فهرست مطالب

Journal of Wildlife and Biodiversity
Volume:7 Issue: 4, Autumn 2023

  • تاریخ انتشار: 1402/07/04
  • تعداد عناوین: 21
  • Muhammad Azhar, MuhammadHassan Saleem, Roheela Yasmeen, Ayesha Safdar, Waqar Ahmad, Muhammad Asif, Awais Bokhari, Irfan Aslam Pages 1-10

    Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the rising problems in the whole world in wild animals. As we know, countries like India, Sri Lanka, Malaysia, Pakistan, etc. are considered the home of many endangered wildlife species like the Asian elephant, Rhinoceros, Markhor, Snow Leopard, and Bengal tiger. These countries carry 44% of the burden of TB in the form of human TB, livestock TB, and wildlife TB. The TB pathogen is having a wide host range, therefore it is of great importance and need of the hour to work under one health concept to construct a composite TB control program in the medical as well as veterinary fields. Moreover, further researches are yet to be made on this challenging arena. Globally, many studies have been conducted to discover the types of tuberculosis in wild animals. Recent studies had declared that Mycobacterium tuberculosis is not only the causative agent of tuberculosis in wild animals but other mycobacterium species are also a growing threat. It was demonstrated that a wide variety of mycobacterium strains are present in the whole region, particularly in developing countries pointing out its endemic distribution. Tuberculosis in the free-ranging Rhinoceros in South Africa, Nepal, and Sri Lanka is associated with the M. bovis and M. orygis that also signify the threats of TB in other wild animal species including chances of unknown maintenance host. Some other research has revealed that there is a rising challenge of TB in the elephants too in different countries of the World. Being a major reservoir host of tuberculosis, wildlife has become a conservation and public health challenge all over the World.

    Keywords: Endangered species, Public health, Tuberculosis
  • Sadek Atoussi, Imane Razkallah, Rabah Zebsa, Zinette Bensakhri, Mouslim Bara Pages 11-16

    The rapid spread of the non-native species Harmonia axyridis in Algeria has the potential to harm local biodiversity, create new challenges for natural resources management, and impact economies. Through an investigation on social media and a citizen science platform, three new occurrences of this species have been discovered in different parts of the country, with one location being over 400km away from the first record. This highlights the important role of citizen science in the detection and the spread monitoring of invasive species in developing countries where funding for research in this field is limited.

    Keywords: Citizen Science, Harlequin ladybird, invasion, Algeria
  • Malik Zia-ud-Din, Driss Ed.daran Ed.daran, Riad Al Ajlani, Fatima Ezzohra Elhajraoui Pages 17-35

    Climate change has been predicted to place more pressure on biological variety throughout the planet. The movement of species and ecosystems, even across international borders, necessitates international collaboration between governments. However, existing international conservation laws do not consider climate change and are thus not expected to provide sufficient support for species and ecosystem adaptation. This research delves into the difficulty of making international nature conservation legislation resilient to climate change and the corresponding mismatch.

    Keywords: Biodiversity, Climate change, Nature Conservation, International Law
  • Berivan Asaad Latef, Luay Abdul-Qadir Ali Pages 36-48

    The present paper is intensive on screening new Ostracod’s species obtained from four selected sites in different areas, Erbil Governorate, Kurdistan Region, Iraq. Samples have been collected during October 2021, March and June 2022. Heterocypris incongruens (Ramdohr 1808) was observed in water after taking some algae (Chlorella vulgaris, Anabaena, etc.., and aquatic plants (Polygonum sp., Nasturtium officinale and Cynodon dactylon) with its residue near-shore water. Later separated the sample and fixed in 70% ethanol. After the morphological study, the PCR product of 28s rRNA was sequenced and deposited in the GenBank database with accession numbers OP600471-OP600474. According to phylogenetic analysis, the examined Heterocypris incongruens were identified and are being reported from Iraq.

