فهرست مطالب

Pollution - Volume:10 Issue: 1, Winter 2024

Volume:10 Issue: 1, Winter 2024

  • تاریخ انتشار: 1402/11/24
  • تعداد عناوین: 44
  • Kalyani Debnath, Piyali Debnath, Sudipa Choudhury *, Apu Saha, Abhijit Majumdar Pages 1-16
    Decision-making under uncertainty refers to a dilemma when a decision-maker is aware of a variety of potential natural states but lacks adequate information to assign any probabilities of occurrence to them. The uncertainty related to the input parameters is one of the main issues in the majority of decision-making situations. Uncertainty may produce some irrational results, which could make the decision-making process even more challenging. To overcome this challenge, a fuzzy extension of Best-Worst Method (BWM) has been proposed, using trapezoidal fuzzy sets, to combine the advantages of a reduced number of pair-wise comparisons and easy handling of ambiguity. The criteria and alternatives have been evaluated by the proposed Trapezoidal Fuzzy Best-Worst Method (TrFBWM), where the weight of each element is represented by a Trapezoidal Fuzzy Number (TrFN). To verify the coherence of judgment, the consistency ratio is evaluated for TrFBWM. The proposed method is then applied to the location selection of a water treatment plant along the bank of the Brahmaputra river in Assam. The obtained results are compared to one previous work and found that the outcomes of the proposed method indicate a good agreement with that. The outcomes of the study provide useful insights for selecting a suitable location for a surface water treatment plant which can also be extended to other service facilities.
    Keywords: Fuzzy best-worst method, Trapezoidal fuzzy number, Multi-criteria Decision-making, Surface water treatment plant
  • Yousef Nikfard, Gholamreza Nabi Bidhandi *, Alireza Pardakhti Pages 17-31
    Water is vital for human survival and has been instrumental in the development of ancient civilizations worldwide. However, in the modern era, humanity grapples with the pressing issues of environmental crisis and the depletion of natural resources. To address these challenges, it is crucial to embrace sustainable practices in land and resource management, ensuring the responsible use of natural resources while safeguarding the needs of future generations. The Finsk Dam, situated on the Sefidroud River, fulfills the vital purpose of providing potable water to the cities of Semnan, Mahdishahr, Sorkheh, and Shahmirzad. Moreover, it also caters to the requirements of downstream aquifers and environmental needs concerning drinking water development. As the Finsk Dam exceeds a height of 15 meters, it qualifies as a large dam according to the International Committee on Large Dams (ICOLD). Consequently, a comprehensive evaluation of its diverse environmental aspects assumes paramount importance. Despite the projections of regional development, the construction of the dam possesses the potential to yield adverse environmental effects within the region. To address this concern, the evaluation matrix method, as endorsed by ICOLD, was employed to scrutinize the various stages of the dam's construction and operation while assessing its environmental aspects. Following technical reviews, the third option emerged as the most suitable location for the dam's construction among the four available alternatives. Additionally, three distinct pipeline routes were identified and evaluated for the transportation of water from the dam to the Semnan province, with the second option being deemed the most appropriate choice.
    Keywords: Finsk Dam, ICOLD matrix, Sefidroud river, Semnan
  • Eniola Ismail Muhibbu-Din *, Heekmah Oiza Jimoh, David Pelumi Kehinde, Ifeoluwa Agnes Tinuoye Pages 32-44
    The application of the electro-coagulation process to the identified contaminated groundwater at Abala community, a suburb of Ilorin metropolis in Kwara state, Nigeria, is the subject of this study. The groundwater samples were electro-coagulated in a batch reactor of 2.5L containing 1 litre volume of contaminated groundwater for 1 hour per run using a DC power supply ranging from 10v to 20v at constant current 5amp and 2amp to 6amp at constant voltage 10v using graphite electrodes. The results revealed that electro-coagulation process can reduce turbidity, TDS, Electrical Conductivity, BOD, TOC, COD, and color by 97.3 %, 91.2 %, 91.1 %, 96 %, 99.7%, 99.7%, 79.9%, and 82.96 %, respectively. Through Atomic Absorption spectroscopy analytical study, the process also shows removal efficiency of Manganese, Iron, and Zinc of 82.96 percent, 70.0 percent, and 95.30 percent, respectively. The outcome of the electro-coagulation process met the World Health Organization (WHO), the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), and the Water Environment Partnership In Asia (WEPA) criteria for both drinking water and general industrial wastewater discharge guidelines. The electro-coagulation treatment for contaminated groundwater was efficient and effective, therefore it is recommended in this study for Nigerians.
    Keywords: Process Cost, Raw Well Water, Operation Parameter, Laboratory scale
  • Reagan Agbor *, Eno Asuquo, Ettah Ivon, Simon Ellen Pages 45-62
    Environmental pollution has posed a major threat to terrestrial, aquatic, and marine ecosystems, thereby affecting microflora and micro-fauna populations. This study assessed the growth attributes of maize plants on crude oil-polluted soils amended with agro-wastes. Six kilograms each of composite soil sample was weighed and transferred into one hundred and fifty labeled plastic buckets with drainage holes for soil aeration and spiked with 300mls each of crude oil, allowing for 14 days of soil acclimatization. Soil amendments such as groundnut husks, cassava peels, empty fruit bunch of oil palm, and maize cob powder were applied and allowed for 90 days. Maize seeds were sowed, while periodic data were collected and subjected to a three-way ANOVA. The result obtained revealed that maize seeds grown on agro-wastes treated and pristine control soils show early seed germination than the crude oil-polluted control soil. The plant height obtained for GnH14P + MaC14P at 10% was the highest with a mean (of 152.81cm2), and the leaf area of the maize from soil treated with GnH14P + EFBOP14P at 10% had the highest mean (756cm2), the leaf length of maize from soil treated with GnH14P + CasP14P at 3%, 6%, and 10% was the highest with mean ranging (54-97 cm2) with no significant difference in mean values obtained. The stem girth, number of leaves, and leaf width were generally improved in the bio-remediated soils. The result for the yield performance of maize shows that the days to flowering were shortened in the bio-remediated soil compared to the prolonged flowering days observed in the crude-oil polluted control. The number of seeds per cob was high in the bio-remediated soils while no seed was obtained in the crude-oil-polluted control soils. It can be concluded that the ameliorated treatment with the agro-wastes improves the performance of maize plants in crude oil-polluted soils.
    Keywords: soil, hydrocarbons, maize, Agro-wastes, bioremediation
  • Raghad Shubbar Jaafar *, Ahmed Yousif Hammood Pages 63-72
    The objective of the present study was to prepare CuFe2O4 ferrite nanoparticles using the sol-gel combustion method, employing lemon juice as a surfactant and energy agent. This method is located within the green chemistry, representing an environmentally friendly and less expensive approach compared to other methods. The nanoparticles were subsequently evaluated as antibacterial agents against different pathogenic bacteria. Before the antibacterial assays, a cytotoxicity test was conducted to evaluate their safety when applied to organisms. The structural, morphological, elemental composition, and magnetic properties of the samples were analyzed using Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Field Emission-Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM), and Energy Dispersive X-Ray Detection (EDX). The X-ray diffraction patterns confirmed both the phase purity and the particle size to be 24.27 nm. The results demonstrated that the CuFe2O4 nanoparticles exhibited substantial antibacterial activity against both Gram-negative bacteria (Sphingomonas paucimobilis) and Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus lentus and Bacillus subtilis). The antibacterial efficacy was more pronounced against Gram-negative bacteria, with inhibition diameter 5.46mm and 10.64mm at concentrations of 5000 ppm and 10000 ppm, respectively. When making a comparison, the effectiveness against Gram-positive bacteria displayed a slight reduction. Inhibition zones measured 2.76 mm and 8.33 mm for Staphylococcus lentus, while they were 3.58 mm and 5.35 mm for Bacillus subtilis. These measurements were observed at nanoparticle concentrations of 5000 ppm and 10000 ppm, respectively. Furthermore, the study confirmed the safety of the CuFe2O4 nanoparticles by assessing their toxicity on human red blood cell at different concentrations (50, 100,250,500,1000,5000, and 10000 ppm).
