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Archeology and Archaeometry - Volume:2 Issue: 2, Aug 2023

Journal of Archeology and Archaeometry
Volume:2 Issue: 2, Aug 2023

  • تاریخ انتشار: 1402/05/10
  • تعداد عناوین: 6
  • Rezvaneh Mansouri *, Farah Habib, Azadeh Shahcheraghi Pages 1-16
    Nowadays, with advanced technology and information, the attention to national and religious culture and ritual has faded, so the lack of collective cultural-ritual spaces based on the correct principles of architectural wisdom is considered as a problem in today's world of speed and technology. The goals of the research are to improve sociability through the analytical analysis of Iran's historical buildings in order to read the effective components in the architecture of collective-ritual spaces based on the wisdom of Islamic art and architecture. The research method is in the form of case studies and logical reasoning and analysis of the content of fundamental principles and concepts, which in the case examples of social arenas from the perspective of the teachings of architectural wisdom in which national and religious rituals are held and a comparative study The factors of each were done in the form of tables; In the following, by adapting the arguments and relational analyzes of anthropological and epistemological discussion in the results of the research, it was shown that the fundamental principles and concepts in architectural wisdom are the result of focusing on rules and precise theorizing and are formed according to the culture of the people. And on the basis of basic needs assessments, it reduces discussions involving duality and difference of opinion. In addition to the semantic dimensions, components with physical-spatial aspects were extracted in an understandable way for the users, whose strategy and solutions will lead the way in improving the sociability of collective-ritual spaces.
    Keywords: Logical Analysis, Architecture of Historical Buildings, Collective-Ritual Space, Wisdom of Art, Architecture, sociability
  • Mona Montazeri Hedeshi, Bita Sodaei *, Hossein Alizadeh, Hassan Derakhshi Pages 19-27
    Coins are engraved metals like books full of historical, cultural, religious, and mythological information. They are also like written documents that can be analyzed through their motifs through symbolism, and they are the most important guide for researchers in recognizing and familiarizing themselves with religious beliefs in different historical periods. Therefore, studying the images and symbols on them opens a window to ancient periods for researchers. Due to its long reign, the Parthian is one of ancient Iran's most important critical periods. They minted many coins with various motifs. One of the symbols used is the pattern of a palm branch, which from the time of Phraates II can be seen as the reverse of the drama and tetradrachm coins of the Seleucid Mint. This study has investigated the symbol of palm branch in coins of Phraates II in the Seleucid Mint to realize political goals. These coins are kept in Reza Abbasi Museum in Tehran (Iran) and were purchased through private collectors. In this study, 250 Parthian coins were examined, among which 60 coins had palm motifs. The palm branch is considered a mythological plant common between Mesopotamia, and Greek. Parthian king, the branch palms were used as symbols for victory, under the cultural influence of the Seleucid and Mesopotamia.
    Keywords: Coins, palm, Parthian, mesopotamia, Phraates II
  • Leila Mahmoudi Chalbatan * Pages 29-41
    Light and color are effective factors in the creation of works of art, which, as the most immaterial element of nature, have always been influential in Iranian Islamic painting, and in fact, they represent the sublime world and spiritual atmosphere Also, the research about light and color in painting and its impact on painters and its contribution to the scope of expressing the influence of mysticism in the whole Islamic culture and art is at the starting point certainly knowing and understanding the three words mysticism, light and color and finding their meaning and meaning in a symbolic way is not only effective in better understanding Iranian and Islamic painting, but also our insight in understanding the Islamic ideas that are rooted in mysticism and Sufism and It also makes the behavior smoother. Colors have a chemical aspect in art, and mixing them is an art similar to alchemy. The main concern of this research, which is presented in an analytical way, is aesthetics and investigating the mystical aspects of paintings and motifs in Islamic civilization in Iranian art and architecture. It seems that Islamic art and architecture tries to manifest God's unity among colors, forms, lights, and sounds. Each color has a special allegory and a relationship with one of the inner states of man and soul. Color is an important