    Keywords: Ostracod, Molecular analysis, Phylogenetic tree
  • Maysoon O. Nasraddin, Samir J. Bilal Pages 49-62

    This study aimed to investigate the morphometric and molecular characterizations of Solostamenides Mugilis in Capoeta trutta in Iraq. Capoeta trutta was captured from Lesser Zab River, Erbil Province, Kurdistan Region, Iraq. The specimens were studied morphologically with a dissecting microscope, with fixation in 5% formaldehyde. For molecular analysis specimens were preserved in absolute ethanol. Following DNA extraction, the region of 28S rRNA was amplified by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), and the order of the nucleotides was determined by the genetic analyzer. Morphological properties, as well as DNA analyses of collected specimens, showed that the collected specimens belong to Microcotylidae, namely Solostamenides mugilis, with the prevalence of infection and mean intensity (9.37% and 4.1) respectively. During this examination, the monogenetic species S. mugilis was documented on the cyprinid fish (Capoeta trutta) as the first occurrence in Iraq. Therefore, C. trutta is regarded as a new host for this genus within the Cyprinid family.

    Keywords: Capoeta trutta, Cyprinidae, 28S rRNA, Microcotylidae, Solostamenides
  • Baydaa Abdullah Hathal, Fatin Muhammed Nawwab Al-Deen, Samir Jawdat Bilal Pages 63-74

    A total of 193 fishes from the Lesser Zab River in Altun-Kupri/ Kirkuk Province, Iraq were investigated, belonging to two families namely Cyprinidae (Luciobarbus xanthopterus Heckel, 1843) and Siluridae (93 Silurus triostegus Heckle, 1843) for the impact of parasites helminths on length-weight relationships and condition factor. Three species of helminth parasites were recovered from host fish, namely: Cestoda, Nematode and Acanthocephala. The association between helminthic parasitic infection with length-weight relationship (LWR) and condition factor in two fish species were studied. The results showed that the growth of both fish species exhibited negative allometry because the regression coefficient “b” obtained was <3. The statistical analysis showed that there was a significant difference between infected and uninfected fishes in the b value. Moreover, significantly (p< 0.05) the highest “b” value (2.2042 in L. xanthopterus and 2.8666 in S. triostegus) was recorded in uninfected fish. Condition factor (K) for the infected and uninfected fishes of both fish species were also determined in the current study. The result showed that the condition factor of both fish species was low, but the K factor of uninfected L. xanthopterus was higher (K<1.50) than that of uninfected S. triostegus (K<0.7). It is indicated that L. xanthopterus performed better than S. triostegus in the study areas. The statistical analyses showed that the K factor in both uninfected L. xanthopterus and S. triostegus fishes was significantly (p<0.05) higher than in infected fishes.

    Keywords: Luciobarbus xanthopterus, Silurus triostegus, Cestoda, nematoda, acanthocephala
  • Siti Nur Aliah Mohd-Isa, Abd Rahman Mohd-Ridwan, BADRUL MUNIR MD-ZAIN Pages 75-82

    The red, Green and Blue (RGB) colour model has been used to investigate relationships between primates' physiological and colour data. This study uses the RGB method to determine various pelage hues in white-thighed surili at different latitudes in Peninsular Malaysia. Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM) represents the lowland while Genting Highland and Fraser’s Hill represent the highland area. Results indicated that no significant values were found based on the sample t-test on every section of the samples except on the nose (Green). Our findings can be utilised further for systematic and population genetic studies of Presbytis siamensis siamensis in Peninsular Malaysia.

    Keywords: Presbytis siamensis siamensis, Malayan pale-thigh surili, langur, primate colour, Malaysian primate
  • Muhd Nazmi Amir Mazlan, Noor Azleen Mohd-Kulaimi, Frankie Thomas Sitam, Norsyamimi Rosli, BADRUL MUNIR MD-ZAIN, Qasim Ayub, Lim Shu Yong Pages 83-89

    Complete mitochondrial genome sequences have significant relevance in the study of phylogenetic relationships, evolution, and population genetics. In this paper, we present the complete mitochondrial genome of the red junglefowl (Gallus gallus spadiceus) from Peninsular Malaysia, inferred using next-generation sequencing (NGS). The mitogenome is 16,785 bp in length with the structural organization of an avian mitochondrial arrangement compromising 13 protein-coding regions, 22 tRNAs, 2 rRNAs, and 1 control region. No internal stop codon was found in the protein-coding genes. Overall base composition is A: 30.3%, C: 32.5%, G: 13.5%, and T: 23.7%, indicating a high A + T content of 54.0%. Phylogenetic tree analysis revealed that red junglefowl from Peninsular Malaysia is grouped together with other members of Gallus gallus specifically from Southeast Asia, with 89% bootstrap value support. These research findings might be beneficial for red junglefowl genetic identification, molecular systematic studies, and conservation management interest in the future.