    Keywords: Green chemistry, antimicrobial properties, Cytotoxic effects, Nanocomposites
  • Erkan Uğurlu *, Levent Cenk Kumruoğlu Pages 73-89
    The aim of this study was to determine by SEM-EDS analysis of the surface morphologies of the periostracum and nacreous layer and to determine the sodium (Na), Strontium (Sr), manganese (Mn), potassium (K), titanium (Ti), iron (Fe), magnesium (Mg), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), chromium (Cr), zinc (Zn) and nickel (Ni) metals levels in the shells of the mussel (Potomida semirugata, Unio terminalis, Anodonta pseudodopsis and Leguminaia wheatleyi) obtained from Gölbaşı Lake, Turkey. The results of the study, the representative SEM analysis and corresponding EDS spectra of the periostracum and nacreous layer of the shells of freshwater mussels confirmed the presence of elemental compositions, including CaCO3. P. semirugata and U. terminalis have the aragonite prismatic layer that shows typical polygonal organizing, regular and polygonal crystal forms, with hexagonal and coexisting rhombic shapes. However, while A. pseudodopsis has round aragonite crystals (Rc), L. wheatleyi has irregular crystal plate layers (Irc). CaCO3, detected strong Ca peaks as well as C and O peaks with Mg and Si peaks. On the other hand, sodium (Na) was found in the highest concentrations ranging from 82.30±0.040 to 155.37±0.050 μg/g, and its concentrations were also higher than those of other metals in all species. The most abundant elements in shells of four freshwater mussel’s species were Sr, Na, and Mn which ranged from 26.07±0.44-58.023±0.52 μg/g, 82.30±0.040-155.37±0.050 μg/g, and 6.06±0.044-9.66±0.053 μg/g respectively. To our knowledge, this is the first study in Turkey that is researched the different four freshwater mussel species in the Gölbaşı Lake, Turkey.
    Keywords: Freshwater mussel, shell structure, Unio, SEM-EDS, CaCO3
  • Deswati Deswati *, Rahmiana Zein, Intan Bunda, Adewirli Putra, Suparno Suparno Pages 90-103
    Salt produced from seawater evaporation contains harmful microplastics (MP). For this reason, a technology that can remove MP from seawater using coagulation and filtration techniques is needed. The purpose of this study is to utilize alum as a coagulant and sand as a filtration media to reduce MP pollution in seawater as a source of raw material for salt making. Seawater from Buo Bay, Padang City, Indonesia was taken as raw material for salt production. The MP abundance of salt made from seawater without alum and sand treatment was found to be 400 particles/kg. To reduce the abundance of MP in the salt, we varied the alum concentration (0.1; 0.3; and 0.5 g/L) and sand particle size (≥2, ≥1-<2, and <1 mm). From the results obtained, the optimal condition is an alum concentration of 0.5 g/L and sand particle size is <1 mm. The optimal condition of salt made from seawater in treatment H obtained MP abundance from 400 particles/kg to 30 particles/kg with an MP reduction efficiency of 92.5%. Visual analysis using optical trinocular microscopy found 4 forms of MP, namely: fragments (51.13%), fibers (28.95%), films (15.41%), and pellets (4.05%). Rewith the most dominant MP size found was >100-300 µm. The results of ATR-FTIR analysis identified the types of MP as Polyethylene (14.28%), Polyethylene Terephthalate (42.85%), Polypropylene (14.28%), and Polyamide (28.57%).
    Keywords: Alum, ATR-FTIR, Coagulation, sand filtration, and microplastics
  • Tahmineh Zahedifar, Hassan Darabi * Pages 104-118
    Urban morphology impacts micro-climates, solar energy absorption, air flow, wind patterns, energy consumption, and air pollution concentration. Temperature control in public spaces reduces heat island formation, while ventilation corridors potentially improve air quality. However, despite the literature on airflow and urban tall buildings providing valuable insights, further research is needed to understand the complex relationship between airflow patterns and urban high-rise buildings. This research should consider factors such as landscape types, building height, density, and orientation. This research aims to examine airflow patterns in high-rise buildings that are influenced by nearby land use, which can impact ventilation and climate comfort. To investigate these objectives, we utilized the Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI) and Predicted Mean Vote Index (PMV) by conducting simulations using ENVI-met software. The results revealed that buildings with narrower widths have better wind warded front conditions, while those with an unfavorable wind angle or a narrow facade are less comfortable. Public spaces that face the wind benefit from improved ventilation. It is essential to consider the optimal arrangement, ventilation, and height of buildings to ensure the favorable airflow. Factors such as the placement of trees, the use of porous walls, water features such as fountains and sprinklers, and the local climate all contribute to creating better wind conditions. Investigating the reciprocal interaction between the landscape, high-rise buildings, and climate comfort could be considered in future research.
    Keywords: Wind Speeds, Air Quality, Heat Islands, Urban morphology, Building Height
  • Ouezna Mechouet *, Alieddine Foudil Bouras, Noureddine Benaissa, Yasmine Ait Hamadouche, Fatima Zohra Haddad, Alexandru Dimache Pages 119-133
    Water and sediments have become a major threat. Heavy metals, some of which are potentially toxic, are distributed in different areas by different routes. Tafna river was studied upstream and downstream under contrasting hydrological conditions during the year 2020.The different levels and sources of pollution are assessed by combining geochemical indicators: geoaccumulation index (GI-go), contamination factor (CF), pollutant loading index (PLI) and supplemented by correlation matrix (CM) as statiscal analyses added principal component analysis (PCA). The elements analysed were physical and chemical parameters (pH, DO, electrical conductivity CE and, COD BOD5), and the metallic elements (Fe, Cd, Pb, Cu, Mn and Zn). They were classified based on how contaminated they were: for the water compartment (Fe> Mn>Cu>Pb>Cd>Zn), while for sediments (Zn> Pb>Fe>Cd>Cu >Mn). The results suggest that the chemical composition of the waters of the Tafna river is influenced by the lithology, which contributes to the enrichment of the sediments. All of the indicators suggest an average levels of sediment and water pollution at the Tafna's summit, then decreases towards the bottom due to the geomorphology with multiple sources of pollution. As a result, our study offers the first comprehensive information on the amount of heavy metals present in the riverbed's sediment and water.
    Keywords: chemical analysis, metallic elements, pollution. Tafna, river
  • Hadi Salari *, Ali Zeraatkar Moghaddam Pages 134-150
    Removing environmental pollutants and preserving the environment is an important issue and many efforts have been made in this regard in recent years. In the present work, chromate ions were removed from aqueous solutions by ZnO/CuO acting as both adsorbent and catalyst. Metal oxide fabrication from metal organic framework is one of the most important and interesting scientific issues for the synthesis of high surface area materials. Here, we demonstrate ZnO/CuO synthesis from bimetallic Zn-Cu metal-organic framework (Zn(50)-Cu(50)-BTC) using temperature-programmed oxidation method. The adsorptive and catalytic removal procedure were optimized in terms of its batch efficiency using experimental designs. The effect of hole scavenger type was investigated, and the relationships between the effective important removal procedure parameters and chromate removal efficiency were analyzed through the response surface methodology (RSM) based on central composite design (CCD). The correlation coefficient (R2) and F values were 0.9883 and 74.81, respectively. Finally, simplex non-linear optimization was carried out and the optimal pH, ZnO/CuO amount and contact time were determined to be 2, 20 mg, and 17.5 min. Under these conditions, the predicted removal efficiency of 50 ppm chromate at a 95% confidence level was 98.1 ± 2.4%, which was very close to the recorded response (i.e. 99.4 ± 1.9%). The kinetic and isothermal profiles of the proposed ZnO/CuO, were thoroughly investigated under optimal conditions. The adsorption isotherm follow the Langmuir model and kinetics were found to be pseudo-second-order.
