فهرست مطالب

Molecular and Clinical Microbiology - Volume:13 Issue: 1, Winter and Spring 2023

International Journal of Molecular and Clinical Microbiology
Volume:13 Issue: 1, Winter and Spring 2023

  • تاریخ انتشار: 1401/08/06
  • تعداد عناوین: 10
  • Gokben OZBEY *, Alfizah Hanafiah, Yashvanth Lakshmanappa, Santosh Dhakal, Gourapura Renukaradhya Pages 1770-1778

    The 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) causes global pandemic public health problem in the world. COVID-19 has been defined as a disease that can be transmitted from human to human via respiratory products. Considering COVID-19 pandemic, the publication of articles on severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and the disease induced by this virus are dramatically increased. This review article aims to gather the knowledge associated to the genomic characteristics and evolution of SARS-CoV-2 strains, thus enlightened us in understanding SARS-CoV-2 pathogenecity that will helps in developing new mitigation strategies. The full genome characterization of SARS-CoV-2 give insight into the virus evolution and adaptation in different populations across the globe. As different variants of strains circulating in various regions and populations, further investigations are necessary to warrant the impact of treatment on different strains.

    Keywords: COVID-19, genome characterization, Pandemic, SARS-CoV-2, variants
  • Zahra Jalili, Sina Ghasemi, Mehrnoosh Nikpour, Bahareh Haji Khani, Saba Sayari, Nooshin Nazarinejad, Fatemeh Sameni * Pages 1779-1787

    The novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV, or COVID-19) was, for the first time, detected in Wuhan city (China) in 2019. It was subsequently spread worldwide which resulted in a viral pandemic associated with high rate of mortality. Although this virus mainly affects the pulmonary system, it has already been reported that COVID-19 could also affect the nervous system, either at the first stages of disease or during the illness progress. During COVID-19 pandemic, numerous neurological complications corresponding to Central Nervous System (CNS) disorders such as giddiness, headache, unconsciousness, encephalitis and ataxia, as well as Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) disturbances including Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS), skeletal muscle malfunction, hyposmia, hypogeusia and muscle pain, were reported. In this regard, further researches about neurological manifestations of COVID-19 is suggested. Current review attempts to discuss various CNS and PNS manifestations of SARS-CoV-2 virosis.