    Keywords: Mitogenome, next-generation sequencing, Gallus gallus spadiceus, red junglefowl
  • Aqeel ur Rehman, Uzma Rafi, Roheela Yasmeen, Muhammad Fayyaz Pages 90-100

    Indian Peafowl is distributed in India, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka and its population is declining for a few decades due to fragmentation, habitat loss, poaching, contaminated feed, etc. Deficiency in dietary requirements such as vitamins and minerals are key issues in poultry nutrition which ultimately results in poor egg production, fertility, and hatchability. The present research work was designed to see the effects of E-Sel a supplement on egg production and general behavior (calling, feeding, and standing time) of the Indian peafowl. The study was conducted in the wildlife Park Rahim Yar Khan (Punjab) from Nov-2020 to May 2021 on Indian peafowl that was kept in captivity. Birds were categorized into two groups i.e., control and experimental. Each group was further composed of 3 males and 9 females in 1:3 ratios. Body weights of birds and trail size in males were also recorded at the start and end of the study period. It was observed that the supplementations have very significant effects (P<0.05) on egg production and maximum egg fertility and hatchability of 91% was noticed in the experimental group as compared to the control. The behavior of the two groups was also monitored during this period and no changes were seen in the feeding time of males of both groups while females of the experimental groups spent more time feeding as compared to the control group. However, in standing activity time no differences were noticed in both groups and in calling activity experimental group showed obvious differences from the control. A significant difference in body weight and male tail or train size was also recorded. It was concluded supplements have good impacts on body weight and male tail size, egg production, fertility, and hatchability.

    Keywords: Egg productions, fertility, general behavior, hatchability, Indian peafowl, Supplementations
  • Dorothy Tchapda Tchatchoua, Oumarou Hamadou, Mariam Maloum, John E. Carlson, Oumarou Palou Madi Pages 101-116

    Natural populations or landraces contains high level of genetic variation that can be used for selection of plus trees in Faidherbia albida agroforestry parklands in the Sudano-Sahelian zone of Cameroon. With the high rate of deforestation and over population in recent times, there is danger of losing these naturally adapted landraces of trees. This study investigates the influence of environmental conditions (altitude, human activity, rainfall and soil types) on four (Kodex, Mambang, Dinao and Parkine) Faidherbia albida agroforestry parklands in Cameroon. Forest inventory sampling method with a set of 33 plots of 200 m in diameter was established in the parklands to collect data. Phenotypic measurements (height, diameter at breast height, number of branches, crown diameter and calculated biovolume) were taken and leaf phenology was observed on 156 trees in addition to environmental conditions of the parklands. Species diversity were recorded only in the transects of Kodek and Parkine agroforestry parklands during the inventory. Significant differences were observed among the agroforestry parklands, the soil types, altitude, and human activities on the morphological parameters measured. The inverse phenology of Faidherbia albida was observed in three of the parklands with Mambang still conserving it leaves in the rainy season. A total of 1904 trees (1233 from Kodek and 671 from Parkine) were recorded during the species diversity inventory process from 63 species with Parkine parkland being the most diverse in species types with Shannon H = 2,058 index at kodek and Shannon H = 2.53 index at Parkine. The results of this study indicated that diverse environmental conditions do exist in these parklands and have influenced the measured parameters. This information can aid in selection of plus-trees for breeding, conservation and management of the species while the information on species diversity will assist in monitoring the dynamic of the parklands.