    Keywords: Chromate removal, Synergism, Metal organic framework
  • Nurfairunnajiha Ridzuan *, Nevil Wickramathilaka, Uznir Ujang, Suhaibah Azri Pages 151-167
    Monitoring and managing environmental problems, particularly those impacting human health such as noise and air pollution, are essential. However, the current implementation has certain limitations that need improvement. In the case of noise pollution, accurately computing noise levels requires considering traffic noise propagating in all directions, necessitating the involvement of a 3D building model. Existing methods using raster cells and noise contours are insufficient in achieving high accuracy. To overcome this, we propose integrating a voxelisation approach and 3D kriging, enabling the depiction of traffic noise values for each voxel. In the context of air pollution, wind movement plays a significant role in the dispersion of contaminants. The current practice involves a random selection procedure for wind simulation within the model discretisation. However, we suggest replacing this randomness with a voxel-based model, which not only improves accuracy but also reduces computing time. Thus, the voxel-based model represents the building model in a wind computation environment, facilitating more realistic wind simulation results. This study demonstrates the applicability of the voxelisation technique in two different environmental modeling contexts using the building model of the city building modeling standard. The level of detail (LoD) in the represented building model differs between these approaches. For traffic noise, a low LoD (LoD1) is sufficient to depict exterior buildings accurately. However, for wind simulation, a higher LoD (LoD2) is necessary to accommodate the complexity of buildings and determine appropriate voxel sizes. In conclusion, the proposed improvements in the form of voxel-based modeling techniques offer enhanced accuracy and efficiency in environmental monitoring. The findings of this study have implications for improving the management and reduction of environmental problems, ultimately benefiting human health and well-being.
    Keywords: Computational Fluid Dynamics, Three-Dimensional Modelling, Traffic Noise, Voxelisation, Wind Simulation
  • Paul Lalremruot Pakhuongte, Mahalakshmi Velrajan * Pages 168-182
    Conventional remediation techniques have become outdated and insufficient to treat the influx of pollution from different fronts (air, water, and soil). Green synthesis of nanoparticles is an eco-friendly approach to remediate these contaminants and Membrane technology is increasingly becoming popular for the treatment of wastewater due to their efficiency and versatility against a wide array of contaminants. Cellulose acetate (CA) is a polymer obtained from cellulose and hence considered biodegradable, making it a more environmentally friendly option over other conventional polymers. In this present study, silver nanoparticles were synthesized using Staphylococcus aureus and characterized by UV-vis Spectrometer, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis (EDAX). The synthesized green silver nanoparticles were assimilated onto synthesized CA membrane films to fabricate nanocomposite membranes (CA-X, CA-X1 and CA-X2). EDAX results showed higher counts of silver at 3keV on the CA-X, confirming that silver nanoparticles were properly embedded on the membrane. Physio-chemical tests performed on the collected sewage, showed that the total dissolved solids (TDS) were found to decrease significantly during the first hour of treatment, CA-X1 showed 16.2% decrease and 21.95% decrease was observed by CA-X2. A decrease in total nitrogen content by 38.88% and 41.36% for CA-X1 and CA-X2 respectively was recorded after a week’s treatment. Therefore, the work displayed the capability of cellulose acetate nanocomposite membrane for leachate treatment, since it displayed its potential in remediating leachate in a short span of time and scalability could be achieved for a larger volume of leachate with larger nanocomposite membranes.
    Keywords: nanoparticles, Green Synthesis, nanocomposite membrane, cellulose acetate membrane, leachate
  • Radisya Ikhsan, Novi Sari *, Achmad Fahmi, Didik Triwibowo, Hanifullah Habibie, Dodik Choiron, Dwi Hastuti Pages 183-200
    Paringin District is one of the coal mining areas in South Kalimantan with the exploitation method of open pit mining. This activity opens rock layers containing sulfur, reacting with water and oxygen, spreading sulfide acid into the environment. Analysis of the water quality of the Post-mining Lake in Paringin District is needed based on the biological parameters. The objective aims to analyze the water quality of the Post-mining Lake, Paringin District, based on plankton’s abundance, diversity, and dominance. This research was located in Post-mining Lake, PT. Adaro Indonesia. Data were taken at three sampling points in the pit pond and three depths. Data was taken from 2019 to 2021 using plankton net and analyzed using the enumeration method. The data was processed using the diversity index, dominance index, and saprobic index. Phytoplankton and Zooplankton abundance were dependent on three different depths (p-value>0.05). The most abundant phytoplankton species in all stations was Oscillatoria sp. (>90%) while Nauplius sp. (>30%) for zooplankton. Rainfall in the study area affected the number of individual species very weakly. The highest dominance value of phytoplankton and zooplankton was recorded around the end of 2019 to early 2020 as well as a saprobic index and diversity. Crustacea class considerably exists in all sites, which is Nauplius sp. and Daphnia sp. This situation proved there was a recovery of the plankton population in the lake, no algae blooming and a balance between nutrients and plankton population. In fact, the aquatic habitats are ready to accommodate large ecosystems.
    Keywords: Diversity, Dominance, plankton, post-mining lake, saprobic index
  • Zakaria Rahal *, Abderrahmane Khechekhouche‎, Chekima Hamza‎, Ayoub Barkat‎, Smolyanichenko Alla Sergeevna‎ Pages 201-209
    This work explores the potential toxicity of agricultural waste materials, specifically date palm seeds and palm fronds, on plant growth and health. These waste materials have shown promise as bioadsorbents for water purification, but their impact on plants needs to be understood. Toxicity assessments are crucial to ensure safe utilization and prevent negative effects on agricultural systems and ecosystems. Date palm seeds and palm fronds contain chemical compounds that can have allelopathic properties and influence neighboring plant growth. Experimental methods were employed to evaluate the phytotoxic effects of these materials, including germination assays and root growth inhibition tests. The results indicate that upon adsorption of PO4, palm leaves exhibited a significant enhancement in germination, leading to a remarkable increase of up to 371%. This outcome strongly emphasizes the effectiveness of palm leaves as vegetable fertilizers, highlighting their potential in agricultural applications. These findings contribute to understanding the phytotoxic potential of agricultural waste materials and developing sustainable utilization strategies.
    Keywords: Vegetable fertilizer, Water, Toxicity, Agricultural, Germination assays
  • Mahdi Banaee *, Amir Zeidi, Caterina Faggio Pages 210-235

    Computational toxicology is a rapidly growing field that utilizes artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning (ML) to predict the toxicity of chemical compounds. Computational toxicology is an important tool for assessing the risks associated with the exposure of finfish and shellfish to environmental contaminants. By providing insights into the behavior and effects of these compounds, computational models can help to inform management decisions and protect the health of aquatic ecosystems and the humans who depend on them for food and recreation. In aqua-toxicology research, Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship (QSAR) models are commonly used to establish the relationship between chemical structures and their aquatic toxicity. Various ML algorithms have been developed to construct QSAR models, including Random Forest (RF), Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs), Support Vector Machines (SVMs), Bayesian networks (BNs), k-Nearest Neighbor (kNN), Probabilistic Neural Networks (PNNs), Naïve Bayes, and Decision Trees. Deep learning techniques, such as Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) and Recurrent Neural Networks (RNNs), have also been applied in computational toxicology to improve the accuracy of QSAR predictions. Moreover, data mining graphs, networks and graph kernels have been utilized to extract relevant features from chemical structures and improve predictive capabilities. In conclusion, the application of artificial intelligence and machine learning in the field of computational toxicology has immense potential to revolutionize aquatic toxicology research. Through the utilization of advanced algorithms and data analysis techniques, scientists can now better understand and predict the effects of various toxicants on aquatic organisms.

    Keywords: Predictive modeling, QSPR modeling, Data integration, analysis, Toxicity prediction, classification, Data mining, knowledge discovery
  • Haider Essa *, Khalid Hussain Al-Attiyah, Anees Ali Al-Hamzawi Pages 236-247
    Radioactive pollution is caused when radioactive materials are deposited in the environment or atmosphere, particularly when their presence is inadvertent, and poses harm to the environment owing to the radioactive decay of the radioactive elements. Exposure to uranium in the workplace or environment can damage cells and increase cancer risk. Uranium, a heavy metal of the actinide family, has negative consequences due to its chemical and radioactive toxicity. The fission-track method with CR-39 evaluated the uranium content in blood samples collected from healthy persons and cancer patients. This method counted the fission tracks in a detector after the nuclear reaction. The data reveal that the lowest value in the group of people with cancer is 1.84±0.36 ppb, while the highest is 2.95±0.32 ppb. This population has an average uranium content of 2.52± 0.32 ppb. The highest result was 1.88± 0.22 ppb, while the lowest was 0.39±0.15 ppb in the healthy group. This population has a mean uranium content of 1.09±0.27 ppb. The statistics show that the uranium content in cancer patients' blood is much higher than that in the blood of healthy individuals.