    Keywords: COVID-19, neurological manifestations, CNS, PNS, SARS-CoV-2
  • Malahat Alinezhad, Maryam Mohammadi-Sichani *, Vajihe Karbasizade Pages 1788-1794
    Plasmid-dependent resistance to quinolones is increasingly spreading among P. aeruginosa isolates worldwide. In this study, the evaluation of antibiotic resistance to quinolones in P. aeruginosa isolated from burn wound samples was investigated. In this descriptive study, 73 burn isolates of P. aeruginosa were collected. Antibiotic susceptibility of the isolates was assessed by the disk diffusion method. Then, the frequency of the aac(6’)-Ib, qnrS, qnrB, and qnrA genes was determined by PCR. The highest resistance was related to the antibiotics Nalidixic acid (100%), Imipenem (98.7%), Ciprofloxacin (97.2%), Cefepime (100%), Meropenem (97.2%), Levofloxacin (100%), and Ofloxacin (100%). Among 73 P. aeruginosa isolates, 4 (5.5%) strains containing the aac(6')-Ib gene, 3 (4.1%) strains containing the qnrA gene, 3 (4.1%) strains with the qnrB gene, and 2 (7.2%) strains containing the qnrS gene were detected. In total, out of 73 strains of P. aeruginosa isolated from burns, 12 strains (16.5%) had one or four plasmids carrying quinolone resistance genes alone or simultaneously. The expansion of quinolone-resistant plasmid genes plays an important role in the prevalence of P. aeruginosa quinolone-resistant strains in burns, and control of Pseudomonas burn wound infections with quinolones has proven difficult.
    Keywords: Antibiotic resistance, burns, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Resistance factor, Quinolones
  • Hamid Beyzaei *, Mehdi Dehghani, Zahra Ebrahimnezhad Pages 1795-1801
    Euphorbia serpens (Euphorbiaceae) is an annual species native to South America and widely distributed as a weed in pantropical regions. It has attracted attention from academic researchers due to its diverse pharmacological properties. In this study, in vitro antioxidant capacity and antimicrobial activity of various extracts of the roots, and shoots of Euphorbia serpens were investigated using DPPH free radical scavenging assay and disc diffusion method, respectively. Antibacterial activity was tested on three Gram-positive (Streptococcus pneumoniae, Bacillus subtilis subsp. Spizizenii, and Enterococcus faecalis) and three Gram-negative (Shigella flexneri, Proteus vulgaris, and Salmonella typhi) bacteria. The antifungal effect was also examined on three fungi (Aspergillus fumigatus, Candida albicans, and Fusarium oxysporum). Ethanolic shoots extract showed broad-spectrum antimicrobial effects. The best antioxidant activities were also observed with alcoholic shoot extracts. It is concluded that the shoot of Euphorbia serpens is a rich source of bioactive compounds especially if they were extracted by alcohols. They are efficient candidates to treat oxidative stress-related diseases.
    Keywords: Antibacterial activity, Antifungal property, Antioxidant capacity, Euphorbia serpens, Medicinal Plants
  • Baman Rahimi Esboei *, Aroona Chabra, Pouya Hedayati, Fatemeh Parandin Pages 1802-1809
    Leishmaniasis is one of the most important parasitic diseases in the world. Due to the increasing prevalence of this disease and the increasing reports of glucantime resistance, it seems necessary to study and find a safe and natural alternative drug. The aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-leishmanial effects of methanolic, hydroalcoholic and chloroform extracts of Rhamnus cathartica (R. cathartica) on Leishmania major (L. major) parasite in vitro. The L. major parasite was prepared from Leishmaniasis research center from Tehran University of Medical Sciences and cultured in RPMI-1640. The effect of different concentrations on Leishmania parasite was evaluated after 12, 24 and 48 hours using viability staining and MTT assay. In this study, methanolic, hydroalcoholic and chloroform extracts of R. cathartica in all concentrations had acceptable antiparasitic effects against L. major parasite and among different extracts, chloroform extract was the most effective treatment. The concentration of 800 μg / ml in all extracts after 24 and 48 hours showed a better effect than glucantime. Considering the lethality of chloroform extract of R. cathartica plant on L. major parasite and better effect than positive controls, it can be concluded that the above compounds can be a suitable candidate for the treatment of leishmaniasis, of course, after supplementary studies.
    Keywords: Medicinal plant, Cutaneous leishmaniasis, amastigote, Leishmania major, Rhamnus cathartica
  • Hanieh Sharifian, Ali Mohammad Ahadi *, Fatemeh Foroohi, Taher Mohammadian Pages 1810-1819
    Nowadays, bacterial toxins are considering as powerful therapeutic strategies against the pathogenic organisms and other medical application. Shiga toxin is one of the most studied bacterial toxins found in Shigella dysenteriae and some Escherichia coli serogroups. In this study we screened the presence of Shiga toxin2 (Stx2) genes between the bacteria isolated from the stool and urine samples of the patients affected by diarrhea. Stool and urine samples were cultivated and microbial and biochemical tests were carried out. Well test was optimized for detection of killer phenotype of the bacteria. Colony-PCR and real-time PCR was performed for confirmation of presence of the Stx2 gene in the extracted genomic DNA of the isolated bacteria, and finally, SDS-PAGE was used for differential analysis of protein profile between killer and non-killer bacteria. We optimized in this study a rapid molecular method for screening of Shiga toxin 2 gene. Our presented condition for assay is referable and confident. Also, we purified, detected and analyzed functionally, Shiga toxin 2 peptide and recorded bacterial strains producing Stx2 toxin. In the future, real-time PCR assays can be developed for detection of Enterobacteriaceae virulence genes, including Stx and other its groups. The current study demonstrate that the real-time PCR technique is rapid and simple to use, and it is a promising method for identify Enterobacteriaceae toxins in human samples.
    Keywords: Evaluation, Stx2, Genes, Bacteria, patients
  • Behnoush Salami Naserian, MohammadHadi Fakoor, Azar Sabokbar *, Somayeh Talebi Pages 1820-1833

    There are many fungal agents that can infect and clean the skin. The aim of this study was to observe the antifungal effect of Carvacrol and 1.8 cineole on fungi. In this descriptive-cross-sectional study, Carvacrol and 1.8 cineol essential oils were supplied by the microbial collection of the Scientific and inisitue Research Organization of Iran. The fungal strains Candida albicans, Aspergillus flavus, Trichophyton rubrum, and Epidermophyton flucosome were used in this study. Agar diffusion and macrodilution broth were used. Statistical tests were used to investigate the antimicrobial effect of Carvacrol essential oil and 1.8 cineole. Combination effect of carvacrol and 1,8 cineol against fungal species by disc diffusion method showed that these compounds had the greatest effect on Candida and carvacrol was a more effective than 1,8 cineol. A synergistic study of carvacrol with fluconazole, ketoconazole, and terbinafine showed stronger effects against fungal species. The amount of MIC and MFC obtained from carvacrol against Candida albicans, Aspergillus flavus, Trichophyton rubrum and Epidermophyton flucosome was 250, 125 – 62/5 - 125 and 62/5 and 125,62/5 ppm and this amount for 1,8 cineole, respectively, is 15, 7/8 - 15, and 7/8 -31, 7/8 - 31 and 7/8 ppm. In order to the side effects and high toxicity of common antifungals, it is recommended to use herbal compounds in combination with these antifungals and by conducting clinical studies, toxic effects, pharmacological and its side effects should also be considered.