    Keywords: Agroforestry parklands, plus-trees, morphology, phenology, species diversity
  • Ranjana Bhaskar, Ezhiljohson Agnita Sharon, Rani Ganeshbabu Chandika, Sumaithangi Rajagopalan Ganesh Pages 117-126

    Despite the knowledge of the evolution of snakes worldwide, snake phylogeny requires a more detailed approach in South India. Molecular taxonomic approaches using DNA barcoding are a molecular tool frequently in species identification as well as studies of phylogenetics. Here, a non-invasive genetic sampling method using skin exuviates was used. This method is often overlooked for molecular studies of reptiles. We isolated DNA using a non-toxic method from skin exuviates collected from Chennai Snake Park and screened for the cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) region of mitochondria. Samples that were amplified successfully were barcoded. A total of seven species of snakes were identified which belonged to 5 families. We combined and compared sequences of these seven-snake species from other countries to construct a phylogenetic tree and examined the genetic distance within species and families. This depiction and analysis showed a high degree of genetic variability intra-specifically between the South Indian samples to the samples from other parts of the world. This study documents how skin exuviates of snakes and the polymerase chain reaction of the COI region can be used for DNA barcoding and estimating phylogenetic relationships among snake species. Overall, this method is very versatile, inexpensive, and non-toxic which can help in understanding the evolution and phylogeny of snakes to formulate proper strategies for the conservation of snake species.

    Keywords: Exuviates, Phylogeny, reptilian, taxonomy, Darreh-Anjir Wildlife Refuge
  • baltazar sanchez diaz, José del Carmen Geronimo Torres, Liliana Ríos Rodas, Azucena del Rosario Fraire Vazquez, Rudy Solís Silvan Pages 127-142

    Anthropogenic activities have caused habitat fragmentation and loss, which are the main threats to primates. Because of this, ecological niche models have become a widely used tool to determine the potential habitat of species. These models rarely include biotic factors, although vegetation variables such as height and phenology, data derived from remote sensing, were integrated into this research. We developed a model to obtain the potential distribution of the primate A. palliata. Therefore, records of the presence of monkeys in the field were collected, and later data were obtained on the spectral index of vegetation and the height of the canopy, derived from remote sensing, bioclimatic variables were also used. Subsequently, these variables were analyzed using the Variance Inflation Factor to discriminate those with the highest correlation. Finally, we use a Maximum Entropy algorithm included in the Maxent software, together with the presence registration data, vegetation index, height, and bioclimatic data. The predicted distribution of A. palliata was strongly associated with canopy height, vegetation index (RVI), and warmest quarter precipitation (Bio18). The areas with the highest probability of the presence of A. palliata are strongly associated with cocoa agrosystems and certain spaces of natural vegetation such as mangroves. With the integration of the variables derived from remote sensing, the potential distribution model obtained an excellent evaluation, to predict cocoa agrosystems as available habitats of the howler monkey A. palliata, thus identifying areas with a high probability of the presence of this species of primate, and thus offer a tool to decision-makers, to plan future studies and then establish criteria for the creation of areas for the conservation of primates in Mexico.

    Keywords: Canopy height, Maxent, Remote sensing, Vegetation index
  • Fernando X. Plata-Pérez, Diana P. Urbina-Flores, Germán D. Mendoza-Martínez, José A. Martínez-García, Oscar A. Villarreal-Espino-Barros, Pedro A. Hernández-García, Alejandra Caballero-Zamora Pages 143-158

    The use of supplements to increase the body and antler size in Odocoileus virginianus (white-tailed deer) is rampant; however, the impact of this strategy on the size of surrounding species assemblages needs to be better understood. This work aimed to determine the effect of the multi-nutrient block (MNB) for white-tailed deer on the richness and abundance of birds and mammals and the presence of predators. We realized this work in Santa Cruz Nuevo, Puebla, Mexico, from 2017 to 2019. A completely randomized design with two treatments and eight replicates per treatment was used, for which 16 completely randomized sites were chosen, within which a camera trap was installed, and the animals' visits to the site were recorded. Plots of 50 m2 were established, and two MNBs (protein and minerals) were placed in the central part of eight squares. The other eight sites served as control treatments. The response variables were animal richness and relative abundance. The results showed that animal richness was higher in the MNBs sites (10.6 species; P < 0.05) and lower (7 species) in the control. The relative abundance of the sites with MNBs was higher for predators: coyote (Canis latrans), bobcat (Lynx rufus), puma (Puma concolor), and mammals less than 10 kg (rabbits, rodents and other omnivores). However, there were no significant differences in the relative abundance of white-tailed deer (P= 0.1568). In conclusion, the presence of the MNBs modifies the relative abundance of predators but does not increase the presence of white-tailed deer.