factor for spiritual use in the painting effects of Islamic architecture. Mosques in the Islamic world usually use turquoise green and blue colors. Blue and turquoise colors are the main background colors of walls, tiles, altars, domes, and courtyards and along with the golden color in Iranian Islamic paintings, among other colors, they have a special shine and effect. These colors are manifestations of the inner meanings of colors. The colors of turquoise, green and white, which are symbols of nature's sky and divine light, respectively, are mixed together and add to the majesty of the mosques. The colors that result from the radiation of light are a symbol of the manifestation of unity in multiplicity and the dependence of multiplicity on unity. The reflection of the existence of colors in Iranian art shows an extraterrestrial truth outside the world of the senses, rather than imitating the surrounding natural colors. Vigilance and accurate insight in the arrangement of colors and the correct selection of each color refers to a symbolic concept of colors and their mutual effects that permeate the human soul and spirit.
    Keywords: aesthetics, mystical aspects, Paintings, motifs in Islamic civilization
  • Mina Karimi * Pages 43-53
    Among the archaeological documents, seals and seal impressions are of special importance because the symbols and designs therein represent much of a country's customs, practices, customs, and beliefs, as well as aspects of its history. It shows rituals, religion, philosophy, and art as well as administrative and social management over the centuries. This motif has its roots in the ancient civilization of Iran and is sometimes influenced by the neighboring nations. These portable data have caused the spread of culture and art to other lands for the sake of use in business exchanges, administrative letters, and political relations. The introduction of seals and the study of inscriptions carved and motifs on them can help us to know some of the unknown aspects of ancient Iranian culture and civilization and introduce us to the intellectual world of this period. The main goal of this article is related to the documentation of stamp seals of the Museum of Ancient Iran and the interpretation of the symbols engraved on them.
    Keywords: Sassanian Period, Seal Stamps, Motifs, Symbolic
  • Misam Rafee *, Mohammad Yari Pages 55-65
    A recent trend in photogrammetry is the use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) for photogrammetric purposes. A data acquisition sensor is mounted on an unmanned aerial vehicle to collect data during short-range aerial photogrammetry from a low altitude. This system is capable of filling a significant gap left by other conventional methods in the field of map production. The improvement in processes over conventional methods is the basis for this method's effectiveness. A significant portion of valuable data is obtained after the first processing stage as a result of automation in all data production processes. Real orthoimages, 3D models, and a detailed point cloud of the area are all included in this data. Drawing and mapping maps have gotten much easier, more accurate, and quicker thanks to modern software. We are looking for ways to use these kinds of methods in documenting the archaeological heritage in this article by applying this method at the historic site of Susa. The experts and practitioners in this field will benefit from this method, which is a collection of the most effective techniques for geometric measurement, analysis, and interpretations related to issues raised in archaeology.
    Keywords: Archeology, Documentation, U AV, Photogrammetry
  • Najmeh Hadizadeh Shirazi * Pages 67-73

    Biological samples such as bones, tooth, and hair obtained from archaeological excavations are mainly used for dating measurements. However, these findings provide valuable information about the diet, lifestyle or migration, and genetic interaction of communities, and disease because the biochemical content of biological tissues such as bones, teeth, and hair changes under the influence of the lifestyle of the past population. Therefore, it seems that human remains' biochemical, microscopic, and histological studies could be advantageous for clarifying the dark events of the past societies. Bioarchaeology, as an interdisciplinary science, assesses the historical-cultural relationships in ancient samples and human remains like hair, bone, or tooth by biological tools and techniques. In this science, the biological data of specimens are combined with archeological information to obtain a more accurate sociology of past civilizations. The purpose of the present review article is to familiarize archeology researchers with the usual methods in bioarchaeological studies.

    Keywords: Skeleton, Archaeology, paleodietry, Linear Enamel Hypoplasia, Stable isotope