    Keywords: Babylon Province, Uranium Content, CR-39, Fission Track, Human Blood
  • Khadour Said *, Sedra Moulay Brahim, El Boukili Abderrahman, Atef El-Taher Pages 248-255

    The article aims to assess radon concentration in various water samples, revealing levels ranging from 0.53 Bq/L to 4.68 Bq/L. Radon, specifically the isotope 222Rn, is a naturally occurring radioactive gas formed during the decay of the 238U decay series, originating from the breakdown of 226Ra. This gas is commonly found in rocks, soil, natural gas, and groundwater. Exposure to airborne and waterborne radon can increase the risk of certain cancers due to human radiation exposure. The primary Aim of this study was to assess the concentration of radon in water samples collected from diverse regions of Morocco, particularly the Midelt province and the Draa-Tafilalt region located at coordinates 32° 40' 48″ North, 4° 44' 24″ West. For this purpose, Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors of the LR-115 variety were used. The evaluations of annual effective dose equivalents exhibited a range spanning from 11.51 to 1.30 μSv/y, showcasing a consistent pattern of decline. Correspondingly, projections of excess lifetime cancer risk encompassed a spectrum from 4.00 to 1.98. Significantly higher risks were associated with samples S1 and S2, while notably lower risks were tied to S14 and S15. It is worth noting that all the water samples subjected to analysis registered annual effective doses that fell within the global average level recommended for ingestion exposure dose values (0.23 mSv/y) by the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation. Given these results, there seem to be no radiation risks from radon gas in the study area.

    Keywords: Radon concentration, LR-115 detectors, MIDELT region Morocco, Water samples
  • Kishwar Kumar Kachhi, Najeeb Akhter, Sher Khan Panhwar *, Imtiaz Kashani Pages 256-264
    The presence of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) gas in the muddy ecosystems is consequence of anthropogenic interference. To understand ecosystem health present study was intended to gauge H2S concentrations involved in annihilation of meiofauna and associated aquatic life from four hotspots including Manora channel, Korangi creeks, Sonmiani, and Bhambhore along the Pakistan coastal belt. Using a handheld gas detector device, it was observed that Bhambhore exhibited lower levels of H2S therefore embraces numerous benthic organisms whereas Manora channel (backwater) and Korangi creek area showed elevated level that does not allow macro-organisms to stay around. The diversity varied across locations, with Bhambhore collecting the most species of mudskippers and Manora creeks collecting the rarest. Overall result of this study reveals that H2S 5~274 ppm is alarming. The data of crabs, mudskippers, fishes, mantis shrimps, shells in relation to the environmental variables of temperature, salinity, conductivity dissolved oxygen and H2S were used to develop canonical correspondence analysis. The variability among first two components was 64.47 and 28.44%, eigenvalue (0.154, 0.068 and trace 0.239) respectively. Considering baseline findings of this study, greater efforts are required for ecosystem resilience for the sake of human health concerns.
    Keywords: H2S deposition, Biodiversity loss, consequences of rampant pollution, Coastal zone management
  • Shadi Maleki, Saeed Nazari Kudahi * Pages 265-282
    Thermal power plants are one of the main sources of CO2 emissions in the world. On the other hand, increasing carbon dioxide emissions as a greenhouse gas is led to global warming and climate change. In this study, CO2 mitigation strategies for Iran’s thermal power plants regarding Intended Nationally Determined Contributions submitted by Iran using modified STIRPAT model examines are presented. In the first step of this research, CO2 emissions from Iran’s power sector are predicted with respect to the parameters including, population, GDP, and electricity generation. In the second step of this research, CO2 mitigation strategies including, using the renewable sources and increasing energy saving as well as power generation efficiency during the years of 2020 to 2025 are analyzed using modified STIRPAT model to reduce carbon dioxide emissions in accordance with Iran’s INDCs. The prediction of carbon dioxide emissions by 2025 represents an increase of 26.5% in carbon dioxide emissions compared to 2017 while estimating carbon dioxide emissions in accordance with Iran’s INDCs allows a maximum increase of 21.4% compared to 2017. In order to reduce carbon dioxide emissions, the average efficiency of power plants by 2025 should be 1.542% higher than in 2017, or 3.086% of the energy savings should be implemented compared to total electricity generation output projected in 2025, or more than 36.22% increment of electricity generation output from renewable energy is expected compared to the projected level in 2025, or a combination of these three solutions.
    Keywords: CO2 emissions, thermal power plants, STIRPAT model, Iran’ s INDCs
  • Hadjer Badani *, Fatma Zohra Haddad, Abdelkader Elouissi Pages 283-298
    Several studies have explored the utilization of soil microorganisms, to address the environmental issues associated with glyphosate use and enhance crop yields. In our investigation, screening on Agar plate and broth medium  Luria Bertani was carried out after isolating bacterial strains from rhizospheric agricultural soil in Mascara,  Algeria, to biodegrade glyphosate, following that by testing the Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria and evaluate the effects of glyphosate on these proprieties. Our findings indicate that five bacterial strains exhibited growth in the presence of glyphosate concentrations up to 25 mg/ml, beyond this concentration the strains have developed tolerance. Following a partial examination of the 16S rRNA sequences, the bacterial strains were identified as belonging to the genus of Enterobacter. After 10 days of incubation with the glyphosate, Phosphate solubilization decreased in broth and agar Pikovskaya medium and the bacterial strains synthetized less of indole-3-acetic acid compared to the control, indicating the impact of glyphosate on these outcomes, high concentration of glyphosate inhibited nitrogen fixation, and various doses of glyphosate were found to restrict the growth of biofilms in these strains. The results of HPLC examination of secondary metabolites revealed that the primary degradation products of glyphosate in all strains were Sarcosine and Glycine. So, it seemed that the strain could both biodegrade glyphosate and use it for growth ,while also possessing rhizobacteria properties that promote plant development, enabling the use of the strains in the bioremediation of glyphosate-contaminated soils.
    Keywords: biofilm, enterobacter, Glyphosate, biodegradation, Pollution
  • Manar Hasan, Ahmad Hassan *, Israa M. Al-Tameemi, Nawar Hassan Pages 299-312
    Numerous coagulants, including natural and chemical coagulants, have been examined in the context of water purification. The use of natural coagulants constitutes an affordable and eco-friendly method of purifying water. The main aim of the current study was represented by investigated the feasibility of coagulant extracted from Castanea Sativa Tree Leaves using three different salts and distilled water. The active coagulant component was extracted using 0.25, 0.5, and 1 M of NaCl and KCl, 0.025, 0.05, and 0.1 M of NaOH, and distilled water. Powdered Castanea Sativa Tree Leaves was also used as a coagulant. Jar tests were performed using synthetic turbid water, a turbidity level of 35 NTU to investigate the coagulants’ activity. The pH was measured to study the influence of a range of different pHs, coagulant doses and initial turbidity were also investigated to optimize the coagulation process. The highest level of activity was achieved using 0.5 ml/l of coagulant extracted with 0.5 M NaCl at pH level 8. Coagulant extracted using 0.05 M NaOH demonstrated the second highest level of activity. Poor coagulant activity was observed for the powdered Castanea Sativa Tree Leaves and distilled water extract. The protein content of the extracted coagulant was 0.322, 0.283, and 0.274 mg/ml using 0.05 M NaCl, 0.5 M NaOH, and 0.5 M KCl, respectively. The use of this natural coagulant was also found to moderately increase organic matter content in the treated water, which was proportional to protein contents of the extracts. Coagulation results were statistically examined using SigmaPlot 12.5 software.