    Keywords: Odocoileus virginianus, OdocoilRelative abundance index, Supplementation, Camera traps
  • Siti Nur Aliah Mohd-Isa, Nor Amna Abu-Hassan, Nur Azimah Osman, Mohamad Khairulmunir, Aisah Md-Shukor, Ayuni Samsul-Bahri, Shukor Md-Nor, Kayal Vizi Karuppannan, Muhammad Abu Bakar Abdul-Latiff, Abd Rahman Mohd-Ridwan, Badrul Munir Md-Zain Pages 159-170

    Long-tailed macaques have been roaming near Tenaga National Berhad Bukit Selambau Solar (TBSS) causing human–macaque conflicts. This study reveals the social organization and genetic variation of these macaques. Macaques’ groups were determined via direct observation and closed-circuit television. Genomic DNA from 29 fecal samples were extracted and proceeded with amplification of the D-loop region of mitochondrial DNA. There are four main groups of primates at TBSS. Some members of the Kuil group and the Pekan group shared haplotype 1, forming a fission-fusion society. This finding can be used for TNB in mitigation plan involving human–macaque conflict.

    Keywords: Macaca fascicularis, pest, nuisance, phylogeny, Mitochondrial DNA
  • Mahendra Devanda, Jayashankar Munirathinam, Shantabala Devi Gurumayum Pages 171-182

    Fifty-two species of birds belonging to 29 families were recorded in Pakke Tiger Reserve, Arunachal Pradesh, India. The highest number of species belonged to the family Muscicapidae with eight, Accipitridae, Bucerotidae, Columbidae, Phasianidae, and Pycnonotidae each with three species, while Ardeidae, Campephagidae, Falconidae, Megalaimidae, Phylloscopidae and Scolopacidae with two species each. The remaining seventeen families viz., Alcedinidae, Charadriidae, Chloropseidae, Coraciidae, Corvidae, Dicruridae, Eurylaimidae, Irenidae, Laniidae, Locustellidae, Motacillidae, Oriolidae, Phalacrocoracidae, Picidae, Strigidae, Sturnidae, and Vangidae with one species were recorded. IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature) conservation status of two species (Rhyticeros undulatus and Buceros bicornis) under VU (Vulnerable), two species (Vanellus duvaucelii and Treron phayrei) under NT (Near Threatened), while the remaining are categorized under LC (Least Concern).

    Keywords: Arunachal Pradesh, Birds, Pakke tiger reserve, IUCN
  • Daniel Niyonsaba, Pancras Ndokoye Pages 183-198

    Nyungwe National Park (NNP) is one of Rwanda's largest remaining tropical forests. Due to the increasing threats from human activities, the park's biodiversity has been severely affected. In 1999, elephants were removed from the park due to these threats. This study, therefore, intends to analyze the human-driven extinction of elephants in Nyungwe National Park, Rwanda from 1965 to 1999. The results revealed that the human activities that lead to the extinction of elephants in Nyungwe include: Poaching for ivory trade at 75%, poaching for bushmeat at 20,6%, poaching for traditional medicine at 2,7% and poaching for decoration at the late 0,8%. The illegal human-driven activities that led to elephant extinction were Poaching, Gold Mining and Logging/tree harvesting. These activities were promoted by Poaching for Ivory Trading, Poaching for Bushmeat, Poverty and Human-elephants conflicts. All of these degraded elephant habitats in various locations such as Kamiranzovu, Gasare, Bigugu and eventually resulted in the extinction of elephants in NNP. Conservation efforts that exist today in Nyungwe National Park need to be reinforced mainly for threatened species so that they may not become extinct from Nyungwe as well and reintroduction of elephants in Nyungwe is needed for sustainable conservation of Nyungwe’s biodiversity and tourism product development. In addition to this, an assessment of habitat quality in areas formerly occupied by elephants in Nyungwe is also needed as a prerequisite for elephant re-introduction planning and implementation.

