drinking water leads to both dental and skeletal fluorides. Present research is dedicated to check the efficacy of duck shell dust towards removal of fluoride. Various analytical tools (XRF, XRD, SEM-EDAX and zero point charge) were used to characterize the present adsorbent. The entire batch mode study results were further optimized by Response Surface Methodology (RSM). The results revealed that Langmuire isotherm is best fitted (R2 = 0.819) with adsorption capacity 4.894 mg/g. However, kinetic study suggest that the fluoride adsorption followed pseudo-second-order kinetic equation (R2 = 0.956). Similarly, thermodynamic study revealed that the fluoride adsorption by duck shell dust is endothermic and entropy driven process. Finally, optimization study demonstrated the optimized condition such as initial concentration, adsorbent dose, contact time and pH are 89.29 mg/L, 1.112 g/100 mL, 42.5 min and 9.91, respectively. Therefore, it may be concluded that duck shell dust could be a promising adsorbent for decontamination of fluoride from contaminated body.
    Keywords: Dental, skeletal fluorosis, Egg shell, Batch study, Optimization, Regeneration
  • Iman Tajfar, Maryam Pazoki *, Abolghasem Pazoki, Niloofar Nejatian, Mohammadjavad Amiri Pages 1273-1280
    Hydrothermal carbonization is a thermal technique that offers numerous environmental benefits, particularly in managing solid waste streams by decomposing the raw materials of solid wastes and converting them into the renewable source of energy known as hydro-char. This study evaluates the heating value of hydro-char produced through the hydrothermal carbonization of cigarette butts, taking into account influential factors such as time, temperature, and pressure, as well as its benefits and economic implications, using a novel approach involving simulations aimed at reducing the number of required tests, saving time, and cutting costs.The range of 150 to 350 oC for temperature and 30 to 240 minutes for reaction time were considered and resulted in a thermal value range of 15.94 to 23.12 MJ/Kg for hydro-char, which makes its heat value greater than lignite coal and within the range of bituminous coal. The findings also indicated that temperature and time have a direct impact on the heat value, with time being the more influential factor, although high temperatures can expedite the reaction rate and should not be disregarded. Finally, the economic analysis of the project was conducted using the NPV method, which demonstrated that the viability of this method depends on the cost of coal, making it a promising alternative for accessing new and cost-effective fuel resources while considering environmental benefits. Besides, this study highlights the potential of hydrothermal carbonization as a viable and advantageous method for producing fuel resources from biomass and organic waste, and provides quantitative and comparable evidence of the applicability and benefits of the proposed hydrothermal carbonization methodology in comparison to conventional methods.
    Keywords: Hydrothermal carbonization, thermal value, Hydro char, Cigarette butts
  • Zeynab Golhosseini, Mahdi Jalili Ghazizade *, Edwin Safari Pages 1281-1294
    Clogging of the drainage layer is the main reason for the inefficiency and failure of the leachate collection system in municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills. One of the most important challenges in the design and operation of landfills is to identify the factors affecting the drainage layer clogging and the extent of their influence especially in the real scale. In this study, five experimental columns were designed to investigate the effective factors on the clogging of the drainage system in the MSW landfills, making it possible to measure the effect of different parameters on the drainage layer clogging through simulating the real conditions. The designed columns are capable to apply the boundary conditions of the MSW landfill including temperature, pressure, and leachate recirculation as well as measuring the permeability of drainage layer. High strength real leachate recirculated in the experimental columns to monitor the degree of drainage layer clogging through the regular measurement of permeability in the different columns. The results showed hydraulic conductivity of the drainage layer decreased between 20 to 50 percent in different samples over time. Although the particle size of drainage materials directly influences the reduction of hydraulic conductivity, the common concentration of calcium carbonate in the materials of the drainage layer does not considerably affect this issue. Formation of biofilm in the drainage layer was observed through scanning electron microscope (SEM) and visual inspection in all columns indicating the proper performance of clogging process simulator which is designed and developed in this research.
    Keywords: Drainage layer clogging, High strength leachate, Landfill simulation, Permeability