    Keywords: Coagulation, Turbidity, Castanea Sativa, Jar test
  • Bhagavat Punde, Namrata Jariwala * Pages 313-328
    Most pollutants found in rivers come from the discharge of raw sewage from both point and nonpoint sources. So, monitoring the pollution levels in surface water sources is essential. River pollution monitoring is a real challenge. Using remote sensing, precise outcomes can be achieved with the help of the selection of the right combination of satellite images and algorithms. Generally, established available algorithms are site-specific, indicating that they may not work at all areas on Earth's surface due to differences in altitude, cloud cover, and sun glint. The present work determined Chlorophyll-a concentrations in the Tapi River at various locations using Landsat-8 satellite images and Acolite software from 2017 to 2021 Period. The outcomes reveal that applying the dark spectrum fitting with sun glint correction when processing Landsat-8 satellite images is needed. In the present study, water quality results were obtained very precisely for the months of January, February, November, and December after processing and analysing satellite images. Due to factors such as sun glare, cloud cover, cloud shadow, and haze, the desired effect could not be achieved in the remaining months of the study period. This research provides a solid foundation for estimating the impact of eutrophication in the water body by estimating chlorophyll-a concentration from satellite images.
    Keywords: Acolite Software, Eutrophication, Remote-sensing, River-Pollution
  • Tapas Roy, Anupam Mondal, Naba Kumar Mondal * Pages 329-347
    Cong-red dye is a precursor of various products of cotton industry and its toxicity in the aquatic environment is a great concern. Present study was highlighted on the efficacy of the fish scale char (FSC) towards removal of congo red from aqueous solution. The prepared FSC was characterized by zero point charge (pHZPC), scanning electron micrograph with elemental analysis (SEM-EDX) and fourier transform infrared (FTIR). Based in the equilibrium and kinetic study, the Langmuir (R2 = 0.967) and Pseudo-second-order (R2 = 1.00) models are appropriate to describe the dye adsorption process. The randomness and exothermic nature of the system were confirmed by the negative values of both entropy and enthalpy, respectively. Finally, optimization by Response Surface Methodology (RSM) study revealed that the experimental data were nicely fitted with central composite design with very high F value (F = 1596.24, p < 0.0001). Perturbation plot suggested that congo-red dye removal is more sensitive with respect to biosorbent dose, pH and initial concentration. The exhausted adsorbent was regenerated with 0.5(M) NaOH solution. Therefore, it can be concluded that fish scale char could be a valuable materials towards purification of industrial effluent.
    Keywords: Adsorption Kinetics, Biosorption, Central Composite Desigh, Fish scale char, Regeneration
  • Olufunmilayo Olayinka, Morenikeji Egbeyemi, Adedayo Oyebanji * Pages 348-357
    Phenols have attracted global interest in the sphere of environmental management due to their potential toxicity on human health. This study determined concentrations of three priority phenolic compounds in effluent and water of a local textile industry in Abeokuta, Nigeria.  During tie-dye production, triplicates of effluent, well water, stream and control water were collected three times from five points to give a total of forty-five samples. Physicochemical parameters of samples including temperature, pH, electrical conductivity (EC), total suspended solids (TSS) and total dissolved solids (TDS) were determined according to standard methods while the concentrations of the priority phenolic compounds (4-nitrophenol, 4-chloro-3-methylphenol and 2, 4-dinitrophenol) were determined using High Performance Liquid Chromatography equipped with Ultra-Violet detector (HPLC/UV). Data obtained were subjected to descriptive (mean and standard deviation) and inferential (ANOVA) statistics. pH, EC and TSS of effluent and water samples were higher than the permissible limits of World Health Organization (WHO) and Federal Environmental Protection Agency (FEPA) while temperature of the effluent samples and TDS of the well water samples were within standard values. Higher concentrations of the priority phenolic compounds occurred in effluent than water samples but 4-nitrophenol was below detection limit (DL) in water samples. Concentrations of 4-nitrophenol, 4-chloro-3-methylphenol and 2,4-dinitrophenol in effluent exceeded stipulated standard of WHO (0.01 mg/L) and water samples. High concentrations of phenols in water bodies at the local textile industry suggest uncontrolled discharge of effluent from the industry which could eventually reach surface and ground water with potential significant health implications to the populace.
    Keywords: Phenols, Wastewater, Physicochemical properties, Dye
  • Esmaeel Balaghi Inaloo, Ahmad Tavasoli * Pages 358-373
    Thermochemical conversion of biomass and petrochemical wastes blend is an excellent method to produce valuable fuels and reduce environmental pollution. Bio-oil production via blending of paulownia wood and polypropylene plastic was investigated in a fixed bed horizontal reactor at different reaction temperatures and different Polymer/ Biomass weight ratios. Biomass showed the highest amount of bio-oil production (52.8 wt.%) at 500°C. The results show that with increase in temperature, the production of lighter products (with lower carbon number) has increased. Co-pyrolysis on a horizontal reactor showed positive synergy for the production of liquid and gaseous products. Bio-oil production increased to 61.03 wt.% and the relative oxygen content of the liquid products decreased. In co-pyrolysis with the ratio of 60:40 of PAW: PP, aromatic compounds with 35% by weight constitute the highest amount of liquid product and production of furans and aldehyde/ketones reduced. While this number is equal to 8% for blend of 5% PP and 95% PAW.
    Keywords: Paulownia wood, Polypropylene waste, Co-pyrolysis, Bio oil, Synergetic effect
  • Mehdi Asadi *, Soheila Azordeh Molkabadi, Samaneh Engameh Pages 374-382
    Carbon dioxide, as a great part of greenhouse gases, stands as a major contributor to climate change; hence, various techniques have been presented for controlling and decreasing CO2 emissions. The studies show that the adsorption and conversion into environmentally benign substances are the most practical and efficient strategies for this purpose. As amines are active in CO2 adsorption, N-(2-aminoethyl)-3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane was chosen as an amine group to functionalize MCM-41 mesoporous in order to hydrate CO2 and convert to calcium carbonate in this study. The synthesis of the mesoporous materials and amine functionalization were carried out using the wet impregnation method, and the materials were characterized by XRD, FT-IR, SEM, and BET analysis. The results demonstrated a high adsorption capacity (165 mg CaCO3) due to the presence of the -NH2 group in the catalysts. Moreover, the results have been compared with similar mesoporous materials functionalized with metals for CO2 capture and hydration. The adsorption-desorption isotherm corresponded to type IV, as defined in the IUPAC classification.
    Keywords: CO2 adsorption, MCM-41, amine group, CaCO3
  • Adnan Ahmad, Alaa Mohamad Soubh * Pages 383-391
    The landfill leachate contains high concentrations of organic pollutants that can be biological and resistant to it. Therefore, the resulting leachate must be treated from the healthy landfill before disposing of it in the environment. In this research, the technique of improved magnetic therapy was tested to improve some physicochemical properties of landfill leachate. Where a laboratory model was designed to evaluate the performance of the magnetic field with different strengths on the treatment of the leachate field collected from the Wadi al-Hadda landfill in Tartous Governorate-Syria. By the increasing in magnetic field strength from 272 to 678 µT, the removal efficacy of BOD and COD increased from 9 and 19% to 36.7 and 54.7%, respectively, and, the removal efficacy of NO3-N and NO3 increased from 6 and 17% to 24.6 and 46.8%, respectively. Electric conductivity (EC) values also decreased due to the use of magnetic field.