    Keywords: Analysis, Re-introduction, Extinction, Causes, Nyungwe national Park
  • Yasin İlemin, Hasan Koç, Burçin Yenisey Kaynaş Pages 199-213

    Caracal is an adaptive and generalist predator with high ecological tolerance on the other hand it has an isolated population in Türkiye. We investigated the ecological characteristics of caracal (Caracal caracal) in the Mediterranean ecosystems of Southwestern Anatolia (Türkiye) where its population is isolated from other Asian populations. We used field observations and camera trap methodology across a landscape covering 750 km2 to determine the population status, morphology, behavioural characteristics, the status of species in the community, diet and habitat preference of caracal in the region. Caracal density was estimated to be 0,18 caracals/km2. The female home range was estimated to be between 4,1 km2 and 25 km2 whereas the male home range was estimated to be between 5 km2 and 50 km2 or more. Species’ daily activity was determined as cathemeral. Annual activity patterns as well as home range sizes decreased during the dry season. During the wet season, caracal activity as well as home range sizes increased. Vegetation cover was found to be the most important factor affecting habitat use by caracal. A strong negative correlation of 0.7 between caracal occurrence and forest cover indicated that forest cover was the most important factor affecting habitat use by a caracal. Caracal occurrence was also positively correlated with 3 mammal species in the study area, wild boar, European hare and wild goat. Caracal was determined as the dominant carnivore species in the ecosystem. Wild herbivore populations in the study area seem to be influenced by caracal thus resulting in a conspicuous effect on grazing pressures. We conclude that caracal is a keystone species in our ecosystem and plays a vital role in maintaining their integrity. Thus, the conservation of the caracal population is crucial for the conservation of the whole Mediterranean ecosystem.

    Keywords: Caracal caracal, Mediterranean Ecosystems, Türkiye, camera-trapping, REM
  • Jaloliddin Shavkiev, Abdulahad Azimov, Shukhrat Khamdullaev, Husniddin Karimov, Farhod Abdurasulov, Khushnud Nurmetov Pages 214-228

    Climate change and rising temperatures caused water deficits due to lesser and irregular rainfalls, leading to lower production of crops. Morpho-physiological and yield contributing traits of Upland (G. hirsutim L.) cotton varieties grown under optimal water supply (control) and water deficit (experimental) conditions are presented in the article, total chlorophyll, chlorophyll "a", chlorophyll "b", carotenoids, the amounts of proline, malonyldialdehyde, yield per plant, cotton weight per boll, the number of seeds per boll and the number of bolls per plant and the results of their correlation analysis are presented. Under water deficit conditions, there is a strong positive correlation between the carotenoids in plant leaves and the number of bolls per plant, a strong negative correlation between the number of carotenoids and malonyldialdehyde, a strong negative correlation between malonyldialdehyde in plant leaves and the number of bolls per plant, a strong positive correlation between plant productivity and the number of bolls per plant was found to exist. It has been determined that the varieties of Ishonch and Navbahor-2 are more resistant to water deficit than C-6524 and Tashkent-6 in traits of physiological-biochemical and yield attributes.