    Keywords: Candida albicans, Aspergillus fumigatus, Trichophyton rubrum, Epidermophyton flucosum, Carvacrol, 8 cineole
  • Saman Mahdavi *, Bakhtiar Hesami Pages 1834-1840
    Bacteria are responsible for a large part of the food poisoning. Application of natural preservatives for protection foods from microbial spoilage and to control the occurrence of foodborne pathogens has become an important issue worldwide. The aim of this study was to investigate the composition of sumac (Rhus coriaria L.) essential oil and its antimicrobial effect on some food borne bacteria. The antimicrobial activity of R. coriaria L. essential oil was tested against some foodborne bacteria including: Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Yersinia enterocolitica, Klebsiella pneumonia, Listeria monocytogenes and Streptococcus pyogenes by microdilution method. Furthermore, sumac fruit essential oil was also investigated to determine the chemical compositions by the gas chromatography (GC/MS) method. The essential oil showed a strong antimicrobial activity with a concentration dependence and a broad antimicrobial spectrum for all tested bacteria species. Streptococcus pyogenes was found to be the most sensitive Gram positive bacteria with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 0.156 mg/ml and Pseudomonas aeruginosa was the most resistant bacteria with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 2.5 mg/ml. Sumac essential oil showed more antibacterial effect against Streptococcus pyogenes and Listeria monocytogenes isolates in comparison with other tested bacteria (P<0.05). Eleven constituents in the fruit’s essential oil were identified. The predominant compounds in the essential oil were trans-Caryophyllene (22.3%) and Butanedioic acid, and diethyl ester (21.01%). Our findings suggest the possibility of using the essential oil of R. coriaria L. as a novel source of natural antimicrobial agents for the food and pharmaceutical industries and herbal therapeutic.
    Keywords: Antibacterial, GC, MS, MIC, Phytochemical component, sumac
  • Kobra Verijkazemi * Pages 1841-1850
    Safety drinking water providing is one of the main purposes for community development and improvement. Having a healthy community is related to the safe drinking water. In this study, we surveyed the microbial quality of 50 residential places (motel) located in the coastal zone of Babolsar city. A total of 50 samples were collected from 50 wells in winter 2017.We examined the Total Coliform,E .coli , pH , Turbidity and residual chlorine in laboratory of the health network. Most Probable Number (MPN) was done on nine tube cultivation basis. And also Turbidity test was done using HACH turbidimeter . Results show that residual chlorine content in all wells was zero because of failure to install disinfection facilities And the Total Coliforms,HPC, Turbidity,E.coli, pH, 2%,94%,16%,100, of drinking water samples in this report were desirable respectively .Based on the results obtained from laboratory results all wells had microbial contamination. In order to provide safe water, it is recommended that the city water network be installed by the city's water and wastewater company and the branches be handed over to the motels or the water disinfection facilities be installed by the owners of the motels.
    Keywords: drinking water, Babolsar city, E.coli, Microbial quality, Motel
  • Seyed Ahmad Mosavi *, Farzad Bozorgi, Ehsan Zaboli, Seyed Mohammad Hosseini Nezhad Pages 1851-1858

    Cancer is one of the most important diseases of current century and the second cause of death after cardiovascular diseases. Various factors are effective in the occurrence of malignancy and one of the most important factors is blood infection. The present study was aimed to investigating the frequency of clinical and paraclinical indicators of cancer patients with symptoms of sepsis. This cross-sectional study, 100 cancer patients' referred to the emergency department of Imam Khomeini Hospital in Sari city with signs of sepsis were selected. Finally, the information obtained from the questionnaires was entered into SPSS-18 software and the collected information was statistically analyzed using descriptive statistics (prevalence and mean) and T-test. Among the patients, 57% were men and 43% were women. 56% had sepsis, 42% had severe sepsis and only 2% had septic shock. Escherichia coli (E. coli), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa), Acinetobacter and Candida albicans (C. albicans) were the most prevalent causes of sepsis. Blood pressure in most patients is lower than normal and 26% of patients have a history of diabetes. The highest frequency of cancer was related to stomach and small intestine cancer, and neutropenia was present in all types of cancer except leukemia and lymphoma. The results of this study showed that many non-specific parameters for cancer diagnosis should be taken into consideration by emergency department specialist and should not be easily interpreted from symptoms such as fever, diabetes, decrease or increase in neutrophils and white blood cells. Forgiveness.

    Keywords: cancer, Sepsis, Diabetes, Neutropenia, Emergency Department