    Keywords: Landfill leachate, magnetic field, physicochemical, removal
  • Smily Vishwakarma *, Dharmendra Dharmendra Pages 392-403
    Constructed wetlands (CWs) are man-made systems designed to treat a range of residential, commercial, and industrial wastewaters. The objective of the study was to evaluate the efficiency of wastewater treatment systems using constructed wetlands. The effectiveness of removing chemical and physical pollutants was also evaluated. The setup consisted of a hybrid flow system composed of upflow constructed wetland and a horizontal flow constructed wetland connected in series that is used for primary treatment of the influent of domestic wastewater. Two systems were analyzed: one cultivated with the ornamental species Canna Indica, and one cultivated with the cattail Cymbopogon flexuosus. It consisted of two treatment sections consisting of two plant species Cymbopogon citratus (lemon grass – first CW) and Canna xalapensis Horan (Canna Indica – second CW). The water quality parameters i.e., BOD, COD, TSS were analyzed according to APHA (American Public Health Association) by daily sampling. The CW was monitored for the quality of wastewater inflows and outflows and nutrient accumulation in plants. Results showed that the maximum COD removal for Lemon Grass and Canna Indica beds were 75% and 70% respectively at 200mg/L COD loading in the CW setup over a six-month period respectively. The maximum BOD removal found in Lemon Grass and Canna Indica beds were 73% and 64% respectively at a feed concentration of 200mg/L COD. Both the CWs together as one unit showed similar rates of TSS removal irrespective of the type of wetland plant species and were more efficient in treating wastewater.
    Keywords: Wastewater, Lemon grass, Canna indica, Recycle, Reuse
  • Ansam Sabei, Iman Gatea *, Nibal Mousa, Adnan Abbas, Gameela Ojaily, Rana Tawfeeq, Ameena Abid Pages 404-413
    Environmental threats from the accumulation of plastic trash are getting worse.  It is robust, lightweight, corrosion-resistant, affordable, and durable. Microorganisms play a significant role in protecting our environment by degrading plastic wastes that are harmful either naturally or by chemical modification.  The current study aims to investigate the biodegradation of synthetic polyethylene through the utilization of a laboratory bioreactor. Various types of additives were introduced to the soil samples before subjecting them to a 30-day UV treatment. The degradation of polyethylene was shown through a reduction in weight following a 24-week incubation period with certain bacterial strains. Experimental findings have revealed that models subjected to UV radiation exhibit the highest degree of vulnerability and degradation. Approximately 52% of polyethylene (PE) films underwent degradation when exposed to soil enhanced with peat moss. In contrast, only 40% and 45% of PE films were destroyed when subjected to garden soil that was untreated and treated with UV radiation, respectively. In contrast, the addition of husk resulted in a 48% to 53% reduction in weight for PE films that were buried for the same duration of the experiment.  The highest level of effectiveness was achieved by the disintegration of the plastic material that was introduced into the soil along with organic fertilizers, resulting in a value of 56.60%. The weight loss outcomes have been substantiated by the utilization of the Atomic Force Electron Microscope (AFM) images, which exhibited the highest magnitude in the experimental model using soil supplemented with fertilizers.
    Keywords: plastic, biodegradation, bioreactor, microorganisms, Ultraviolet
  • Iva Rustanti Eri Wardoyo *, Yudha Yunior, Marlik Marlik, Ferry Kriswandana, Demes Nurmayanti, Khambali Khambali Pages 414-425
    Microplastics can contaminate water owing to their small size. If aquatic biota consume microplastics, they disrupt their reproductive processes, digestive tracts, and development. This study aimed to identify microplastic waste from silkworms (Tubifex spp.) in the Brantas River. The study was conducted in a descriptive manner by collecting samples of microplastic waste from silkworms and examining the shape, type, amount, and percentage of microplastic abundance in the river. An FTIR test was used to determine the microplastic content. Using a Zeiss Axio Zoom.V16 at 50x magnification, microplastic particles from individual worms and worm samples were visually identified. Then, the 50% hot needle test was used to determine the composition of the plastic. A total of 263 microplastic particles were found in the worm samples. Silkworms (Tubifex spp.) in the Brantas River, Kediri City, were shown to contain four types of microplastics, namely fibers, filaments, fragments, and granules, which were dominated by filament particles with 49% filament content, 45% fiber, 5% fragments, and 1% granules. The microplastic polymers identified via FTIR were polyethylene and ethylene-polypropylene-diene copolymers. These microplastics can originate from plastic bags, used drinking bottles, rope fibers, and pieces of water hose, which are often found around the Brantas River. Silkworms found in the Brantas River contain microplastic waste from various pollution sources.
    Keywords: microplastics, Silk Worms (Tubifex spp), FTIR, Rivers
  • Tanmay Srivastava *, Vartika Srivastava, Suresh Kumar Manukonda Pages 426-447
    Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) dumpsites are one of the major source of methane (CH4) emissions due anaerobic degradation of organic matter content in the waste. Control technologies are available to reduce these emissions, but they are costly and their application on existing sites is complex. Moreover, tropical climate is responsible for rapid degradation of organic matter in open dumps leading to substantial CH4 emissions mainly due to hot and humid conditions amongst other factors. Methanotrophs are bacteria capable of oxidizing CH4 into carbon dioxide (CO2) by virtue of methane monooxygenase enzyme. Various cover materials can be utilized to enhance methane oxidation (MO) ability of these organisms by providing favorable conditions thus converting methane from unmanaged dumpsites into CO2 which has lower global warming potential. Hence their application shows great potential for contributing towards meeting the greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction goals. This review focuses on the attempts to attenuate CH4 emissions by different biocover systems and the current scenario while giving special emphasis to tropical conditions.
    Keywords: methane, Municipal solid waste, Tropical Landfill Gas Emissions, Methanotrophs, Methane Oxidation
  • Shahen Othman Abdulla, Bubak Souri * Pages 448-465
    Nuisance dust particles have emerged as a significant environmental concern within the Middle Eastern region. The principal aim of this research was to conduct an extensive investigation into the physical and chemical attributes of dust-fall particles located within the city of Sulaymaniyah, northeastern Iraq. Over a period of six months, a total of 72 dust-fall particle samples were systematically gathered from three distinct stations, with intervals of seven days. In addition to quantitative analysis, this study included detailed morphological examinations and mineralogical composition assessments, facilitated through the application of analytical methodologies, including Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). The outcomes of these analytical procedures revealed predominantly irregular shapes of the dust particles, characterized by the presence of quartz and calcite minerals, confirming their natural origin due to wind-driven erosion originating from the arid desert landscapes of Iraq and its neighboring southern and western countries. Moreover, this investigation extended to encompass a comprehensive evaluation of both water-soluble and insoluble fractions, in addition to the overall concentration levels of alkali and alkaline earth metals including sodium (Na), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), and magnesium (Mg). Furthermore, the levels of heavy metals of manganese (Mn), iron (Fe), copper (Cu), and arsenic (As) were investigated. The extent of pollution associated with these elements was assessed through the application of the Geo-accumulation index (Igeo) which revealed that, during the study, calcium, magnesium, and copper demonstrated noticeable levels of contamination within the dust-fall particles of Sulaymaniyah city.
    Keywords: Environmental Pollutant, Dust-fall Phenomenon, Alkali, Alkaline Earth Metals, Heavy metals, Middle East
  • Benett Siyabonga Madonsela *, Thabang Maphanga, Karabo Concelia Malakane, Terry Takalani Phungela, Babalwa Gqomfa, Sinalo Grangxabe, Humphrey Kgabo Thamaga, Lhoussain Hajji, Stanley Lekata, Ahmed Karmaoui, Thokozani Patrick Mbonane Pages 466-480
    There is a belief that ambient air pollution  is accountable for degrading the air quality indoors. Although in principle the indoor air quality should be better than that of outdoor air quality given the shielding effect of a house structure. However, ambient air quality can infiltrate and influence indoor air pollution concentrations in low-income urban informal settlements due to rudimentary designed household structures. Given this phenomenon, the current study endeavoured to explore the influence of outdoor exposure concentration on indoor air quality within the informal settlements of urban neighbourhoods. The exposure concentrations of indoor and outdoor particulate matter and nitrogen dioxide pollutants were simultaneously measured during summer and winter seasons. The GilAir Plus air sample pump was used to acquire measurements of particulate matter collected over 48 hours. While nitrogen dioxide gases were measured using passive diffusive samplers. All statistical analyses were performed using Python (version 3.8) Spyder. The current study has discovered that in many instances the results were comparable indoors and outdoors. For instance, this has been corroborated by the nitrogen dioxide discoveries where the current results were slightly comparable as indoor exposure concentrations values were recorded to be between (4 µg/m3 and 13 µg/m3), whilst the outdoor concentration ranged between (6 µg/m3 and 11 µg/m3). Likewise, a similar trend was observed for particulate matter exposure concentrations indoors (14 µg/m3 ) and (12 µg/m3) outdoors. The statistical inferences futher confirmed that the exposure values of indoor and outdoor were not significant (p>0.05) within the study areas of concern.