    Keywords: G. hirsutum L, cotton, water deficit, varieties, physiology, morphology
  • Marija Menshakova, Ramzia Gainanova, Konstantin Moskvin Pages 229-240

    Research of the populations of an arctoalpine amphiatlantic species Alchemilla alpina L. has been conducted in the State Natural Park «Rybachy and Sredniy Peninsulas», which was created in 2014. This species is listed in the Red Data Book of the Murmansk region with status category 3 (rare, near threatened). The relevance of this research is based on the increasing tourist flow in the natural reserve, as well as the need to create a scientific basis for monitoring the status of populations located in the specially protected natural areas. The age structure, effective size and vitality of seven coenopopulations (CP) of Alchemilla alpina growing in the most popular tourist areas of the nature park were studied. It is shown that all CPs are dominated by generative specimens, and the majority of CPs plants of all ages are present. The vitality index according to Ishbirdin exceeds 1 only in two CPs. The predominance of generative specimens can be explained by the specifics of this species' life cycle, the different mortality rates at various age groups, and the high longevity of generative individuals. At the same time, the duration of the early stages of development is rather short, so the mortality rate may be much higher at these stages. Cohabiting plants with dense turf, as well as species with dense foliage shading sprouts, may also have a negative effect on the regenerative process of Alchemilla alpina populations.

    Keywords: Coenopopulation, population age structure, vitality index, Red Data Book, Natural park
  • Bakhora Turaeva, Guzal Kutlieva, Khulkar Kamolova, Nigora Zukhritdinova Pages 241-264

    According to current modern concepts, cellulose complexes produced by various microorganisms are polyfermentative systems composed of enzymes that differ in molecular structure and the way they act on cellulose. Microbiological processing is one of the most economical, promising and ecologically safe ways of processing cellulose raw materials. In the study, 27 spore-forming microorganism isolates were isolated from goat stomach juice, goat stomach, rabbit stomach juice, chicken stomach, bark beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) and termites (Coptotermes formosanus). Morphological characteristics of bacterial isolates were studied and identified using matrix laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF) method and genetic method. Based on the primary screening, the cellulolytic activity of the isolated bacteria was evaluated by reducing the mass of #10 100% cotton thread from 0.05 g to 0.035 g after 96 hours. Freshly obtained goat gastric juice was used as a control. The cellulolytic activity of the bacterial strains was determined by the application of Congo red to the agar medium. 1-Bacillus isolated from the termite (Coptotermes formosanus) when cellulolytic activity was carried out according to the modified method of Mendels and Weber. sp. and isolated from goat gastric juice 4- B. subtilis sp. the highest activity of 0.233 and 0.193 TslS/cm3 was determined in the strains. Also 1-Bacillus. sp. and 2- Bacillus. sp. bacterial strains produce up to 0.34 mg/ml of protein and the highest activity was isolated from goat gastric juice 3- B. subtilis sp. strain and was 0.38 mg/ml. In our research, we determined the cellulolytic activity of Bacillus strains isolated from the bark beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) and termites (Coptotermes formosanus), which feed on roughage consisting of cellulose. serves to create.

    Keywords: Bacillus subtilis, microflora, gastric juice, animal husbandry, cellulose
  • Mohamad Noor-Faezah, Tukiman Nur-Aizatul, Roberta Chaya Tawie Tingga, Mohamad Fhaizal Bukhori, Jayasilan Mohd-Azlan, Azroie Denel, Badrul Munir Md-Zain, Muhammad Abu Bakar Abdul-Latiff, Mohd Ridwan Abd Rahman Pages 265-282

    The critically endangered Bornean banded langur (Presbytis chrysomelas) is exclusively found in Borneo. This species is classified among the world's 25 most endangered primate species. The geographical locations and distribution patterns of P. chrysomelas remain inadequately understood, and their taxonomic classification remains unclear. Although it was once abundant in Sarawak, the distribution of P. chrysomelas has become one of the most restricted among all Presbytis species. Presently, documented sightings of P. chrysomelas span across five specific locations in Sarawak: Samunsam Wildlife Sanctuary, Tanjung Datu National Park, Gunung Pueh National Park, Similajau National Park, and Maludam National Park. Thus, the purpose of this review is to present previous studies conducted on P. chrysomelas in Sarawak, elucidating its taxonomy, characteristics, distributions, important sites, research gaps, threats, and recommendations for further studies. Immediate conservation efforts and attention from the primatologist, relevant authorities and stakeholders are needed to prevent the localized extinction of P. chrysomelas.

    Keywords: Bornean banded langur, Presbytis chrysomelas, Sarawak