فهرست مطالب

Applied Behavioral Sciences - Volume:10 Issue: 1, Winter 2023
  • Volume:10 Issue: 1, Winter 2023
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1401/12/13
  • تعداد عناوین: 5
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  • Melika Sefidrood, Mohammad Bagher Hobbi* Pages 1-8
    Background and Aim

    One of the most important predictors of adolescents' tendency to high-risk behaviors are related to psychological factors. Attachment style has provided a useful framework for promoting useful representations from parent to child that is rooted in the mother-fetus relationship and has lasting effects on emotional regulation. To date, the role of attachment styles and cognitive emotional regulation in predicting the tendency to high-risk behaviors in Iranian adolescent girls has not been studied.

    Materials and Methods

    In a cross-sectional study conducted from October to December 2019, 375 girls referred to the Drop In Center (DIC) in Tehran were selected to participate in the study using multi-stage cluster sampling method. Participants entered the study process after obtaining informed consent and meeting the necessary criteria. Three questionnaires of cognitive emotional regulation, risk-taking and attachment were utilized in this study and Data was analyzed through multiple regression analysis test.

    Results

    The results showed that the correlation between attachment styles and cognitive regulation in the two dimensions of blaming others and coping and acceptance with high-risk behaviors was significant (P<0.05). Also, from three attachment styles, ambivalent attachment style, and from the four dimensions of cognitive emotional regulation, blaming others dimension, predicted the most changes in high-risk behaviors (all P’s<0.001).

    Conclusion

    The findings of this study indicate a complex relationship between the three indices of attachment, emotional regulation, and high-risk behaviors. Attachment and emotion regulationin young people reduce high-risk behaviors. These findings can be associated with several clinical applications in designing of macro-level preventive interventions.

    Keywords: Attachment, Emotional regulation, High risk behavior, Adolescent, Girls
  • Ezzatollah Kordmirza Nikoozadeh*, Nazanin Pirhayati Pages 9-19
    Background and Aim

    This study aimed to explain the relationship between the virtues and strengths of character, as well as the parameters of happiness level and depression among nurses in Tehran.

    Materials and Methods

    Based on the Morgan table and through a convenience sampling, 150 nurses in Tehran were selected and their character strengths and virtues, along with happiness and levels of depression were assessed. Data collection was conducted using a character strengths questionnaire and a positive psychotherapy questionnaire.

    Results

    The statistical analysis indicated a significant correlation of the happiness parameters with the character strengths and virtues in nurses. Furthermore, the character strengths and virtues could significantly predict the happiness parameters (pleasant life was predicted by the character strengths of bravery (T=3.339, α= 0.00) and self-control (T=-2.012, α= 0.046), engaged life was predicted by the character strengths of forgiveness (T=2.016, α= 0.046), and meaningful life was predicted by the character strengths of gratitude (T=2.210, α= .029)), while happiness/depression parameters can be predicted only by the character virtue of courage. The results confirmed a relationship between them.

    Conclusion

    It can beconcluded that there is a significant correlation between the virtues and strengths of character with components of happiness and depression between nurses.

    Keywords: Nurses, Virtues, Character strengths, Happiness parameters, Depression, Positive psychology
  • Mehdi Samimi Ardestani, Shokoufeh Safari, Saeed Sadr, Maryam Hosseinzadeh* Pages 20-27
    Background and Aim

    Diagnostic certainty is difficult in the early stages of psychotic disorders, and it becomes more complicated if at the same time alcohol or drugs get consumed. There is a bilateral association between substance use and psychotic symptoms. Thus, this study was aimed to evaluate the lifespan diagnosis in patients with substance-induced psychosis admitted to psychiatric wards of Imam Hussein Hospital in Tehran 2015.

    Materials and Methods

    This cross-sectional study was conducted on 90 patients diagnosed with substance-induced psychosis in the psychiatric wards of Imam Hussein Hospital in 2015 in Tehran. The data were analyzed through frequency descriptive statistics and charts and by logistic regression using SPSS23 software.

    Results

    In patients with substance-induced psychosis, the results showed that bipolar disorder with psychotic symptoms was the most common disorder (48.9%), followed by schizoaffective (36.7%) disorder, schizophrenia (22.2%), personality disorders (16.6%) (Antisocial, 5.5%; borderline personality disorder (BPD), 11.1%), adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (3.3%), obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) (4.4%), and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) (1.1%). Logistic regression results showed that the patients' age and family history of psychotic disorders could significantly predict the transition to the spectrum of primary psychotic disorders.

    Conclusion

    In psychotic patients or those with primary psychosis, the simultaneous consumption of several substances may indicate a further aggravation of the disease and accelerate the transition of their diagnosis. The evolution of the diagnosis of substance-induced psychosis into primary schizophrenia should be considered in the treatment and administration of the drugs.

    Keywords: Substance-induced psychosis, Primary psychotic, Lifespan diagnosis, Iran
  • Jafar Shabani*, Haleh Sajedi Pages 28-36
    Background and Aim

    Morality and moral intelligence are among the variables that can be taught to children to reduce the negative and undesirable consequences of behavior disorder among them. The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of moral intelligence training on reducing the symptoms of behavioral disorder among students at Gorgan educational and behavioral welfare improvement center.

    Materials and Methods

    The research was a quasi-experimental method with the pretest-posttest design and the control group. The study population consisted of the educational center, and correction of welfare behaviors. The sample size is 50 people (including 25 subjects in experimental group and 25 in control group). Sampling method was convenient method, and participants were assigned into two groups of control and tested, and after selecting based on age and education, each group was subjected to moral intelligence and conduct disorder pre-test. After that, during the two months of training, moral intelligence was conducted and after completing the training, simultaneously and in the same conditions, the post-test was performed, the analysis method. The moral intelligence and conduct disorder scales was used to collect data and the data obtained were calculated through multivariate analysis of variance.

    Results

    The results confirmed the effect of moral intelligence training on reducing conduct disorder scores and its components in the experimental group (p<0.05).

    Conclusion

    According to the results of this research, it is suggested that the managers and workers of the welfare offices in order to improve the environment of the correctional centers as much as possible, improve the morals among the students through the training of moral intelligencencer.

    Keywords: Intelligence, Moral intelligence, Conduct disorder
  • Paniz Vahidi, Mojgan Agahheris*, Akram Dousti Pages 37-44
    Background and Aim

    Cancer is a fatal disease that can affect various aspects of life, including personal, family, and social life, and can destroy a person's performance. The present study was conducted with the aim of investigating the mediating role of cognitive flexibility in the relationship between post-traumatic growth and attitude towards death in people with cancer.

    Materials and Methods

    The present study was descriptive-correlational and structural equation modeling. The statistical population of the present study included cancer patients in Tehran in the year 1401. Among these patients, 120 people were selected as a sample and they were asked to answer the post-traumatic growth questionnaire, death attitude scale and cognitive flexibility questionnaire.

    Results

    The research results showed that the correlation coefficient between death attitude with cognitive flexibility (0.38) and post-traumatic growth (0.27) is significant at 0.01. Also, cognitive flexibility had a mediating role in the relationship between post-traumatic growth and death attitude in people with cancer.

    Conclusion

    Based on this study, the relationship between post-traumatic growth and death attitude in people with cancer, cognitive flexibility had a mediating role. Therefore, post-traumatic growth through increasing the level of cognitive flexibility can help to improve the attitude towards death in people with cancer.

    Keywords: Post-traumatic growth, Death attitude, Cancer, Cognitive flexibility