    Keywords: Indoor, outdoor air quality, ambient air pollution Mpumalanga highveld, Particulate matter, nitrogen dioxide Mpumalanga province, Indoor or Outdoor ratios
  • Kinjal Shroff *, Nirav Shah Pages 481-494
    Artificial neural networks (ANNs) simulate an anaerobic co-digestion process of Organic Fraction of Municipal Solid Waste (OFMSW) and bio-flocculated sludge for a mesophilic lab-scale semi-continuous feed reactor. The operational, substrate quality and process control parameters such as Organic Loading Rate, Hydraulic Retention Time, pH, VFA/Alkalinity ratio and Total Solids are input variables and methane yield and Volatile Solids removal are outputs for ANN modelling. The lab-scale experimental results are used to develop a prediction model using fitting application for ANN. The network architecture was optimized to achieve accurate predictions, resulting in a 5-19-2 architecture for methane yield and a 5-17-2 architecture for %VSremoval. The training was performed using the Bayesian Regularization (trainbr) algorithm, leading to high coefficients of determination (R2) of 0.953 and 0.978 for methane yield and %VSremoval, respectively. The results demonstrate the effectiveness of neural network-based modelling in capturing complex relationships within the methane yield process, facilitating accurate prediction of crucial output parameters.
    Keywords: Organic Fraction of Municipal Solid Waste, Bio-flocculated sludge, Artificial Neural Network
  • Arun Lal Srivastav *, Lata Rani, Prakriti Sharda, Ajay Sharma Pages 495-510

    Trace metal elements are toxic to the environment and human health and can be removed from water through adsorption. Development of low-cost adsorbents would always been a matter of achievement of every adsorption study as usually many adsorbents were found to be expensive in nature. In this regard, biochar adsorbents gained significant attention due to high adsorption capacity, low-cost and environmental sustainability. Pyrolysis is used to produce biochar adsorbents at varying temperature ranged from 300°C-700°C. The adsorption capacities of palm fiber biochar adsorbents are remarkable which was found around ~198 mg/g for cadmium removal. However, bamboo-based biochar had 868 mg/g of adsorption capacity for arsenate removal. This review aims to provide the current discusses the sources and impacts of trace metal elements in water along with properties of biochar including its composition, surface area, pore structure, and surface functional groups. Further, various types of biomasses have also been mentioned for producing biochar such as agricultural wastes, food wastes, forestry residues, etc. The paper also discusses the different types of mechanisms involved in the adsorption of heavy metal biochar adsorbents like electrostatic attraction, ion exchange, surface complexation etc.

    Keywords: Adsorption, Low-cost biochar, Trace metal element removal, Pyrolysis, Water purification
  • Avinash Bairwa, Ashok Gupta, Vivek Mishra, Sunil Sahoo, Shailesh Tiwar, Tejpal Menaria, Kalpana Gupta * Pages 511-527
    This study was undertaken to evaluate concentration of Uranium (U) in the drinking water of the Tonk district of Rajasthan (India). The main objective of the study is to determine the distribution of Uranium concentration and the geochemical behavior of Uranium in pre-monsoon (PRM) and post-monsoon (POM) drinking water samples. Uranium was measured by LED fluorimeter. Total 318 drinking water samples were collected for both seasons. It is observed that the water quality of all the samples is within the limits prescribed by WHO (30 µg/L) except a few, and can be used for domestic purposes. The Uranium concentration was found to be in the range 0.21 to 173.72 µg/L with a mean value of 8.58 µg/L in pre-monsoon and 0.21 to 162.34 µg/L with a mean value of 11.22 µg/L in post-monsoon samples. The geochemistry of the study area shows rock-water interaction. The order of average anionic concentration is found to be HCO3 – > Cl – > SO4 2– > NO3 –. Although no definite trend of seasonal variation in the concentration of U was observed, large samples have higher Uranium concentrations in post-monsoon than pre-monsoon.
    Keywords: Groundwater, geology, parameters, Water quality, Uranium Distribution
  • Anurag Lall *, Avinash Pandey, Jyoti Mani Pages 528-549
    Cedrus deodara is a coniferous tree native to Himalayan region. Its wood is a valuable resource for the timber industry; however, its bark is typically discarded as a waste material. The present study examines the performance of Cedrus deodara bark powder (CD) as an inexpensive adsorbent for elimination of Pb (II) ions. In addition to this multiple linear regression (MLR) and artificial neural network (ANN) models were developed for modelling the adsorption process and prediction of Pb (II) removal efficiency. The structural and chemical properties of CD were explored using Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FE-SEM), Energy Dispersive Spectrometer (EDS), X-Ray Diffractometer (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). Batch experiments were conducted to investigate the influence of factors including pH, contact time, initial Pb (II) concentration and temperature on Pb (II) adsorption. The adsorption followed pseudo-second-order kinetic and Langmuir isotherm models with maximum monolayer uptake capacity 77.52 mg/g. Based on the thermodynamic criteria, the process was endothermic and spontaneous with enthalpy change (ΔH = 8.08 kJ/mol), free energy change (ΔG = -2.44 kJ/mol) and entropy change (ΔS = 0.03 kJ/K/mol). Statistical comparison of MLR model (R2 = 0.817, RMSE = 8.954, MAPE = 17.379 %) and ANN model (R2 = 0.993, RMSE = 1.777, MAPE = 2.054 %) confirmed that ANN model was far more accurate in predicting removal efficiency.
    Keywords: ANN, MLR, Adsorption, Cedrus deodara, lead
  • Farahnaz Fazel-Rastgar, Sakineh Khansalari *, Venkataraman Sivakumar Pages 550-565

    This investigation aims to study synoptic analysis in the dynamic structure accompanied by air pollution of extreme heat during July 2019 in the Yazd province. The time-series data analysis for the yearly surface air temperatures during the past two decades shows a significant peak surface air temperature in July 2019 in Yazd province. The long-term mean and anomalies of the daily basis (2001 to 2019) for the daily mean sea level pressure show a decrease in pressure with a maximum of about 6 hPa and an increase in geopotential height at 500 hPa with a maximum of about 20-30 gpm (geopotential meter), which has led to an increase in the average daily temperature of about 2 to 4 degrees Celsius. Also, showed high values for Ozone mass mixing ratio over the study area mostly over the west with a maximum of ~92 ppb in Yazd province on 1 July 2019. The AIRS (Atmospheric Infrared Sounder on NASA's Aqua satellite) data shows a positive trend (2003- 2019) for the total daytime Ozone column-averaged over the study area during July. Furthermore, the results of this work obtained from OMI satellite observation show a significant increase in the ultraviolet aerosol index (UVAI) during the study period time. This study shows the recent extreme weather changes in the study area which may be necessary for a better future forecast for heat warnings along with poor air quality and health risk when such events may happen in the future.

    Keywords: climate change, Extreme temperatures, Ozone, UVAI, Yazd province
  • Volkan Işık, Atila Yıldız * Pages 566-579
    Today, the problem of air pollution has been highlighted by rapid population growth and urbanisation, along with the development of industry. Over the last fifty years, much attention has been paid to the relationship between lichens and airborne particulate matter (especially heavy metals). The use of living organisms in air pollution studies is now widely accepted in many countries and the results of these biomonitoring studies are very important for future action. The goal of this study was to determine heavy metals in Kırşehir province using the bag technique, a biomonitoring approach, with Pseudevernia furfuracea (L.) Zopf lichen and to develop a pollution map of the city. In November 2002, lichen specimens were obtained from an unpolluted region in the Yapraklı Mountains, Çankırı, and transplanted to 4 distinct places in Kırşehir. After 3 and 6 months of exposure, they were collected in order to analyse heavy metals (Cu, Cd, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) with Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). In addition, chlorophyll-a and chlorophyll-b contents were determined by Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) method. The findings revealed that the heavy metal contents in various stations are the result of industrial, traffic, and heating activities. As a result, P. furfuracea showed excellent bioindicator ability for detecting air pollution.
    Keywords: biomonitoring, Heavy metals, Kırşehir, Pseudevernia furfuracea, Tü rkiye
  • Abu Bakar Attiq, Rab Nawaz, Muhammad Irshad, Iqra Nasim *, Marriyam Nasim, Maria Latif, Syed Imran Shah, Aiman Fatima Pages 580-594
    Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) have not only detrimental impacts on air quality but also acts as a source for a range of heavy metals that worsen the potential risks to public health. Notably, previous studies on PM2.5-bound heavy metals in Pakistan have primarily focused on individual cities. This study offers a comprehensive analysis of pollution characteristics related to PM2.5-bound heavy metals, including lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), zinc (Zn), and nickel (Ni), in ten cities of Pakistan. Data was collected from a wide range of reliable sources spanning from 2013 to 2023. Additionally, the human health risk assessment methodology endorsed by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) was employed to evaluate both carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks for adults (males and females) and children. Findings of the present study revealed that children faced a greater risk associated with PM2.5-bound heavy metals as compared to adults. Cadmium, zinc, and nickel were found as the top three contributors to the average non-carcinogenic risk, while lead, cadmium, and nickel showed the highest carcinogenic risks. Based on these findings, this study strongly recommend that the government should strengthen the management of industrial and vehicular emissions. Furthermore, there is an imperative need to establish a real-time monitoring system capable of tracking toxic heavy metal pollutants transported through the atmosphere. Additionally, policymakers should seriously contemplate regional collaborations with the goal of creating metropolitan initiatives for pollution control, thereby effectively addressing these paramount environmental and public health concerns.
    Keywords: Environmental monitoring, Particulate pollution, urbanization, Human Health Risk Assessment
  • Behshad Valizadeh *, Yassin Heydarizade, Javad Tayebi, Mohammad Reza Rezaie Pages 595-605
    Today, world pollution is increasing, and many pollutants such as radioactive elements enter to environment through human activity contaminants play an essential role in human life and health. Therefore, the examination of models for dispersion caused by radioactive substances is an important issue. This article is a simulation study of the hypothetical scenario of the Zaporizhzhia Nuclear Power Plant (ZNPP) in Ukraine, which is one of the NPPs in Europe. This scenario includes the occurrence of an accident in the power plant that entry of pollutants to environment and creates an environmental disaster. The simulation of this scenario was done using the Hyspli4 )Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory) model and NOAA website data of ZNPP (include the wind information, temperature, humidity, and atmospheric pressure in different spatial and temporal scales) to predict and deal with pollutants. The simulation was conducted in the first week of April 2023 for 131 I and 137Cs elements, which are important elements that come out of the power plant and cause many problems. The results show the highest annual dose and concentration are 4.6 mSv/year and 2.7E+06 Bq.s/m3 respectively. It also shows that in the event of pollution, the entry of contaminated materials into the Dnieper River and the western edge of the blackened sea will bring a great disaster. Also, the eastern and northeastern regions of Ukraine, especially Kharkiv and the western borders of Russia, lead to pollution that causes radiation hazard, so the news should be shared with everyone before an actual incident occurs.
    Keywords: Ukraine, Pollution, Accident, reactor, Dosimetry
  • Qusay Khattab. AL-Dulamey *, Yasir Abed. Al-Jawwady, Mowafak Hasan, Laith Ahmed Najim Pages 606-619
    The purpose of this investigation is to determine how gamma radiation-induced oxidative stress impacts the reproductive system of adult chickens. In this study, we used 39-57 weeks old cocks’ chickens to assess the significance of semen volume10-3liter per bird per ejaculation). Sperm count overall (108 cells per ejaculation) and count per milliliter (108 cells). The volume, concentration data, and sum sperm data of cock chickens all increased significantly with age, though not at all ages; rather, just at a select few ages that were considered to be the control (regulate) group. These data were found after 35 days of gamma radiation at soft dose rates (soft intensity) of at100, 120 and 130cm between cages of chickens and radioactive source with 0.402, 0.279 and 0.237 Gy/h respectively. This is a six-hour daily chronic dose rate (extended duration of radiation). As the soft dosage rate was gradually increased, a significant decline in the values was observed.  The semen volume data drop ratio was calculated for each male chicken generation and compared to the control group using three chronic moderate doses of irradiation at doses ranging from around 4.8 to 13.6 percent and semen concentrations from roughly 4.9 to 14 percent. The average results from both groups showed that when the intensity of the gamma ray radiation increased, all metrics significantly declined. Using date seeds extract(Phoenix dactylifera L.)  as a defense against oxidative stresses brought on by radiation exposure and to lower its percentage data, especially on particular sperm data qualitiesDue to its availability in the Middle East, the use of date seeds extracts(Phoenix dactylifera L.)  in this study proved beneficial in terms of both economic return and fertility-boosting effects on chickens, as evidenced by the positive results obtained when compared to other antioxidants under the same conditions.     Due to its availability in the Middle East, the use of date seeds extracts(Phoenix dactylifera L.)  in this study proved beneficial in terms of both economic return and fertility-boosting effects on chickens, as evidenced by the positive results obtained when compared to other antioxidants under the same conditions.
    Keywords: semen data, volume data, Dose rate, dates seed extract
  • Thomas Ohwofasa Ikpesu * Pages 620-628
    The toxicity of linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LABs) to Clarias gariepinus was investigated. For 30 days, the fish were exposed to LABs at 0.00, 0.50, 1.00, 1.50, and 2.00 mg/L. After each trial period, one fish from each plastic tub was chosen and its heart was punctured for blood samples. The blood samples were then collected and deposited in pre-designated bottles for analysis. Following blood collection, a fish was dissected and its organs were extracted. The organs were preserved in liquid nitrogen at -25oC until they were analyzed. A portable refractometer was used to quantify total serum protein content. A microplate reader was used to measure reduced glutathione (GSH). Albumin was quantified using the Bromocresol Green albumin assay kit, whereas alanine aminotransferase activity was assessed colorimetrically. Subtracting albumin from protein concentration yielded the globulin content. On days 23 and 30, protein content corresponds positively with exposure length and differs significantly (p < 0.05) between the control and treatment groups. The activity of GSH reduced slightly but not significantly (p > 0.05). Significant variations in albumin and globulin (p < 0.05) only on day 30. AAS activity differs significantly (p < 0.05) between treatments and the control. This study demonstrated that LAB exposure can be harmful to human health. Because anthropogenic sources are the primary source of LAB exposure, authorities must implement strict mitigation measures to limit this risk.
    Keywords: linear alkylbenzene sulfonates, Clarias gariepinus, Aalanine Amino Transferase, albumin, Globulin
  • Amir Nabi Bidhendi *, Nasser Mehrdadi, Abdolreza Karbassi Pages 629-643
    In this work, it was attempted to evaluate and demonstrate disinfection effectiveness of an electrochemical process to entirely remove coliform from wastewater effluent following secondary treatment. For the tests, an experimental bench-scale batch electrochemical cell was constructed, and aluminum electrodes were employed in the electro-disinfection reactor. In the electric disinfection phase, wastewater samples were put in the reactor/disinfector and a direct current (DC) was applied to it. According to findings, a significant decrease occurred in the total number of coliforms in the treated wastewater, and a high improvement occurred in the effluent properties. At a contact time of 15 min and a current density of 5.5 mA/cm2, led to a bacterial killing effectiveness of 97.7% or above. As the current density and contact time increased, a general increase occurred in the bacterial killing efficiency, and the effect of the two above-mentioned factors was much greater than the effect of salinity. Moreover, according to the experimental data, the removal efficiency of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total suspended solids (TSS) by the aluminum electrodes were 78.50% and 99.93%, respectively. The findings indicate the applicability of the proposed electrochemical treatment to wastewater effluent. Nevertheless, to be able to apply this system at an industrial scale in the future, it is necessary to conduct more research into the optimum operation conditions and make an in-depth comparison of energy consumptions between the electrochemical treatment and the conventional approaches.
    Keywords: Electrochemical disinfection, E. coli, Wastewater, aluminum